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(Kitigittsh and Sck^M* 




|n 9nr0 farts, 







or ALSPPO, IV stbia; 


1842-1851 ; mbcbktabt op tbb obitbbal coxkvlatb op bvmia at BBiBirr, 1851-1853; 










y^<^. ^, 4^, 


PRE FU. € E. 

" The greater part of our merchants and consuls Imng in 
Turkey y some for periods of fifty years, are unabky with a 
few rare exceptions, to read a word of the language , or per- 
haps to understand it when read to the^n ; and many are even 
incapable of uttering a single phrase in common cont^ersation'' 
These words fipoin the Preface to Redhouse's Turkish Dictionary 
are equally applicable to the Arabic language, spoken in those 
vast countries which once constituted the powerful empire of 
the Caliphs! Why is this? The answer is, that no English 
and Arabic Dictionary exists. Richardson's so called English, 
Persian, and Arabic Dictionary is a very good Persian Dic- 
tionary, but is so imperfect as an Arabic Dictionary, that the 
most ordinary and essential Arabic words and phrases are 
entirely wanting; while, upon the other hand, it contains 
many words which are not Arabic and others which have 
become obsolete. To meet this deficiency, I have prepared 
this second part of my Dictionary in such a manner that 
learners of the Arabic will be able in a short time to speak and 
write the language perfectly well, — results not to be expected 

from every English and Arabic Dictionary ; and I feel confident 
that, whether the traveller proceeds to Syria or Egypt, to 
MeBopotamia or Arabia, a careful atndy of this Dictionary 
will ensure his being nnderatood with the Bame facility on 
the banks of the Nile and the Orontes aa upon the borders 
of the Jordan and tlie Enplirat«H.' 


LoNDOH, 7, Howard Strbbt, Stk&md, 

SiFTMMBEB, 1858. 

■ I btTO glTCD to Kimo of tb« vordi in thli book tht nlgar Syrian pronuncla- 
tioD, which, (dthongh defectiTe, is, neTertbelew, in in* ; m not/ for n«/, tanl tor 
•OKI, iJbr<i for tAoWia, sto. etc. It is also neratary that I should infonn the 
leuner that in Egypt and Arabia/ is prononnced like f in fire. 


The following examples of translations will shew to the 

learner that he can with the aid of this Dictionary translate 

readily into Arabic. 


Glory be to God on high, and on earth peace, good will towards 
men. We praise thee, we bless thee, we worship thee, we glorify thee, 
we give thanks to thee for thy great glory, Lord God, Heavenly 
King, God the Father Almighty. 

ij\ji\ ^u\ j\^ ^i^\^ ^\ j>j'i\ ^j lUJi 4 ^ ^\ 

uli3 ^Ji3j ^^y CiJuiu^ CSJJUJ^ (liUuJ \J\ iLU\ 

Every one of us must read the Holy Scripture with diligence and 
assiduity, fulfil his duties scrupulously, and have a good and noble 

'i^^ cSLui^ j^si^ ^^^^ JCi ^"W!^ -^^. iJ^ i^'*^^ 


Most honored Wezir, — Mr. Smith, an English merchant residing in 
this town, has presented a petition to the Chancery of this General 
Consulate stating that Mr. So-and-so, an Ottoman subject, is his 
debtor for the sum of £ 100, being the price of a bale of manufiustured 
goods which he bought from him ; and that, although this sum has been 
due for several days, his debtor eludes payment under various pretexts. 
Since Mr. Smith is right in his claim, and he cannot wait any longer 
for his money, your Excellency is requested to give the necessary orders 
for the prompt payment of the above sum, and to receive, etc. etc. 



ijj JuU ^L^« aJj«!l il^jJl i*-j j^« ^)U «^\^\ x^ J j^U 

<uijj J«pW ui3J JS* ^ /•M ilAs>- ^ fj^\ ^\ ^ t^^ 

J^\ JpT^ ioljj jf^^ jM)^ jU U^ a^jj j;^ ^..Ur^ >i-*-i 
\Ju\ ic^ j5»-ij iUjUll ^\jS^ ^^Jutf! 1^^^ ^r* '^y JU ,^ 


Since the receipt of your letter of the 15th of September i*especting 
the affair of the cloth, nothing has occurred to render it necessary for me 
to trouble you. In this letter you will find a Bill of Exchange for the 
sum of £ 1000 on Mr. So-and-so of London, at three months date, to my 
account. Please to send me by the first steamer 800 pieces of T. cloth, 
24 yards 81b. 222, 100 barrels of sugar, 100 cases of indigo, and 20 bags 
of cochineal, of the first quality ; and please to insure them against 
all risks and dangers. I shall soon send you 100 bales of cotton, and 
500 bales of washed white wool for my account. 

^W^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ Ji^j ^ (^>^^ ti*^-a=J ^J3j^ ^ 
j^\ iJilj ifjjijl zf;jjj! iS Ji^ f-**^ ^^ ^J^ ^ <^f t'^^ 

ijA^\ ^y^ ^Lj ijtMM«^j ^^^ il\j ii\^ iS^ J**^^ \_-* * 


And now let the learner of the Arabic language choose whatever 
sentence he pleases, and translate it by himself. 

JL^ ijLc ^\ 

J io>\ m ^ J^ ji\j 




(SnjgHslt and ^pbir. 


Abandon^ v. (JJ^ tarak, jS^ hqfar. 
Abandoned (forsaken, relinqiiiBhed), 

vU^^:^ matruh. 
Abandoning, or abandonment, CS^ 

tarh, j£^ hqfr, ^^]/^ hijr&n. 

Abase, v, _L»j watU^, J j %aU. 

Abased, j^I^ haklr, JJ J saM, 

Jcijs^ muhiakar, 
Abaiyment, ijM^ hahHrai, JJjJ 

toM^jJ^ tahkUr, 
Abash, 9. jlf^ £%a/. Abashed, 

^^PLf hhajlan. To be abashed, 

J^ khajil. 
Abate, 9. (make less) IjJo nakka$$. 

(to become less), ^^^ nukea. 
Abatement, ^^^aa^ tudt$, ^UoaJ 

Abbess, 9.j}ji\i^j rayiot addayr. 
Abbey, t.^ J rfoyr. [jd». 

Abbot, t. jjV^ji'jj*"^^ f«y' <wtmA- 


Abbreyiate, o.^^«di£Ll ilhtauw. 

Abbreviation, jLd&£^l ikhtiidr. Ab- 
breyiations of words, tJL)\j\*aSj>A 
ikhtiidrdt, cl^tjLa:!^ mttMto- 

Abdicate, v. ^Jij^ tandMol^n. 

Abdication, L\jx. ^mM, J^j^^ 
i^l, cSj tarh. \Utahrah. 

Abhor, V. ^ji^ nafarmtn^ sjLsmJ 

Abhorred, 9jjL^ fnahmh, j^-b-^^ 
manfar. Abhorrence, iyj nafrat, 
2iLC:ui1 Uiikrdhj dj^Jif ^addwat, 
^ harah. 

Abide, v, ^jL^ aakan. 

Abject, ^^;ftA>- habr, ^^J dun. 

Ability (power), ijSJ kudrat,J\iysj\ 
ikUddr. AbiHty (faculty of the 
mind), Jac ^aU, LJji fa/rd%at. 

Abjuration, jljj;1 iriiddd. 

Abjure, v. Jjj\ ariad. 




Able, JjIS kahil, jjlii kadir. 
Ablation, Juua-c ghasl, JLm*jlc1 

ightUalf ya^ ivadu. 
Aboard (they went aboard), ci|j^ 

i,,^j^\ nizln J^l tnarkah. 
Abode, 8, ^LCt makdHf ^^^jL^m^ 
. maakan, J^ mamuil, l:>w»^ &ay^. 
Abolish, V. J^ hattalf JlaJ^ a^^, 

'^ nasakh. 

Abolished, ^y**:^ mansiikh, JUaj, 

hattdl, (Jia^ mvhattal. 

Abolition, %. JILjI iJ^a/, ^ noikh. 

Abominable, ^ X^ ma^rilA, ^ i^ 

Abominate, v, iiz^\ istakrah, 

-^ Abomination, 8. i^^\ ikrdh, LjbtjL^ 

Abortion, a. LILjI ukat, ^Jo turh. 

Above (over), ^-Lc ^ala\ ^^fawk; 


(high), ^JU ^h. From above, 
^^^ ««» fawk. Above-men- 
tioned, dJIjLwLill al mtuhdr Hayh, 
j^jy^\ al mazkur. Above measure 
(excessive), J^»Sj Mid hudd, ^y 
Jk.1 fawk alhadd. 
About (around), j\^d dawdr, J^ 
hawl ; (near), c^^ karlh, L[jAj 
takrlhan, Sis^ ^nda; (concerning), 

Abridge, v.jMai:»,<.\ tkhtaiar. 
Abn'dsment, s^ j^asJ:^ intMlasar, 

jLaJL£^l tkhtisdr, jl^^ ?/"2, 

jU^l iktiadr. 
Abreast, 4»,ija>.pu,ijQ«P «ti/il/ 9ufilf. 
Abroad (without doors), L^-jU^- 

khdrifan, tybU? ssaAiirafi. 
Abrogation, JUa^l ibtdl, ^ tuukh, 

^sT^ maha. 
Abscess, 8. ^u>. hahle. 
Kh9QxmdL,v.jifarr,^JcSA%khtafa\ ' 

y^^ss^ takhahha\ 
Absence, iUiX^Aay^a^, c^Li^Atydi. 
Absent,j«0U-^ phaifr h&dir, c^ U 

Absent, v, c^li ^Ad5. To be absent 

(in mind), j^^tVtir^ gharik hil 

afkdr. Absent things, ^^\-^ 

Absentee, «. c^U ghdyib. 
Absolve, V. jSs. ghafar. 
Absolved, ^^a«^ maghfiLr lahu. 

Absolution, yLs. ^fil, ijhx^ magh- 

Absolute (despotic), (^^^ mutlak, 
J Ixj^^ mwtakil ; (complete), 
fXj tdm, /%UJ iatndm, J.^L^ 
kdmil. Absolute power, absolute- 
ness, ^j^Jia^^S*^ kukm mutlak, 
fjil2^\ istihldl, S^ hukm. 

Absolutely (despotically), ^Uru^^ 
mu8takillan, LftJJa^ mutlakan ; 
(perfectly), L»K kdmilan. 


Absorb, «. ^b Ma^. 
Afaaoiptioii, ^L hal^ 
Abstauiy 9. (to shun, avoid) 

yUmaif ^jjs>»^\ ikkaar mm. 
Abstemious, abstiiieiity JJblj wMdy 

c» '^v" y^ mi/^tanih, 
Abstinenoe, c^I:as»-1 ^'^md^yjl^:;;^) 

Abstract 9. (take awaj) ^jJoa^l 
ikktaku. To make an abstnust. 

Abstruse, abstract^ 4^^!^ mughlah. 

See Obscure. 
Absurd, JW* intfAa^. [al^L 

Absurdity, jAffS1«Xi^«^ shay didd 
Absurdly, ^}JLZJ^^ mm ghayr 

Abundance, Ij^ kiurat. 
Abundant, j^ k4Ulr, J^^ wdfir, 

j^U fdyid. 
Abuse, r. (to ridicide), jJ^**^ 

tamoikfufr; (to deceive), ^JLs. 

^ktuh ; ( to speak obscenely ), 

^j1»>Uj ia/dhasL 
Ahoae (ill use), ijJj if jU t^ddat radi- 

yat ; (ridicule), ijS^**^ ynaskhara. 
Abusive, ^«^ \yl \ X^diddal katodnln. 
Abusively, ^yt ^jJo Hyhayr k&nun. 
Abutment, See Boundary, etc. — ^The 

abutments of a bridge, J^ 

319 AOC 

Abyss, 8. Jhf ^mk^ ^ k^at, ji 

ghamr. A bottomless pit, (J^j^^ 

hlr ^rnlL 
Academy, «. dLy<X« madrasat. 
Academic, 8, aItl,, Jl^ tdlih ^m* 
Accede, v, (to acquiesce in, consent 

to), JJ kabd, ^j ridl. To 

accede to a throne, {j^S^- jah8. 
Accelerate, v. J^ c«j/a/. 
Accelerated, J'.s^ mu^jdl. 
Acceleration, ^j^\ isrd^ 
Accent, 8, ^js^ harakat; (to point 

Arabic, etc.), *^j^\ a^ah. 
Accept^ V, (take) J-J kahth 
Acceptance, J%-f-5 kahul, <LjLr>-l 

Acceptable (agreeable), J«-JL« 

tnakhul, jSj^ miMhkur, ^y^ 

Acceptably, Jj-»^ hikabul. 
Accepted (received), Jj-JU makhah 
Acceptation (received sense of a 

word), ^J>^x^ tnu^na\ AJJ^W^* 

fahwd alkaldm. 
Access (way, approach), {}y=>-^ 

dukhul, J'^-9^* takarrub'ila'. 

To have access, ^Jx J^ J d^^khal 

^la\ Access (addition), i*>Vj 

ziyddat. The access or fit of a 



' L?^hj 

J dawr al humma\ 

I Accessory (additional, »ia\^ iifiL-\4. 




9 daml' 

Anything acceesalry, 

Accessible, J^«3\ j;j>i teyifc addu- 
khal, ^}y>'3^\JLJ^ mumkm 

Aoceesion to a throne, ^j^juliu, 

Aooessary (assisting in a crime). 

Accident, s. Jjj\ iUtfdk, ijjU. 

hddisat, ijoj^ ^rid. Accidents, 

i^LjS\^hawad%i, ^J'^ ^drid, 

^\j^ toakdl^. l^radl. 

Accidental, ^J^ ^ridl, 15-^ 

Accidentally, "^UUJ\ itti/dkan. 

Accidents of the body, {J^j^^ 

^^L«aMS»- ^wdrid jismdniat 

Accidents of fortune (adrersities), 

(Ji^^ ^dyik. [nvziiX. 

Acclivity (ascent of a hill), Jj>j3 

Accommodate, v. (to adapt), fjj\y 

wdfah, K.^^^mi\j ndsah. 
Accommodated, (J^^y muwdfik, 
^i Idyiky 1^ ^M*U^ mundiih. 

Accommodating (part.) o^^y 

Accommodation (fitness), ^^w« 

mandsabat, iftilj^ mutcdfakat, 

jH*i%3 tawftk ; (reconciliation), 

jUJ^ ittifdk. 

Accompany, v, jjlj rdfak. 

Accomplice, $. fj^j rafik. 

Accomplish, v, (finish), |«^ tamtnam. 

Accomplished (completed, perfect), 
aUj tamdm, J^l^ kdmil. Ac- ^ 
complished (in mind or person), '' 

%anf, i-JJa! laHf. 
Accomplishment (completion), dXki\ 
itmdm. Accomplishment (of 
mind or body), J-ai fadl, ijj 

%lnat. Accomplishments, Ji^ 

faddyil [Account. 

Accompt, (^L*>- hisdh. See 

A0comptant,^0r^. Uy^iolg^ miihdgib. 

Accord, or accordance, ^\y tnuwd- 

fakat, jU5\ iUifdk, U, ridd, 

jlfl^t ittihdd. With one ac- 
cord, J^».^j jU^lj ha ittifdk wdhid. 
Accord, V. J^^ waffak. [^fik. 

Accordant, according, (Ji^y fnuwd" 
According as, according to, accord- 
ingly k— "^Mifv- hoiohf Ji^ miilf 
jdJi) hikadar. According to custom, 
At *~ rM_ ' •" "^ huBoh orriMtim. 
According to the signal, u, " " » ■> - 
iXl^V^ hoBohviPiBhdrat, Accord- 
ing to the occasion, Liiiil i,, ■^mi'v- 
^0^ td^iktidd. According to 
the emergency, -p.U:i^»-ll|^J^ 
hikadar uVihtiydj. According to 
permission, ij\p^'i\^^M*r^ ha%ah 
ul'^azat. According to order, 
^' -Mjin- hasah ui'hukm. 





Acoosty V. jXj saUam, ^-^ karrah. 

Aocoonty s. c^L.b>. hisdh. To 
settle accounts, v,, >^..iU» hdsah. 
The balance of an aoooont, ^\j 
i^L^kA hd]^ alhUdh, An aacUtor 
of accoontSy c^L^l^^^t amin 
alhisdh. To call any one to an 
acoonnt for money, c^L*k.t ^Jl? 
talah alhisdh. To rectify an ao- 

coont, (^UmL.)^^^ mAAoA 

aJhUuh. An account (narratiye), 

f0^ khahar, A.*^ kmah, ^l^ 

hihdyat. To give an account, 

j^ Jthabhar, Account (value), 

ZkJ Itimat, jUict i^ibdr. To 

make account of (to esteem), 

j^\ i^ibar. On your account, 

uJ3^1^ mm qfalah. On this 

account, <-l^<ij^1^;^ mm ajl 
Accountable, JyUw« mas*iil. 

Accountant, s. i^>^»»\as^ muhdsib. 

Account-book, s.j:jJ daftwr. 

Accounting-house, %, s^^X^^ maitah. 

Accounts (arithmetic), («^UMk.t Jlc 
^tkn alhiedh. 

Accrue v, (to arise as profit), 

Accumulate, r. ^j^ Jama^. 
Accumulated, c ^'^^ mqfmu^ 
£^j^ mutardlam. 

Aooumulation, ^^a^ Jam^, ^^/j 
takwlm. [uTMikdr. 

Accumulative, jlC&»-)tJjU kdhU 
Accuracy, JLsr^ iahhai, [iohlh. 

Accurate, ^fix« maabiU, 'f:!*^ 
Accurately, ^^i-^ JC Inkol uMai. 
Accursed, fjy^ mal^n (plur. 
f^jt^t-^ mala^n), ^j^ la^in. 

May he be accursed, ^uU^tJuffl 

la^naiullak ^atayhi. 
Accosation, Lid thUtd^, lyL& 

ihahwdy s^J^ ahakwah. 
Accusable, £[lCuJt j;,^L^ muitMk 

Accuse, V. <LJLB_^CL&t uhtaka^ih. 
Accused, 4lJlc_cJu« mudd^* 

Accuser, «. ^X« mudda^. 

Accusing, (part, pres.) ^("^^ 

Accustom, V, ^^^*ijB> ^awwad ^ala\ 
Accustomed, Ci\sju9 mu^tdd. To be 
accustomed, to accustom one's- 
self, ^l^Jyu ta^wwad ^ala\ 

Ace, 8. {jm\ 089. 

Acephalous (without a head), jJu 
{jm\j highayr rd8. [dot. 

Acerbity (sourness), i^yA^ ^mft- 
Ache, «. ^r3 wqfa^. The head- 
ache, (j*^]/^^r^ tpqfa^ arrd8. 
The belly-ache, ^oJa-Jif-^rj 




fMya^ alhatn. The tooth-aobe, 
^l:aJ\ j-5j-^ waja^ assindn. The 
ache, or disease of the liyer, 

Ache, r. (suffer pain), j^y <<»- 

Aehieve, v. Ja^ kammal, ^ tarn- 
Achievement, «. (heroic action), 

Acid, (^/o^l^ Ma»»(^. To make 
add, acidulate, (^/U>- hammad. 

Acidity, acidness, LayA^ kumikdaL 

kxmi (of a disease), j^J/sC A^^dji, 
ij^j^^f^^^ yawm-al-'hahrdn. See 
Height, crisis. {i^iaraf. 

Acknowledge, v, JS jbrr, c-J^ifil 

Acknowledged, J^*a^ maihulfjjLt 
mukarrary c-J^ajc^ mu^araf. 

Acknowledgment (confession), jtyil 
ihrar; (gratitude), ,J^/J^ ^huk- 
rdn ; (concession), ^jU^^^ ihsdn. 

Aconite (woolfsbane), u^^JJljlJU- 
hh&n'ik aaalh. 

Acorn, «. !? J^ hallut. 

Acquaint, ». ^-^^ akhhar. 

Acquaintance (knowledge), ^JjM^ 
ma^rifat, >L: ^kn ; (familiarity), 
JL».lia^ musdhahat, L,sf^ suhhat. 

Acquaintance, f . ^^^^^-u^^^ mt^d^ift. 

Acquainted (fiEuniliar), v-JJ^ 

muaJ^^ r ^ ^^-r mdlnf; (in- 

formed), ^IL« ffitf^^i^. To be 
acquainted, ^ILt attala^ 

Acquiesce, r. ^<^j r«ft, J-5 hahH. 

Acquiescence, J^ X-a^a/, \^j rida. 

Acquire, r. <J-^ handl. 

Acquired, J-osr^ muhanal. To be 
acquired, J-aasT fahassal. 

Acquirable, J'^^a^ fuitahassal. 

Acquirer, *. J-ias^ muhasstl. 

Acquisition, acquirement, ^.^LuO^^ 

Acquit, 17. (pardon),^^^Aa/«ir; (to 
set free), Jidl^ khalass ; (to do 
one's duty), <ulr.c,^.>"\jH|»4J. 

Acquitment, acquittal, yic^ ^fd, 
iJuL^ maghfarat. An acquittance 
(receipt), \ji\ ibrd. 

Acre, *. ^\*xi fadddn. 

Acrid, j^ murr. 

Acrimony, acritude, ij\;^ mardrat 

Across, j^ ^tfiur. Across a river, 
j^^j^ ^o,r annahr. 

Act, V. ^i-9 sana^f J^«^ ^uma/, 
Jju /aco/. To act a play, C;^ 

Acting (part, pres.), J^U ^fimi7. 
Act or Action, «. Jx3 /J, J^ 
carnal, j^\ amr. An action, law- 
suit, or cause, \^*> darted, c\p 
ntzd^. Actions, Jloi <i/^a/, 
Jlf\ a^Ma/, A good action. 

ADD 323 

JltfJ^ ^mud 9dUhi. A heioic 
actioii, \j& ^kaneL 
ActiTe (iiidiis(nous)y i^y»^i^^-%-\^ 
9&k»h karakai, ^^ iuni^. An 

0M^r&/l A partioiple actire, m^\ 

Aetiyityor ActLveness, ^*Cj^ sur^t. 
Actor, «. (agent), J^li/^^ti^^ J^U 

Actual, ^5^!^^ haiikl, JU sd^Z. 
Actuality, ^U:*a>. haJtikat Actually, 

IjmA^ yA^iikui, u>- hdkkan. 
Actuate, v. a, C^j^ karrak. To be 

actuated, v. n. cJ]^£i^ taharrak. 
Acute, ^Ij kdti^; (ingenious), 

^3 sakl. 

Acuteneas, ^A>. hiddiai. 

Adage, «. Jl^ fmua/. See Pro- 
verb, Maxim. 

Adamant, ^U!\ almus. 

Adapt, V. Uy^ioU na#ad. 

Adapted, c^^%i^L/« mumZn^* 

Add, f . a. J\j zdd, t^Ul oe^/l 

Added, c^Lj/« mudaf, ^^aa^ 

tnadmUm. To be added, i^Lo}) 

Adder, «. ^<Ai^ ^/tf*'- Adders, 
Addict, V, ,<Lc J^ ta^aunoad ^ala*. 
Addition, ^jUj ziyadat, 4iU! 


ftt^/i^k Addition (in arithmetio), 
^4J»- /iiMft* Additions, ajUm^ 
damayim, sJLAjLsr^ miUkakdt, 
iJL>ULi« muddfit. 

Additional, Jj|j sAu( 

Address, r. (speak to), c.^ls>« 
khdtah, fjojc, ^rad; (to write 
to, or petition), JLc*^^^Jlj 
kaddam ^dhdl. 

Address (salutatum), aL* Mldm; 
(speech), s^lk:^ kMM ; (skiU), 
Ji^A.^ t^' (courtship), j\^\ 
^Us^t ta^dr tf/ mahakhat. An ad- 
dress (petition), ^^^sr^je. ^dhdL 

Addresser, «. ^^^u^cL^ muUamU. 

Adept, «. yi^U mdhir, J^l^ kdmiL 

Adequate, Jh^Ua^ mutdhik, 4^!^ 

Adhere, v. Jh^^ Idiok, JUajJt 

Utasak, To cause to adhere, 

^JH^ lateak. 
Adherence, adherency, adhesion, 

jla^\ ittihdd^ ,J[pi\ iktirdn. 
Adherent, Jn^gj^ mtdtasik, ^y/^ 

makrUn, Jj^ multa%ik. 
Adherent, «. j;^ rq/^^ 

Adjacent, J-^^ tnuttatUf j^^ 

Adjectiye Noun, <LLiaJJM«f um 

amfat, s j^.^ na^, u-L^j tPOif, / 
Adjectivelyi \m na^tan. 




Adieu, Z.«]LJ^^_« ntafOtmddmat. 

To bid adieu, v. eJ^ wadda^ See 

Adjoin, f7. Jm^j woBol, 

AdjouTDi V. (Jf^f an^ud. To ad- 
journ an assembly, ^jJLt^\j:iA 
ahhkhar al majloi. 

Adjournment, «. Jl-f^t imhdl, 
j^\i t&kfar. \hakam. 

Adjudge or Adjudicate, r. Jl»>. 

Adjunct or Adjunction, $. ij\j\ 
iddfat. See Addition, junction. 
Adjuration, «. ^m«J koiam. See Oath. 

Adjure, v. j^m3 kassam. (I adjure 
you) by Gk>d the Most High, 

^layka hfllahi ta^la\ 
Adjust, V. Joj noun. 
Adjusted, /»jla^ manzHm, ^^~^j^ 

Adjustment, y^llaiJ^ m^tsdm, ^laJ 

itosm, v,,^jT^ tartlh. 
Adjuster, «. J^li ndtim. 
Adjutant, «. v,,>^jfl) na^Z^, ^^^ 

Administer, or Administrate, v. 
(order, goyem). sS^^ hakam. To 
administer justice, ^^^i^j^^ 
t^ra^ al haJtk, c^ ihara^. To 
administer physio, ^U ^d^f. 

Administration (goyemment), S^ 

hukm, L^\^ Hjfdioi; (distri- 
bution), ^Jy (mm^ 

Administrator $, (goyemor), jS\^ 
hdkim; (a guardian), I25U. Ad/fis ; 
(an executor), ^<^^ unuHf ; (a 
minister of state),^^, io««fr. 

Admirable, J jU nddir, iies^ tukfat^ 
<-r-?*^ mn^fJ, s^^.^^ ^tb. 

Admiral, «. J];!-^^ ammlralf j^\ 
j^\ amir al hahr. 

Admiration, L,.>^ff^ ^jh, 

Admire, r. (wonder at), 

ta^jfab, L^jk^J utaghrab^jMS 
i^tdbar ; (to loye), Jh^ ^h$k. 

Admirer, «. c»i.^iy*^^ mtd^ajlfih ; (a 
loyer), JI^L^ ^ihik, uJ.%g^ 
mt<Aii(5. Beloyed, ^^uji^ «ui^«AAit 
(fem. ^yLjc« f7u»^«Ailib^). 

Admiringly, ik-^'^-s:^ ha^qfah. 

Admissible, J^Ji!^j;j)/dytiJ&a/^A/, 
Ll^Slc^^^lj wdjtb alifdhat. 

Admission (entrance), f^y>^Jdukhul, 
j£>^43^ madkhal (plur. Jr^^^x* 
maddkhal) ; (granting), ^l^t 

Admit, V. (give entrance), J^J 

dakhkhal ; (to allow), JJ ib^7. 

Admonish, t;. ^ naioh, ^ nahhah, 
lacj fracas. 

Admonisher, «. ^\j ndM, 




AJmniiidriiig, admonition, Atf^<ai 

nUtAat, JU.:J tattilh. 
Addeaoence, L.^ tubi, ^ '^^ * 

Adopty r. ^^;'lsi^ tahoisan^ j\:j>^\ 
Midr. To adopt a son, JLj 

Adoption, ^^:mJ tofttfiifii. 
Adorable, ^Ju^ ffuifad lahu, 
a-«^ y«^*ai; (lovely), JJSlju 

Adoration, ifjLc ^ddat^ 0«jb^ 
A place of adoration, 

Adore, 9. Job*^ MSfitM^, Juc ^a^<^. 

Adorer, «. «X»-Li sdfid, JjU ^d3»(^. 

An adorer of the son, ^jM^^^t jUc 
^Mdd oihihams. Adorers of fire, 

Adorn, r. ^J %ayyan. 
Adorned, ^J^ miaayyon. 
Adorning (part, pres.) ^J^ mt<- 

Adrift, wU ^yim. See Floating. 

Adstriction, ^^^ lahd. See Con- 
traction, binding, joining. 
Advance, v. (go forward) f^xsu 

takaddam. To advance money, 
^I^JujiLa idUaf dardhim. To 
advance in years, ^j^b^J^. 
Advance, advancement, j^*xa2 takad- 
dum, \a/j\ irtiid, ^Ja tarakki; 

(increase), ifj\jj wiyddah^ ^^^^ 

Mijfdd, Cy^iiX^ makiob. 
Advanced in years, jAji\} /^JAz^t. 
Advantage (profit), 'J^U fikydatj 

^aJ naf^ ijuc^ ma/i^^ (plnr. 

^L^ mundfi^ ; (opportunity). 

Advantage, v. jli\ fy^<^, ^Ai mtfa^ 
To reap an advantage, ^ajJI 
ifUafa^, j\iaJ\ idafid. To have 
the advantage, i^Ah ghMh^ji^ 
tafwr, [i*4/^t' 

Advantageous, Jui^ mmfld^ ^U 

Advantageously, ifjjUjLC^ ftiib/ 
fdydai, ixsc^fj^^ hihol manfo^i 

Advent, ,^w^t^^ mofl al nuuAh. 

Adventure, s, (accident) ^j^ 
^r%dfja:>^ khatar. [taiadda\ 

Adventure, v, j^\s^ tqfdsar, ^^ Juo? 

Adventurer, s. ^^^>^ muftari ; (a 
merchant), ^;>-\j tdjir; (a vaga- 
hond),^\j^\ awbdah; (a traveller), 
j3\m*^ mwdfir. [titn auarf. 

Adverb, s. i^Jo tarf, uJ^IamiI 

Adversary, «. jJ^ ^Uto (fem. i^tXs- 
^Hwat, pi. \iXs>\ a^iiaand ^^jUt 
a^di). A mortal adversary,^ J^ 
L::^wk^, ^H mumlL To be 
an adversary, v^«^^ ^d<fe'. To 
cite adversaries before a judge,!l,«a»-1 ahdar al iftttiama. 




Adverse, v^ls^ mukhdUf^ a^^U 
mukhdiimy Am mughdyir. Ad- 
verse acoidents, i«^Jy naw&ib. 

Adversity, IJ^lL shakdwtUf 

nahs, <U<Mfl>< muiihat, ijJ^ ihid- 
dat. See Misfortune, calamity, 
distress, affliction, misery. 

Advert, r. w^^^ todtah. 

'Advertise, v, j^\ ashJuir, j^^ 
khahhar, Jx\ a^lam. See To in- 
form, advise, instruct. 

Advertisement (uotice),^^^ Ithabar 

(plur. jLsLI akhhdr), i«lcl i^m. 
See Information, advice. 
Advertiser, «. Jf^ muJMhabbtr, 

Advice (counsel), lia^U^ nasihai, 

kj\; ^^i/f ^^ ^^t*^fji:i*^ tadbify 
SjyJL^ tnashwarat Good advice, 

S^^s^b ^^'^^^* ^^ advice, 
Jurfliv^lj ray fdsid. To give ad- 

vice, ^"^ n/;«a^. To ask advice, 

ijy^^\^A V> ^a^5 nuuhwarat, 

Qood news, or advices, ijlij 

hishdrat. to send advice, J-j;i 
r*=L Ar«a/ Jchahar. 

Advisable, Jh>3 toytX*, l«^^|^ trd/tiJ. 

Advise, r. ^"^ «<w«A. 

Advised, -kri-<U^»w^^w^^aW. Ad- 
vised (prudent), -jJoc-^^d-L.^ 
s&hih faffh\r: 

AdvisednesB, j-^J^i ^oifMr. See 

Prudence, deliberation. 
Adviser, «. ^Ij ndiih. 

Adulation (flattery), j;UJ tatnoRuk. 

See Flattery. 
Adulator, «. j;L«^ mumaUik. 

Adulatory, jju4b^ tnumaUiL 
Adult, ^U ^f]^A. 
Adultness, ^ji-^ hdiLghiyat. 
Adulter, v, (or commit adultery), 
^j %ana*, fjM*i fiuak. 

Adulterate, v, ^JLe. yhashf Jxj 
Adulterated, ^ymk^ mayhshUihy 

Adulteration, jUmJ fasdd. 

Adulterer, «. ^J,\j %dHl, jH>»li fd$ik. 

Adulteress, i. ^\) ndniaL 

Adultery, \jj %ind, ^JmJ JUk, To 
commit adultery, ^ ^nr^L^X'f t\ 
LjjJt, irtakab khatifai asMind. 

Adumbrate v, (sbade), JU? zaUal ; 
(to sketch), M^j rasam. 

Advocate, «. J-^^ waJl^l, ^y-^^ij^^^, 

J^^f^ muhashir, %-j.fl.^ x^i/t^. 

Aerial, ,<-j\jJ^ hawdl. 

Aerology (science of the air), Jl& 

Aerometry (measuring the air), 

^^IiwLj kiydsal hawd, 
^Ethiopia, ^jJ^k.^ J^ balddalhahash. 




JBOaajgiaikf «. ,J^^ft^ Aai«tte,^^^uu^ 

A£ar, Juiu ia^, 

A&bility, affableneasy uilal A^f. 

See GtotleneaBy coorteoasnessi 

civility, condescension. 
Afiable, cJjJ laHf. 
Afiablj, l^qViIj ^7i«(/: 
Affiiir, «. j^\ amr, Jc^U^ hdjat, 

Affect^ V. to affect disdain (to play 
the coquet or prade),^^) athar ; 
(tomoTetenderly),ujilMi liM^a^/; 
(to imitatennnatarally) jJiJibOai^ 
To a£foct with joy, ^ji farah. 

To prodooe an effect, jj\ aaar. 
AfRsctation, affectedness, OuUjf taUld 
Affected (tenderly moved), (JJ^ 

Affection (love), Jh^ ^shk, if J^ 
mawaddai, i „^ ,. m^ mahahhat 
Mutual affection, i^jiJL^(C,s^ 
mdhahhai muihtarakat See 
Friendship, inclination, tender- 
ness, zeal, suffering, grief, feeling. 

Affectionate, JmAc ^Mk, J^J^ 
ioadild. [mwwaddat. 

Affectionately, ifj^JiJlj Ueol 

Affiance, i ^\:^ khithat ,- (con- 
fidence), jUcxI i^tim&d, JICI 

Affiance, v. ^.^J^:^ kkatab. (To 
give confidence), Xt&cl i^Uunad. 
Affidaviti «. j^Mti koicun. 

Affinity, i)\Ji kmrdhat. 

Affirm, v.jji karrar. 
Affirmable, jl^iiJjlS, t-i^l^l. 
Affirmant, «. (affirmer), j]^ mukarrW 
Affirmation, d^Uf iih&tfjSjiS tkrdrf 

Affirmative, i^j\^\ ikrdr^, ^5*0*^ 
Affirmatively, J l^b hi tkrdr. 

Affix, V. JpIJ ^«aA. 

Affiict, V. ^ ^^m, ^»> ^ssofi, 

J\ oSam. 

Affiicted, (jfjij^^ malailn, jJjL« 
mukkaddar. To be afflicted, ^^J^ 

Affliction, afflictedness, ^^x^ hum, 

Afflictive, (oj^^ muhzin. See 
Painful, tormenting. 

Affluence, affluency, affluentness, 
[i^ffhand, JU nUil, i}^y\ amwdl, 
Affluent, ^^^ ghani, J\^ wafir. 
^joj}^ fuyid, j^ kaslr ; (flow- 
ing), iJj\>- jdri. 

Afford, V, Vi^»^ tpahah. Afforded, 
L^yby mawhab, Afforder, l-.^^^ 

Affiray, «. a^b^ huj^m. [wMam. 

Affright, V. 4^}s. fcAawtDof) J^ 


Affiighty affrightmenty Jyh howl, 

L^y>^ khawf^ i^m^^j m^3. 
Affiigbted,temfied,(i-jy^ mar^, 
Af^ghtful, frightftd, terrible, 

Affront, s, ^J,^esr,^\^a£j naktdn 

hahakk, \jii\ iftira. 
Affironter, «. c^r/^ muftofi, 
Afirontingly, \jij\jLi hicol iftird, 
Affuse, f7. l,,>^Ct $akah. 
Afloat, ajU ^dtm. 
Afoot, ,c^U md«Al. 
Afraid, <«-fljl^ hhdyif. 
Afresh, oj J^^ mtnjadld, 
Afront, (Jj\S^ makdhU. 
After, J^ ha^d, Affcer this, t JJb Juu 

3a^(f ^<2. After which, Uc— ^r. 

phahhmd, UtJuu ha^dmd. After 

to-day, A^tjuu ha^dalyawm 

After salutatioiiB, after compli- 
ments, i^LUljuc. After death, 
ci^^^Juc, 5(i^(^/ m^»«7^. After 
all, j^SJ/i^T, ^J^J^ ^a^i? 

hoi shy. 
After-birth, <u«ju»^ tnushimat, 

Affcemoon,^^^ 1 Juu . 

After to-morrow,^jij^d0^ia^^iim 

Afterward, afterwards, ^^ 

minha^f JLJt»jUnj flmdba^, 

828 AGO 

Again, Lvt oyc^. 

Against, _Lc ^o&y'; (contrary), 

4^idL khildf, li (fti». Against 
or upon him, or it, a^ ^alayhi. 
Against law, c^-A.Ht— .flt^. 
Against treaty, peace, or agree- 
ment, ^\4^U^, ^];iU^, 

A^^t— ijg^. Oyer against, JjIS^ 
Agate, B. 1^^. 

Age, jf ^omr, Jp» m». The in- 
fuit age, i^yi^ tufaUyat. The 
stripling age, ^^ Mnykiyat. 
The yoathfal age, s-^Ll «Aa^d3. 
Old age, A^^^ssxJit shaykkukhat, 
A man a hundred yean of age, 
iLrf4['Uy^Jp*j. Of the same 
age, ji^j^ fwrd ^mr. An age, 
^t«j zamdn, J^ ^hd^Jb*^ daJir. 
In the age of Haron, (j^^j^^H^tJ 
/i^aAi^ ^drilfi. Through all 
ages (for erer), ^^^/'>^^\;^*^yj^ 

Agency, 21^ wakdlat. 

Agent, #. j^j waktlf i^\i fd^l, 

Aggrandize, v,J^ kdbhar. 
Aggrandizement, <i.4.b.r ^usma^. 
Aggravate, v. JaJ «ajbb/. 
Aggravation, iUj «aj^/a^. 
Aggregate, ^^-♦^ nwfmfl^. 
Aggregate, r. «-4jsj- y«»Mi^. 




AggtegB&m, aggravate, lAA,^f 

Aggnm, p. (aamilt) 
AggreMum (^y;^ ^ 
Aggnmar, $. ^\ib 

Agility, ipj^ mr^, ^Lb^ ^qfalat. 

Agitate, r. cJ^ harrak. 
Agitated (disturbed), t^Vi ^ ^ 

Agitation, i^j^ harakat ; (per- 
torbation), ^^L-L^l idtirdh ; 
(deliberation), ijyi^ moihivarai, 
j^J3 iadhlr,^Jihr, i^\j rayy. 

Agitated, ^^o^a^ mudtarib, J>.*ai^ 

mu»/a^. To be agitated, c^i^^ki^l 

Agitator, «. CJjS^ muharrik. 

Aglet, #. (thin plate), ^SjJ tanaka. 

Agnation(relation8hip by the father), 

i:\ji kardhat, 

Agnos Caatos (tree), ^j^MLma^^j 
zH kkamiot awrdk. 

Ago (past), UjLi sdhikan. Long 

ago, JmJ^^ mm kahl, JyJ kohl, 

LJ kahlan. [(^\^ pahlawdn. 

Agonist, agonistes (prize fighter). 

Agonize, v- 9j^ nd*a^ 

Agony, ^|j:Jt JU* hdlannatd^ The 
agony of death, CL^yii\i::j\^ 

•dhrdt §i mawt To be in the 
agony of death, cjU Mdsa^. 

Agree, v. ^j raii, ^}i5\ iUafak. 

Agreeable, uy^lx^ mtm^tni, J^^f^ 

inM^l, fji\y mimffdfik. To be 

agreeable (suited to), Ci^.^li 

Agreed, J^ft« mn^AfiJ, J^^l^ mm- 

Agreement, jUjf ttti/dk, olco 
ittthdd, ifjJbLa.^ ffiN^d^aitf^, 

(resemblance), ^Ly^iJ toMlA. 
Agriculture, ^|^ sorcl^a^, J[>.1U 

Aground, (^^I^^J^ ^ola* lard. 

Ague, «. A tertian ague, ^^*>>- 
ii^sJw* Atitnuia' muiiollasi. A 
quartan ague, huj^^^^^^ hamtna* 

murabba^. The cold or trembling 

fit of an ague, ^.«^1 Mardiyat. 

Ah! b\ ah. 

Aid, JX« madad, ^ J^Lu^ masd^adah, 
S\iX>t\ imddd, ^^ ^ocm, ijUt 
i^nat. By the dirine aid,y.^U 
(Jbpt M iMMT arrabbdnl. 

Aid, r. ^U1 a^dn, j^Li ad^ad. 

Aider, #. 4X0 L*^ mwd^, ^;j^ 

Ailment, ^^j ^^^^ (^^ nJimii. 
Ailments, (j0^ i*^^ am/r^i. 




Aim (dengn), Xj nlat, Jk.di iatd, 
J)\j^ vmrid, |*Je ^otm, ^jOjA 
ghar&d, A<aA>* maiiad, JyoJU 

Aim, V. tXaoS ha%sad. 

Aimed, t^yak^ maksHd. 

Aiming (part.), «wl3 kdiid. 

Air, \yb hawd. The element of air, 
\^\j,a:^. An air (in mosie), 
^Uju na^hmat, ^^k. lahn. Airs, 

CL^Uju naghmdt, (Jlc\ aghdnl, 

Aghant is the title of sereral Eastern 
aiis; p^colarly of a very large col- 
lection of Arabian songs, called 

JUSl^, compiled in the tenth 

century by AbolfiEuraj All, of Ispahan. 
He presented it to Seifa' d'dowla, 
Snltan of Syria, who ordered him in 
retnm 1000 dinars (near 500/.}, bnt tiie 
minister of this prince, £bn Ebad, con- 
sidering the recompense as too inade- 
qnate to the labour of fifty years, which 
Abnlfaraj had employed in the work, 
gave him 1000 more. This vizier car- 
ried it with him in all his expeditions ; 
and it was much in request among the 
great men of the East, copies of it being 
generally sold at Baghdad for 4000 

drams of diver. Air (mien),^^Sai^ 
manzar, ^j tcajah. 

Air, V. (to expose to the air) ^j^^ 
hawwa* ; (expose to the sun), 
^jj*aJ^ shamnuu. To take the air, 
l^t^Ji sham (U hawu. 

Air-hole, s. ^J^M>y fnanfas. 

Airy, vj^y^ hatvd*i. 

AJahaster^ l^^^j^^*^ marmar ahyad. 

Alacritj, jf^ ikawh, )o\£*j noikdL 
Alarm(£right,8arprise), ^Jy^-khauf. 
Alas! s\ dh. [standing. 

Albeit. See Although, notwith- 
Albngo, «. (disease in the eye), 

^^l^^lo haydd o/cfn. 
Aloaid, «. (goyemor), *X)\j&\, 
Aloairo (capital of Egypt), i^bUIf 

AUkdhira. [ifmSd. 

Akhymist, «. IjU^Jji^ ww^ahm 
Alchemy, IjU^\ alJI^mld. [lurdn. 
Alooran, ^1^ Eurdn^ u\r^^ ^^" 
Alcqye, s. ^ kobhe. 
Alembic, s, (j^\ anhlL 
Alength, J^li hiUnl 
Aleppo, c,.Jiv. Sdlah, 
Alert, ViftAn.! ^ muitaykit; (actiye, 

vigilant), JbLs idhir. 
Alertness, »\^\ itUtbdh, 
Alexander, J jciL) /SJbndlar,j«x:jL}f 

Alexandria (in Egypt), ^jJciLs^ 

Iskandaria. Alexandretta (Scan- 

deroon), ^^jJjLm\ Iskanderun. 

Alexipharmic or Alexiteric, «. (an- 
tidote) J^i^ tirydh. 

^^^^y jfsr y«^, jT^\ aljahr, 

Alias. See Otherwise. 

Alien, «. v— ^^ gharih. 

Alienate, r. (property), J^ hawwal. 




Alienable. Bee Transferable. 
Alienation, ^\^ hawdlah. 
Alight, f?. Jp neul. To alight from 

a horse, ^^l^^^^J^. 
Alike, Ji^ mml, JjU^ mu^dU, 

JlaJ noslr, JjU^^ mumdsil. 
Aliment, ^^IjJ? to^dm, \ji& ghadd, 

Alive, ,<>- ^tf. 

Alkali, ^li^l iMAndn. 

All, J$ kol, 5--4i:r /awJ^; (eyery 
one), «X>-t J^ ib/ a^ad. Before 
all things, _^ J^ Jr^ ^'a^^ ^^ '^. 
Complete in aU, JJ^Ct mukammdl. 
All together, U-:^^^ jami^n. 
In all, among all, ^LL^drt^ 

• •• 

fi'ljunOah, Ui3b hiletdliah. AU 
at once, i!j^>-|^ <UeJ (^/^a/an 
waMdatan. All along, |%t^jJ1_lc 

^o^d' addawdm. On all sides, ^^ 
c^lf»-J^ mm kol jdnth. 

Allay, r. ^^^^ sakkan, ,^JJb hadda\ 
Allegation, jijSj takrir, j\j)\ Irdd. 
Allege, V. Jf^l atorad. 



•Ij tffd/V^ 

Allegiance, i!^lftL.«it utikdmat. 
Allegorical, eLi\£jJx^ fntdaskdhih, 

ijj^^ majdzi, 
Allegorically, |jts^ tnajdmn. 

Allegory, «. J-I4J te»»«f/, Jb^ 

Allegorize, v, JL« maual. 
Allelujah, ^j^ hdlleluyah. 
Alleviate, v. t^Lv khaffaf. 
Alleviation, (^^LJts^ takh/if, LLuJ 

Alliance (of states), jU;t t^^i/cl£, 
j^ ^hd, fjJbU^ tnu^hadat; 
(consanguinity), ii\^ kardbaL 

Alligator, s. -.L*^ timsdh. See 

Allocation, (i-jlksw khitdh. 

Allodial, Ji^Mi^ mustakiiL 

Allot, p. ^j^^^>- hauas, ^^^ kataam^ 

Allotment, dUfi»- hiesat, <UaM5 kiamat^ 

Allow, r. (permit), {j^^j rakkoi. 
Allowable, <Lajwp!v,,,.%s»»lj t^^Vi 

Allowance, Xi^afL^ rukhsat, ij\>'\ 
t;elsa< ; (portion), <Ua>- AM«a^| 
<UmJ kismat; (gift), ^JL^at^ 
bakhshish ; (diminution, abate- 
ment), ^^^oAj ndks. 

Allowed (lawful), ulsj- /ayta, j\s^ 
tnujdz, ^jo^S^yi murakhkhas. 

Alloy (mixture), lal^ ^Ao^. 

Allude, I'. ^Ji^ kanna\ 

Allure, s, L^i^ jazab, \yc\ aghod. 




Allurement, aUoxingness, 

Allorer, i. l^j\p^ jd%ib. 
Allaringlyy io jl>- Jio hicoljd%biat. 

Allusion, alludvenessy Ljc^ han&yaU 
AlluaiTely, lf*f^ toMihan. 
Ally, V. J-^j woialf f^^ jama^ 
Ally, 9, (j-i^ muttaJOs, i«-^y 

iarih, Jnji; raflk. 
Almanac, i. ^lySj taholm. Alma- 
nacs, >Jj^ takdwlm. 

Almighty, s, ^U}^1 AUah ta^ala\ 
See God. 

Almond, «. j^ latot. An almond- 
tree, Jjli^^c^ shafarat lam. 

Almoner, «. jJui:^^ mutasaddik. 

Almonry, s. iJ^\j9Xa^\j\j ddr 

Almost (near, nearly), Lj^ takn- 

ban, c-^y Jtarlh, iXx ^nd. 
Alms, alms-deed, iJJ^ $adaka, 

i^j wahat. 
Alms-house, d-^Uju^^ J^cr* mahaU 

Miodakdt See Almonry. 
Alms-giver, «. ^Xac^ mutasaddik. 
Aloes, J^ ^dfj^ idhr. 
Aloft, JU ^clft, ^-i^ ♦•^y^^' 
Alone, Ciyi^^ mmfa/ridf Jja^ muta- 

farrid. Let alone (imperative), 

Along (at full length), JjUb Mtnl 
Along with, w« wa^. 

Aloof, jp^ J dUr, Jm ha^^, Juju 

hisawt ^li. 
harnf alk^'d. 

Aloud, ^Jlfic: 

Alphabet, Isf^t 


Already, ji iUzc?. 
Also, 1*4^1 aydan. 
Altar, «. (place of sacrifice), fC^^ 
fmis&(kA. [Jjj haddal. 

Alter, t'.^;ii gkayyar, Jjj ^oio/. 
Alterable, JjJusHc.^o-\j, Jj15 

Alterably, Jj Jusib hiltahM, 
Alterant, altering (who alters), 

JoL« mughayyir. 
Alteration, J-^^uJ tahdll, JJu 

taghayyir^j^ taghylr. 
Altered, Ji^ muyhayyar, Ji^c^y 

mutaghayyir, [mundza^t. 

Altercation, c^ nawd^ JLcjL.^ 

Altem, alternate, alternately, j^jJb 

Altemacy, alternation, alternate- 

ness, <uy nawbat,j^J dawr. 

Act alternately, v, jjjJb J»^ ^mal 

Alternative, altemateness, alter- 

nity (choice), c^ladiJl nUikhdh, 

jL:x£>.l ikhtiydr, [JMtmieh. 

Althea (marsh mallows). 




Altitude ^j\ irUfSL^ The alti- 

tude of the poby u^^JoAiUUjjt. 
Altogether, \guA9^J€iml^%lAii\i^ 

Alaniy JUJ« 9hdHb§. 

Always, Urb daymm^ AjJl i^ 

^ala* addaw&m. 
Am (I am), ^\j\ and hoo. 
Amandation, JL;1 inah [nOiikh. 
Amanuenaifly «. c^l^ kdtib^ ^U 
Amaranth, ZsJaS kad/at 
Amassment (accomalation), l^^. 
Amass, V. ^^^yama^, ^^kawwam. 
Amaze, v.jl^- hayyar. 
Amaze, amazedness, amazement. 

Amazed, ^]/*>- hayrdn S^^ 

^^ J^ iiuM^tU^. To be amazed, 

i^-^^^fT^ ia^ah. Amazedly, 

Vs^ J^ • ^S^y^ ghanh. 

Amazing (adj.) c^^jy^ ^<i;ti, 

Amazingly, v-^-^-s?*^ ht^'ab. 

Ambassador, «. ^f^l ^Al. 

Amber, b^ ibr^d. 

Ambergris, ^^^ ^har,j^ ^ahr. 

Ferfomed with ambergris, 

Ambidexter, ^J^t^i. 
Ambiguity, ambignouazz^st^ ambi 


logy, ^Ij rsyto^, i^ skuihat, 

Ambigooos, ambiloqaens, ^f^ 
Ambigaoasly,,^^t(jML;IU dtZihfidt 

Ambition,ambitioasness, w«k iama^ 
Ambitions, cUl? tismmd^ 
Ambitiously, ^^ JC M0O/ <Ma^. 
Amble, v, Jjj^^ hartoal. 
Amblingly, 4lj^ Hkarwalai. 
Ambuscade, ambush, ambushment, 

Amen, ^^^-^T dmln. [^*^ soMaA. 
Amend, r. (correct), ^ taUdh, 
Amendment, JU1 M&hy ^f^^ 
tashihf ,m^S^ tashh. 

Amender, J^^^ tnuioUth. 
Amends, i\i\Lt mukd/dt, t^/tiBd, 

Amenity, ,^farah. 

Amethyst, «• /^yLp^ jahallakilm. 
Amiable, <,, »j>ff^ miMnb, Jj-X* 
makhnl. [raumai. 

Amiableness, JU>- /nmd/, J^jj 
Amiably, JUa:. btfamdl. 
Amicable, ^U«^ htmuhabhat 
Amicableness, £ls^ muhahhat. 
Amicably, Juc^ Jjo Ucol muhdbhat. 
Amid, amidst, ^^U^J flmd hayn. 




AmisB, JuiU fOsidf f^yJ namUm. 
Amitji »Jy mHaddat. 
Ammoniao (sal); jjlutJ nuihddir. 
Ammunition^ cliC*ff^lcL>Uf». An 
ammunition waggon, Ly^JkAhx. 
Amnesty, dij\s^ mutdrikat, /AcjAa 

Amomum (a gnm used in embalm- 
ing), t«U>- hamdmd. 
Among, amongst, ^, ^;-jU md 

Amorous, ^JJ^X^- ^dshik Amorous 

gestures, ^^ ^hanf. An amo« 

* rous poem, ^^ ghaml. 

Amorously, (jJ^^ ht^hi. 

Amorousness, Jh^ ^ishk, Z 

Amount, ^U^ jumkU, 

c^Uuk.^ /om^ al hudh. 

Amour, $. \jj zind, [harri. 

Amphibious, ijjiji^ja^, hahrf wa 

Amphitheatre, (S^jfL^ ma^hat. 

Ample, ^\^ wd9i^ ^jui faslh, 

Ampleness, amplitude, ^jo^ ^d, 

Amplify, V. JjJ? tatowal, Jac 

Amply, <Um)^ Jij hicol toas^. 
Amputate, v. \ydL^^tii kata^ 

Amputation, ^Li kat^ [Aim. 

Amulet, i. J^U^ hamdyil, ^f^ 

Amnse^ f». (delight) ia^ Ams, _L> 

«a22tK', Ly*^^ id^. To amuse 

one's self, J^ iaUakka', Ju*J 

tasalla\ [A««. 

Amusement, Ui^ ta/d, ^ laha, )a^ 

Amusing, amusive, ^X**^ muBaUy, 

Anachronism! i. f^j\si\jiikp tattolr 

Anagram,^. c^^lL« maklnb. 
Anagrammatist, s, im^jS^ nmharrif, 
Anagrammatize, v. (.Jp- harraf. 
Analogical, analogous, ^^^ hiydtH, 
(ji^o^ mutdhik, i_ r'^* —r mundstb, 

Analogy, dAi\^ muwdfahat, (L^dU^ 
Analogize, v. i^^»u] nassah. 
Analysis, JjwibT ^«f /, JPiAJ tafrlk, 

mmmAj taksim. 
Analyse, r. ^jjifarrak, Jj>- Ao/. 
Anarohy, ^J^jy^j tashwUh, fjhs^\ 

Anathema, «. ^Lx! la^t, a^ harm. 
Anathematize, t;. ^ la^n, ^j^ 

haram, \_^^jS^ mahrunu 

Anathematized, ^*jcL^ nuH^n, 
Anatomy, fCj^ ta^hrih. 
Anatomical, ^^^aoyu tashrihl. 

Anatomist, «. ^^;^u«i^ mfifAtfrrcA. 




AnntnmnBy v. ^^j*^ mattm. 

Aneestor, t. 3^ faH uJlu 
Anoeston, Ijt oto, jliX>-l ^^'ddd^ 
i.jL«t m2s/ Ancestry, JT di, 

Anchor^ «. j^^JLit on^ordy iL^ 
wtir$dL [mtrsh 

Anchored, l<^1; ^"^^^ ^ ls^j^ 

Anchorite, <. JJbjj %dhid. 

Ancient, w«X5 kat^m, (J^ ^aili; 

(old man), J^b^lb M^m hU 

AndentB, #. Jj|p(t aiawdyil, t«ji]l 

tdhuUund, Ancients and modems, 

Ancient, s. (flag of a ship, etc.) 

jF^oij handiera. 
Ancientlj, UjLj sdhikan, UjJi 

And, J. And so forth, _5U11«\^j 

«>a haJuud dl lakl. 
Anecdote, «• i^ kiasat. 
Anew, «>J Jk>-^^ minjadtd. 
Angel, «. cJ)L« fnaidL Angels, 

^X^t al mdlaykaL The angel 

of death, ^j}^ ^rd-ii. ^j^^ 

^^^Ji\ kdhid aiartpdh. 
Angelic, angelical, ^X^i^ mdlayla. 
Angelica (herh), cJl^Jl^^juc^- 

hashUkai aJ i»a/(xi. j 

Angelina (an herb), ^uJiarl anghe^ 

Anger, ^^.d r ghadab, )^ gUtyu 
Prone to anger, Cy^^^ar ghadoh. 

Angry, ^Lac ghadhdn. To be 
angry, ^^.^Mofi ^Aodl^d. 

Angrily, u,i^>rair) highadah* 

Anger (proYoking to), ^or^. v,,^.gw^ 

Anger (in), angrily, v., ..^.ritij ^&k20&. 

Angle, <. i^i^j %du?ie. The angle of 
projection, ijji kumat. The out- 
ward angle of the eye, ^Jti'^\f^^O 
zanah al^n. 

Angle, V. (to flsh), cli^4,oi\j!*n7 
tMayyad 9amak. 

Anguish, ^j^aJl idtirdh, ^^^\ 

jb\s^\ tnkibdd al khdtir, S-^ 

Angular, angulous, angulated,bl^j4) 
zU tawdyd, 

A-nights, )L! layldn. 

Anility (old age of women), h>^^s^ 
^l^duuJl shaykhnkat anntmodn, 

Animadyersion (censure), -jJjtJ 
ta^lr, ^^m^i^\j tddib. 

Animadyert, v. ^j wahhdhh. 

Animadyerter, <. j^ mu^amir. 

Animal, «. (^^^:*^ Aoytroii. An un- 
tamed animal, {J»*-^^ umhsh (pL 




d^^U^Js^ Aoyu^dn ndUk. An 

irrational animal, i^^ji^^^^t^ 

. hoftodn ifhajfr ndtik. Animals, 

CL)Utji.*.»- hoffwdndt. Animal 

spiritB, 4^'j-^j^^^. 

Animate, p. (give life) ^^\ tf^a' ; 

(to encourage)/ ^^;o^ harrad. 
Animate, ^^ Ayy. 

Animated, ^U«4>- hamydn. 
Animation, ifL^ haydL 
Animating U^l ti^dr, Animator, 

Animosity, Jla.»- A^ii^, ^^Ijl.^ 
^addwaU [%o<m. 

Aniae, herb or seeds, y^y*»^\ ^v^^- 

Ankle, t^. U;*^ i^^d. [ri^'A. 

Annals, jLsLI akhhar^ t^J^ji tawd- 

Annalist, «. fc/^]^ rairi. 

Annex, v. cJL^i ois/, J^i^ t^Ma/. 

Annexation, annexment, l^\^\ 
fddfat. Annexations, (JL^ULo^ 

Annexed, cJLo^ mtM^d/. 

Annihilate, v, Jiai hattal. 

Annihilated, ^Jkw^ tnubattal, /*^«^ff^ 

Annihilation, J-iu ^n^^i/. 
Anniversary, at^'. ^^^ BonawH. 


•• ^ y * ^:^ 


Annotation, ^Li haydn^j^M ta^tr, 
^jJL shark, j^kuJu iafiir. Anno- 
tations, ^jJ^,j^\ij ta/dslr. 

Annotator, $, ^J^ shdrih, jiuJi^ 
mu/atsir. [baththar. 

Announce, v. ^-cw khahboTy jmJ 
Annoy, v. Jitj %a^^l, C;^^ U^^^. 
Annoy, annoyance, VU»y luiAffia^, 

Annoyer, <. s^^rx^ mut^. 
Annual, l^^ sanawi. 
Annually, by^ sanawiyan. 
Annuity, «. ^^ sanawtaL 
Annul, «. Jlai do^^, ^ immoM. 
Annular, ^tilk^tjCuJ htahikU al 

halaka. [khdUm sayhlr. 

Annulet, a, (small ring),^Ji«0wl£w 
Annunciation, 8. ^ImJIjuc ^fi al 

hiihdrat. [^ <afo'. 

Anoint, v, t^**^ masah, ^jJb J <^<iAa», 

Anointer, a. ^U mdaih. 

Anon, )l>- MUan. [i$m. 

Anonymous, jtJi\J^ mvkh/Vl 

Anonymously, /•jLc«^*Mib hi iam 

ghayr manikin, am»U^^j^ min 
ghayr ism. 
Ano^eifj^ ghayr,j>^\ dkhar. 

Answer, v. ^^^ jdwab, c-->ls^l 
qfdh. To answer for money, to 
be surety, Ji^. (To appear be- 
fore a judge), ,«a»^ kuder. 




Answer, «. t-J^^ jmoSh. A tnie 
or just answer, <»i>1»in«-i>1«.»- 
jawdh mw&h, A categorical or 
definitiTe anflwer, (^L2ic^t^.>- 
jawdh Mkdfl. Question and an- 
swer, i^\y>'^^}\^. 

Answerable, L^\yt\i^,^^^\^ wd/ib 

fgjaiwdh] (suitable), (ji}^ mu- 

tdbik ; (accountable), ^^^Lj 

ddmm. [sahat. 

Answerably, JL^sL/* JC hikdmana- 

Answerer, ». ^j^Lb^ mufaunb. 

Ant, M. aUj nanUeh (pi. J^ iMWt/). 

Antagonist, ^t^OLrL Ma«m(pl. aLs^I 
tfi^dfn). [afunUhh 

Antartic pole, «. , ^^^\i,^^^ kuth 

Antecedent, |JkA^, /•jJix^. The 
antecedent, JfiU, ^J^. An-- 
tecedent and consequent, /•«iL«ll 
^Ulj almukaddam waUdli, 

Antecedently, UjL> tdlikan. 

Antecessor, «. ujiLi «aiaf, v^L 
fd2^, J^^Li sdhek, [barrdniyat. 

Antechamber, «. Ljl^^^t tmda 

Antedate, v. ^jl-xJtj;!^! <aMa)& 
attdrlkh, \wafdn. 

Antediluirian, ^li^l J^J iad/ aiUh 
Antemeridian,^^1JJ. [iunid. 
Antemundane, USllJ^J kahl ad- 
Antepenult, a^. ^ilJJ kabl 

Anterior, /^tXix^ mutaiaddam. 

Anthem, $. ^f^rr*^ ioiblh, jyj^ 
mmsmflr. Anthems, cjI^j^mJ 
tMbihat. IJ^Vi. 

Anthropophagi, ^Ji-A-i 

Antichrist, Jl>-jJI dUtudl. 

Anticipate, v. ujiL* idttaf^ 
•obhA. [saiaf, J^^ taMt. 

Anticipation, {^jAmJ taihf, 

Antic, vKtfT^ mudhik, 

Aniio, i.ifjai^*^m(ukhara. {jharib. 

Antidote, «. J^j3 ttrydk, ^Iju^. 

Antimony, vji^si^VJJl^, J^^ ib«^. 

Antiochia, ^L^ILjI atUdkia, 


Antipathy, Htj^WHjkJ diddaitabl^t. 
Antipodes, ». uoj^ll^^ULijjJUl 

Antiquary, «. A4J JiSijUJU Jlc. 
Antique, ^Ji kadtm^ (jip^ ^ik. 
Antiquity, ^ls^lJL>-^t aldjyai 

Antistrophe, J JwidSI^Lc^dS^l Ju^. 
Antithesis, <l.^Li(w« tnu^radat, 

U!L^\ imUdf. 

Antler, «. JJj^^^ kamghmM. 

A ^ ft 

Anvil, «. ^Xi^ BiMddn, <t^hiii^. 
Anxiety, anxiouaness, ^JL^y^u 

taih¥fUh, (^\Jt2^\ tdiirdb,Jj. 
Anxious, L^Ja^d^ mudtartb, j^si^. 
Anxiously, jj «xicj M^oWlr. 




Anjf^J^Mhjf. Anywhere, ^j^J^ 

Apaoe, Ipj*uj hintr^, J^jss^U. 
Apart, t}\Ju\i hanfirdd. 
Apartment, e. ^1 awda. 
Ape, 8. ^^y*>^ maifmiln, J^ kird. 

Ape, V. jJi ib/M. 
Aperture, ^fath. ^ 

Apez, «. M»>«i tft^*. 
Aphorism, k2^tX>. Aa<^<. 
Apish, jJjU mukaUid. 
Apishnees, «3u1a7 foil^. 
Apocope, cJ«k>- A^. 
Apocryphal, <«-:^ r^ mtirf&. 
Apogeom, apogeon, apogee, UyJi^^i 
awjoBBomd, [muhdml. 

Apologetic, apologetlcal, _^lsr^ 
Apologise, v.jiss\ i^toMr. 
Apologizing (adj.), jJcjc^ mu^tmir, 
Apdogizer, s.j^sjl^ mu^taur. 
Apologue, », Jli^ tnasal. 
Apology, ».j\jcxl i^i2dr,ji^ ^usr. 
Apothegm, jjfu*^ J^ ibW m^Mur . 

Apoplexy, «.^::iL>Mi&M. Apoplectic, 
dsLJ\)^^^z^, [tnkdr addln. 

Apostacy, jl JJjl «r^uto<l, ^;:» jJ|;lilit 

Apostate, <.JJ^ murtadd, ^;:( jJ|/^ 

mtiitM* mifftn. [^addln. 

Apostatize, v. ^^jJld^ ^oi; 

Apostle, t. i}y^j rami. 
Aostleship, ilL^^ risdlaL 
Apostolical, apostolic, ^}^j ranill, 
Apostolically, J^l^ kdrru$l. 
Apothecary, «. •<>"lrr^ iglaagu 
Appal, t^. Jyb hawwal. 
Appalment, J^^ tahwll. 
Apparatus, cl;S\ o^^, CjUf«. 

Apparatus for a journey, c^Kl 

^^AmJI. Warlike apparatus, d^Dl 

c-^^1 «/a^ alharh. 
Apparel, ^^^ i^, (^y wwh 

(plur. <--i^|yt (Mfod^). 
Apparel, v* ^jmJ lahhoi. 
Apparent, JbU? xdAir, ^\^ tocUUh, 

_]l5^. More apparent,^;^! osAor. 

Apparently, Ui^lS^ saAtran, bLc. 
Apparition, «. ^^^ «firii^, JLsL 

Apparitor, 8,j»as!^ tnuhdir. 
Appeal, V. ^^*> rfdta', ^1^ ro/a^. 
Appeal, s. i^J da^at. 
Appear, j^ %ahar. To cause or 

order to appear, ji,d^\ ahdar. 

It appears (it is eyident),^ll3ll 

Appearance, jij-f^ zahHir ; (simili- 
tude), J^wiJ tanull; (probability), 
JLi.r.jfc-1 ihitmdl; (concourse), 
cUc^t ijtimd^ To appearance, 
J^ hiihikl. 

Appeanr, :ja>% a^Mr. 
Appease, v. \j>^ mJctat. 
Appdlast, : ^^< 
Appellation, m^\ ■■ 

i_^ laiai. 

AppeQfttive, *. ^^oJ^f liwl. - 
Append, p. jic ^aOai. 
Aj^tendage, *. ^ ^*f*-i datnlmat. 
Appendant, ^^ji^ mUfMllat. 
Appendix, t. L*.^^ damimat, JjJ 

Apport^, V. (._,«.iil, wifeMoi, ^^ 
Appertainment, appurtenance, 

^-)U«=j1 intitdi. [Uhih. 

Ai^iertinent, (jljt=-« mut^A, j;»-^ 
Appetence, lfi>l1 ithiika, \^ htuad, 

{ju^ hateat. 
Appetite, ijiii thdhwat, J^ mayl. 
Applaud, e. —•X* vtadnh, Ju*a- 

haitud, ^j—^^^ Utahtan. 
Applause, v. J-**- hamd, —S^ madh. 
Apple, ». <L>-lAi iuffiiia. [Jii. 

AppUable, applicable, Jli^^mtwd- 
ApplicabtenesB, applicability, iiiiy^ 

wmwafalat. \Jakat. 

Applicable, lsi\y^^_ hikot muwd- 
Application (study), <i~i^ j(ihd, 

t>\f.#-1 D'fAu^; (petitioning), J^^ 

mwal, i_J.^ toloft. 
Apply, V. (add) J->; ; (to study), 

uKtaght^; (to petition), l-J-Ij 

Appoint, •. ^^ tajy*"- To ap- 
pcont to an office, i_...fli iwm(; 
(to equip), y>a»- iaddar. 

Appointment, (. (office) t^..rfT«.< 
maiu^ ; (stipulation), ^^ aAorJ ; 
(command), j^\ amr ; (decree), 
J.>- htfon ; (asBignatioii), ^;-«w 

Apportion, e. ija-a». Juumm. 
Apposite, (jj!f Idjfik, t—~a^\j vd/iB, 
\_ - A-- - mtmdiA, i}i\y mwedfii. 
Appoaitely, LJ^^^Jii biiol mmd- 

AppoBitenesa, ^\y* muwdfakat. 
Appraise, v.jSi kaddar. 

Aiipmisemcnt, ^ytJ f laikmln. 

Appraiser, *. i^-^mS jc- * tnu^^iut'i. 
Apprehend, c. (conceire) (J,^Jl 

IM&-1IA, i^J i (to seize), ^jo^ 

Apprehender, i. il^J^^ muA-ftt; 

(a seizer), j^li iahid. 
Apprclienaiblc, |4aJ1,J_jL3 kdbti 

at/ohm, c^^ ma/him. 
Apprehension (conception), Jis 

^.att, ^ fahm; (terror), J^ 

hawt;{aaxiut)), ^Ja-i ; (ansficioa); 




Appreh6iifliTe(£BarM),(^U^ UMf. 
ApprehenBLvely, u^ijfvjilj hihl 

Apprentice^ t. <X«Jj tdmH. 
Apprize, 9. jleL iUoftiory j^\ 

Approach, Jj^^ iMfrtld^ c-^ iuri. 
Approach, f?. c-^JIj tarrah. 

Approbation, U| rM}<3, J^J JsuM, 
L^\yaDm»\ utiitcdb. 

Appropriate,i7.|^;MfiL iUoiiiM. To ap- 
propriate to one's-self, dl 1>-^^m^ 
iasBOi kdhh. 

Appropriate, ^joU. JM$. [takhaU. 


Approvable, l-^^Cy*^lj ufdjih or- 
rkte, ^;--**tf31 JjH Idyik attah^n. 

Approve, r. < j >j in-i^gi^ istaswab; 
(to prove, show), ^^ja^\ imtahan. 

Approximation, t^Ji kurh. 

Approximate, L^Ji tarih/LijSj 

Apricot, «. iJLAMj^ mushmuahat. 

April, ^Im*^ nUdn. 

Apron, jj^ maizar, <uy fata. 

Apt, Jl-i^j^ wMn^S/fit, ^.j^-^L^ 

mundiib, JjH teyf^, JjU mdyil, 
j^\^ hddir. 
Aptitude, aptness, £ilJ laydhU. 
Ap£Ijr, 4Ai)j^Jij hikol muwd/aJcat. 

Aquarius (the celestial 8ign),j!jJt 
addaioo. [ma'i. 

Aquatic, aquatile, aqueous, ^t« 

Aqueduct, t. Uj ibmA. 

Aquiline, s^y**^ mmH. 

Arabia, ^.^tjL hUdd al^rah, 
^LjuaJ^ ^^roiiii^ii. Arabia 
Pelix, ^j^\ afyaman. Arabia 
Petrea, jLjf^\ M%jd%. The 
genuine Arabians, ^LJx^J^£ 
^ah^hd. The mixed Arabians 
(oommonlj called Mosarabians), 
dj jMS ^^t^je, ^db musta^rtbat. 
Arabic, ^^j^ ^rahl. The Ara- 
bic language, ^j^l^U Uidn 
al^rab. The Arabic language 
written in Syriac characters, 
^^jS kanhnni. To mark 

Arabic with vowel points, S-^l 

Arable, 9jj^ ffunxari^ 
Arbalist, «. CS^j, JlljjiaO^ man- 

janlk. [^^-*J wasiL 

Arbiter, *. (arbitrator), ciJU sdlis, 
Arbitrable, JlaiM JjlS. 
Arbitrement, jLir;.! ikhtiyar. 
Arbitrarily, 1^ kakran. To act 

arbitrarily, Ji? zaUm. 
Arbitrary, Jlfe tdlim, u,Oj,.;r ^aiii/, 
^13 ^Atr, jikt m«tfa;&. 




Azbitnte^ v. ^^ kabum. 
AMiiBiinmSj Jiff Mtdm, u,flvg ^f, 

j^ hakr. 
AzintratioBy arbitrementy Jl>> hukm. 
AibarBrj (belonging to trees), s£r^ 

Azc(aegmentofacirGle), ijAjlMJtii. 
Aidk, $. »Jsa:3 kantara. Atriamphal 

ttpch. j«^c^b hdb nasr. 
Archangel, %, JLio'X^f^^j ray^ 

Arclilnaliop, «. (^];Ia^ mtf^dii. 
Archer, «. i<«U rdmf. 
Archetype, «. J^^l cm/, a^^ rcum, 

4^f*^ suitkhai. The archetype, 

0r plan of a building, UJIam^. 

The archetype, ir original of a 

hook,^'i\i^\zil\alkttdb al asli. 
Archetypal, ^Xfi\ (uly. 
Architect, s.j\ajl^ mu^mdr. 
Architecture, i^UffJIAc ^m al 

Archives, J3\it} dafatir, A reposi- 

tary for archives, 4jUl^ J dafkir 

Arctic, tXnorth pole), ^UmJI u^^Joil 

kutb ash $hamdll. 
Ardent (hot), jL*. hdrTf ^jir' ; 

(affectionate), c,,^.^^ muhih. 
Ardently, ijS^jLj bikol hardrat 
Ardor (heatjf^ ^Ir^ Aardrai; 

(seal, fbrvour), ij^ gkirai. The 
ardour of love, h\^^ sabdbat. 

Arduous, j;mm£ ^iT. 

Arduousnes8,^AMC ^ur. 

Are, — we are, ^\J=^ im^ hum. 

Area, b, (an open place or surface), 
^1 Jl^ mlddn^ 4».Li i&Kat, 

Argill, ^ tin. 

Argue, V. ^jJ^^mJjtc darah kiyds. 

Argument (reason), (jmLj kiydSy 
i^JB^ hujfat, (J-:*! J dalil. Con- 
vincing arguments, ^<sf^\^i]j\ ; 
(subject), ^y4^A^ madmHn; (ar- 
gumentation), <i^.IjL-s:^. Argu- 
ments, ij^*^ daldyil, ^^.^Lj 
lardhln. [hiydsi^ 

Argumental, argumentative, ,<«>>l:^i 

Aries (the zodiacal sign), J^ksi'1^^ . 
hurj al hamal. 

Aright, tmj\yA\j hiUawdh, 

Arise, v. (as the sun) ^jL sharak. 
To arise (from a scat, etc., to 
stand up), aU kdm. To arise 
(proceed from), jJ^ aadar. 

Aristocracy, s. jy^^^ jamhur. 

Aristocratical, i/t^^f**^ jamhnrf. 

Arithmetic, c^LufljLC ^^m al 

Ark (of Noah), *. -.yii-A-s saflnat 
nuh. An ark (chest), yj5X..fl 
/ sandilk. 




Arm, t. «XfiL« 8d^ (plar. J^\y^ 
iwd^ul), ^fji. The arm-pit, 

Arm (one's-self), v. J*"*^ toiattaJL 

To arm (others), ^ sattah. 
Armada i. (fleet), \*}i^j\ armddd, 

Armament, e, /•^^ naflr ^m. 

Armed, >*«^ musallah. Armed 
with a coat of mail, ^j«3cj« 
mutadarra^ [Truce. 

Armistice, S^Jc^ mat&rahat. See 

Armory, -Xl!1i[jj£L hhainat aBstldh. 

Arms, ^L> sildh, i^\ aslihat 

ArmjpS.jXMiX' ^askar, ^Ju-tp^ jaynh, 
A victorious army, jya:*^^^**^. 
^kar tnansHr. To encamp an 
army, j J^Mu j j] j^ls>. "hhayyam al 
^skar. To levy or embody an 
army, ^^m£.^^^ jam^ ^ikar. 
The leader of an army, ^^mu^I Jjli 
kaid aljaysh. The right wing, 
^^s4.A^ maymanat The left wing, 
^^«M^ maysarai, A great army, 
J^^^^s^uS. ^karjarrcLr, Armies, 

Aromatic, aromaticaI,Ja«^ mu&a^^ar 
Around,jijJ (^at^dr, J**- hawl. 
Arrack, j^ ^rak, 
AiraignmeDt, iAL^ shikayat. 

Arrange, «. <>--^j ra^^, JaJ 

ncuam, To be arrangedi s,^y 

taratiah, fiaaj\ nUcauim. 
Arrangement, ^^^^Ji tarPlb, Jiosj\ 

Arranger, «. Jav^ munazsLtm, 
Array, ^ji^J Ubt. Military array, 

i^yLa 8Hfaf. To array in order 

of battle, (.J«0 saf. 
Arrear^ arrears, arrearage, ^b 

hdk^, CjlJb hakidt. 
Arreptitious (snatched away), 

^jjLuMf mM^tft^, ^-^^^ ffiaMAAi. 
Arrest, «. (^p^^ A^« 
Arrest, v. ij»»-*>- hahat. To be 

arrested, ^jM*a:^t tnAa^otf. 
Arrival, J^j tpo too^ or trutd/. 
Arrive, v. ^b halayh, J^^j tc^otaJ, 

Arrived, J^^j^ wduU. [iakaihur. 
Arrogance, arrogantness, j<^ 
Arrogant, .JjL^ mutakabir. 
J^^rrogsjiily, \}jJj htkabriya, j^jki . 
Arrc^te, v. lcj\ ida^. 
Arrogation, UjI u^&d, 4^^J<^&fe^a*. 
Arrow, |»^ sahm* The invisible 

arrow (death), u^^jirl1»^ iohm 

al ghayh. 
Arse, JjtL« inajb^cu^. The rectum, 

Arsenal, «. ^Ulck;^ tcpkhdna, ijy>^ 




JQt khmmat imM, iH\Mfy 
Axsenic^ ^jj ion^U. Anenical, 

Art (akill), J^ /«mi (plor. ^^^ 
fuMMM)^ Ijc^ iCM'^h i (ounning), 

JlLd. hUat. 
Artery, #. ^b^ ahatydn, J^ ^ir*. 

The beating of the artery, the 

pulse, ^^^ nahd* 
ArtM (skilM), ^.»n^ mmanna^. 
ArtMly (skilfiilly), isc^ huan^t. 
Artichoke, L^i^yi^ iharihuf. 
Arctic pole, t. ^UiJ^c^Jai £tf^ 

Article, «. J-^ /m/, t^-Si «Aar^ 
An article of religion, ^^^'^^^y^ 
Idn^tn addln. Articles, i'jy-^, 

An article (in grammar), iij^\ 

alma^fat. [^amo/ thurikt. 

Article, V. )ojJ^ sharat, ]ffjjJL^}..AS' 
Articular (belonging to joints), 
Ju^A^ mafiall. [munkaiim. 

Articulate, j\s,a^ mumtdfi, a^v^ 
Articulate, v. IaDj talaffcaty ^mmS, 

^jj^ shared, Ihimddat 

Articulately, il jL^^^ ijU mdi^^ 
Articnlateness in speech, lai) ^/s. 
Articulation, lialj talaffia ; (junc- 

toreX 4.i-tf<^ mafia/. 

Artifice, j^ ghadr. 

Artificer, <. «Jli0 »dm^ 

Artificial (in opposition to natural), 
^ ^amali ; (fictitious), jjj^ 
mwuLunr. [hitoMttir. 

Artificially, iti-aj hisan^t, ji^, 

Artificialness, iu-tf Ban^t^ ^fann. 

Artillery, ^^^ ^***> ^-i1*V« 

As (like), iLf. As {or like) the 
Bun, ^jii.Al*^\Ji Jtdshshami. As 
the bird, j-lJL^ kdttayr. As 
before, J^L^ kdUdwwal. As 
above related, ^iU^ ifeat»*5 stiWr, 
As it was (in like manner), U^ 
^l^ kamd kdn. As it is said, 
JJU^ ktmd kll As if, ^VS 
kadn. As often as, UK koUumd. 
So as not, L^ kUd. As often as, 
U^. As much as,jJJb J» kadar. 
Ascend, v, djuo sa^dy ^IL tili^. 
Ascendant, ^Lk idU^ A con- 
stellation of a happy ascendant, 

al matdli^ 
Ascension, «. (of the Lord Jesus), 

JyL^ljuJ. ^d assa^d. 
Ascending, part, ascensive, j-llk 

Ascent, JyL^ »a^d. 

I ABcertain, v. / ^A^- hahkak. 




Ascertainment, j;,j. S^i^ tahHk, 

j\jX:>^\ utikrdr, 
AecititiouBi Jj\j tdyid. 
ABcribe, v. c^u»> nasah. 
Ashamed, ^J^ hhajldn. To be 

ashamed, Jj^ hhijel. 
Ashes, jU; ramad. Of the oolour 

of ashes, i^«^^^ ratndii, x^ 

iJ^j Jiahwa ringhl. Ashes of 

alkali used by bleachers, ^U^t 

Ashore, J.>-Li sahU, 
Ashy (coloured), ^l^U) Hnj&hl. 
Aside, cJ^^Jx ^la^ taraf. 
Asinine, i^Ub»* hxmdrl. 
Ask, (;. Afft^Mdi isiafham, jmJc^\ 

istafsar, J'Li *a'a/. 
Asker, s. u^lL ^/»<(. [^ra/. 

Askew (obliquely), cJ^Lw* ma^ 
Asleep, j^\j ndym. 
Aslope, (J^t* mayZ, 
Asparagus, ^y^ halyoon. 
Aspect, ^j wajh, jSai^ manzar. 

Of a bad aspect, ^^lai^^l^^ jfcarfA 

a/ mansar. 
Asperity, ^yt^ khushunat^ td^le 

Asperse, f^. (to sprinkle) ipr^j 

Aspersion, 1^1 (/iJird, 

Aspirate, p, (to pronounce with full 

breath) ^UiJj^iai) 2a/as iilM 

Aspiration (an ardent wish) Ju^ 

Aspire, t^. c, JW iaXah. 

Ass, «. jLtb.^- Aiindrr. A she-ass, 

^U^»- Atmdra, ^b1 . A wild ass 

(onager), ^iL j ^ ^ ^ ju^,^ hmHtr 

Assail, V, JtJB^ hqfam. 
Assailable, ^uLc /^ysr \ ^JLa,^ mumkm 

alhujUm ^Uhi. 
Assailant, assailer, 8, JjU^ muidtil. 
Assassin, e, JjU kdtil, Jl^ kaUdl. 
Assassinate, v, J^i katal. 
Assassination, Jsi kail. [hi^'Um, 
Assault, 8. Lr*j}^ yUrwh, (^y^ 
Assault, V, JtJB^.hajam, 
Assay, «. (of metals) jLfi ^tyar. 
Assay, v.j^ ^yyar, CS^^ hak. 
Assayer, <• jryt^ mu^yyir. 
Assemblage, 8, ^^a^ jam^. 
Assemble, v. (bring together), ^-as>- 
jama^. To assemble an army, 

Assembled, ^yAJs^ majma^ 

Assembly, «. IsXA^jamd^ty^j/Xs^ 
majlis, ^(am4^ jami^at. An as- 
sembly of nobles, \j^\m. a.k^ 
majma ^ umara . [mMfrd/a^f . 

Assent, J^ kahal^ Uj ridd, i3j\y* 




Ament, r. J^S kibet^ fjij\ ittafdk. 

Avert, 9* j^ tofrar. 

Anertion, affirmatioii, j\ji\ ikr&r, 

jiy^ takrir. 
AneaBiiient, r:\r^ i^r&j, i-ij^ 

jaAat, AssessmentSi k.J^LC3 

AtaesaoT, «. (to adjudge), (J^Ls^ 

^jAjs!^\, ^l:^ y^^w, i<^^ kadi. 
AaseiratioD. amJ kascun, .. ^ ^^-a^ 

yamlny ^Jj^Aa^ tahklk. 
Aflsidaity, J>-«^y Jl1-L3. As- 

Bidnonsness, ^j\j^ tntM^frama^, 

AflsidaonSy c-^|^ mtfu^dst^, /•jl «V« . 

TobeassidaooSy /^^ ld%am, ^^ff\^ 

wd%ab, wdtibat. 

Assiduously, JLl^l^J^j hikol mu- 
Assign, V. JLc ^yyan. 
Afisignable, ^j^;^\,^^^a^ munikin 

Assigxiation,«. (appointment to meet), 

1I3I4JI Jtx^yt maw^ad al mtUdkdL 
Assignee, s. J^j wakfl. 
Assignor, e. ^j^st^ mu^yyin. 
Assignment, ^j^^m ta^yln. 
Assimilate, v, ij\J^ ihdhah. 
Assimilable, J^i^cJ^^jd^ mumkin 

attanutl. [tamsll. 

Assimilation, ^U^JLJ tashblh, J>:»2l^ 
AssiBt, V. tXftlrf sd^ad^ ^\c) a^n, \ 

Assistanoe, ^Lf\ i^noJt^ JJu^ 

Assistant, %. ^jU^ mtf^dtrtii, ^;>*ft^ 

iiitf^in. Assistants, ^^^^t a^dn. 

Assistant, assisting, part. ^^La^ 

Assize, Jj^ ^yZ. An assize (oourt 
of justice), illjuJl^ljjJ IHwdn 
al ^ddlat. \jihdrak. 

Associate, v. Jh-*!; rdfak^ d^tii 

Associate, «. (l^j raflky \^Ar^\^ 
ddhtb, CS>lj^ iharik. 

A880ciate,associated,^^lL« tnttkdrin. 

Association, LSJ^j rt/katf «-%a:^ 

suhbat, LMj\y muwdna$atf ^\ij\ 
Assuage, v. ^jL^ sakkan, ^ layyan, 

t^jjb hadda\ 


Assuagement, . ^ ^^Cyuj tonkin, JLa\ 

uldh, ^j^ talyln. 
Assuager, a, ^**^^ mtulih. 
Assuasive, ^^;J^ muhyyin. 
Assume, v, Ju^l akhat^ iX-sT^ 

attakhaty j\x:>^\ iktdr ; (to claim), 

U j\ ; (to presume), ^Jio %ann. 
Assumer (arrogant man), j^/^ 

mayhrUr, >fi^ mutkahbir. 
Assuming, part, j^J^t ^y..C n\^ 


Assumption, (X-r^-l a^As,\ 
ittikhdZf j\^pS\ iibUtydr« 




uVakhM, 6\ai?l\jil 
Aflsiurance (certainty), ^^^j^Aoe^ toAJH 
^jMyakin; {trust), i}\jt^\ t^ik&d, 
^y^\m%kdh (intrepidity), JM^; 
(testimony), if jLf.^ shahddat ; 
(promise)^ Jcc^tra^i^; (insurance), 

Assure, f^. (promise), J^^j wa^, 
Jfu ta^ahhad; (to remove doubt 
or fear), J^l aUad. 

Assured (indubitable, certain), J^ 
mukarrar, ^jAs:^ muhakhak^M^ju* 

Assuredly, \^^ 8ahihan,iLSL.\tS 

^l haklkat. 
Assuredness, (jJia^ tahklh. 
Asterisk, «. ^luJ, ij\J^\ uhdrat. 
Asthma, ^j^\fj^ dlk anna/as. 
Asthmatical, asthmatic, ^/m\\^}j^ 

dayyek annafM, 
Astonish, V. jl^ hayyar, 

Astonished, ^L*». hayrdn, t^^ 
mut^ajfih. To be astonished, J^2^ 
tahayyar, ^"^'^ ta^db. 
Astonishing, part, J^^J^ muhayyir. 
Astonishment, i^;*»- hayrat, i^-^ss^ 

Astral, f^^jOfT nqfitmi. 

Astray, Jli d&l. 

Astringency, astriction, ^jL^ hM. 

Astringent, ^U k&hid. 
Astringent, «. \joi\A kdhid. 
Astrography, /^y^MLa iffai 4miNf- 

jUm, ^^\^\jiyaj toiwir al 
AstrolabCi (^ija^\ oitroldhe. 

Astrologer, $. f^^^ munajjim. 
Astrological, ^c^^^, najtLml 

Astrologize, f^. >ar* nqjifam. 
Astrology, j^j^jsas!^ J^ fann aUanflm. 

Astronomer, t. cl^ Jla^ mu^aOim 

Astronomy, u^iill J^ ^Um alfMk. 

Astronomical table, %. J^J^. 

Asunder, ^c\yQ\i hi anfirddtn. 

Asylum, t. j)U mo/Ss, Ur* malfd. 

At, Lj, ^ ^\ i^jj. At full 

length, J«.<3i:Jt,JLc ^M attafinU 

At the river,^^! jkii:. At hand, 

jj>\^ hddtr. At no time, JjL 

jJbjJ\ HI addahr. Not at all, 

Ltfl asslan* At present, )l^ 

hdUan, At first, i^t awwalan. 

Atabal (a kind of Arabian drum or 
tabor), JUWl athdl. 

Ate (preterite of eat), I ate, i^A£\. 

Atheism, jlLt tMdi, ii jjj %andakat. 

ATT 347 


Athin^ ^ImL^ ^Ukdm. 
Athletic, f^^^ paUawdn. 
AUm (a rich silk), ^^\ atlas. 
Atmosphere, t^ kawd. See Air. 

Aicun, S. 1;0 SMTH. 

Atone, r. ^^Ji /odtf*. 
Atonement, i^U^ ka/Blrai. 
AtrodouB, jljJ^ skarir, ^JJit.shaki. 
Attach V. (join together), Jh^ i^oj^ ; 

(arrest), ^^aJ labad. 
Attachment, jLasll iUtsdk; (offoc- 

tion), Juc^ mahahhat. 
Attack, e. /^f^ hmjikm. 
Attack, p. ms^ hajmn. 
Attain, v. J.^ ka$ial, Jl) iid/. 
Attainable, J-o^i yuttahaBsal. 
Attained, ^Jio^i^ mtUahaseal. 
Attaining, pari. JJj ndyd, 

%^ i«ir.C^ muktasib, 

Attainment, J^^ooasTtahill, C^ 

Attempt, «. ^^A^ M&f , j^ yod^ 
Attempt, V. J^ isastadf Jo^ jad, 

j<a-» M^. [oMtf^f. 

Attcmptable, M^ty^^^^t^ i^^^ 
Attend r. (be present), ^«d»- Aad^r; 

1 Mssia^; (to be busied 

Attendance (service), 

khidmai; (train, retinue), 

Attendant, attending, i?^ wmnat. 

Attendant, $. /•jls;. khadiwk^ wIj> 
M^f^. Attendants, ^1y ^ote^d^f^, 
&Lj1 athd^ ^«Xs>. kkadam, mm^ 
hcuham, i<^^y>- hawOski. 

Attention, ^ji^\ Mirds. 

Attentive, liaLi^ mutaifaikuL 

Attentively, jJLfcj httafyld. 

Attenuate, f?. Jjj rakkdk. 

Attest, t^. l::^! m^o^, j^ Mhed, 
Jji karrar. 

Attest, attestation, if jlf^ shakddat, 

Attire, V. Jlj tayyan. 

Attire, hij %\fMt. 

Attirer, «. ^jij^ mwiayyin. 

Attorney, •. J-^ tro^H/. An 
attomey-at-law, lyiSIl J-(j tro^ti/ 
adda^d. To act as an attorney, 
J^^ tawakkal. To appoint an 
attorney, JS[j wahkal. 

Attorneyship, ^l^ wakdlat. 

Attract, V, (draw to something), 
i^Ss^ ja%ah\ (to allure), 
^^\jalab al ktdnh. 

.(eua V. ^oe present;, j«d»- yiaoar ; S-'y^ > ^omo a* ii^tMuo. 

(serve), j^J^^ hhadam; (listea), } Attracting, attrahent,C-iiVjaiib. 




Attraction, c^ic^ jaah^ L.JIiss<J\ 
uttjlahf (^\j^ n^w&h. 

Attraotiyey c^jlf*- jaigtb^ S^^ 

jdlib; (alluring)i <^j]iSlc^lf^ 

jdlib al kiduh. An attractive 

quality, ^LrU^I al kmouat al 

Attractivelji L^\saf\i hi iir^Hdh, 

Attractor, «. L^c\ff^ jdztb. 

Attribute, V. L^^Mit noBobf JlU^l 

ailakf JJmjI asnad. 
Attribute, s. iLa sifiU (plur. CL^lL^ 

sifcit), («^« was/. The attri- 

butes of God, ^lo^lcL^lL^ 

sifdt aUah ta^la\ 

Attributed, L^^yM\^ mansHii. 

Attrition, J luJl}^ ifdciBdr, 

Avail, idj\i f&ydat, ^iJ na/^. 

Avail, V. wa3 im/^^. 

Available, jOli ^(^ir, «3ui/« mufld. 

Availably, S Joli Jij 5tW /5y(?a^. 

Avant-garde, ^^^■■milJUju^ mt«^i^ 

(fama^ a/ ^dshar. 
Avarice, avaiiciousness, J^ ^ibA/, 

^^ tama^f CjLm^\ tmsdk. 

Avaricious, J^^^ hakhil, ^^lsb^ 

Auburn, jaJ\ (umar (fern. |^ 
Auction, o|j^ nuaddf ttI;^* 
Auctioneer, «. J) J (2a^^?. 


Andaoionsneas, audacity, i^UM>- 

Audible (that can be heard), 
masmu^. AnaudibIevoice,^c:i 

Audience (sense of hearing), ^^^^ 
sama^, cUa«dl M^tmS^. An au- 
dience, ^^^^Jjs^. The audience 
of an ambassador, ^^isnSltcjlil^. 

Audit, $. (examination of accounts), 
c:^UL4J\^^,;as;^ fah$ MtBdhdt. 

Audit, V. L^\Mi^\^jasf, fakM 

Auditor, 8, (hearer), ^^^ sdmi^ 

^sAm» sami^ wC^Mt mutimmi^ 

An auditor of accounts, ^jji^S 

(JL^\j\*n^\ amln alhisdhdt 
Auditory, «. ^/Jus^ maflii. 
Avenge, v, Jbj\ tfUakam. 
Avenger, «. ih^U*« mu^dk^, Jc^^ 

muntakim. \%af a^dr. 

Avenue, *. (of trees), jl— s^\ ^^Jt^ 
Aver, ^'j^ horror. 
Averment, *. ,J^ji hurhdn^ JJj 

doMf ^Lj haydn. 
Averse (abhorring)^^i:cL^ muianaffir, 

y^j^ mu^rid, j^li^ mukhdli/^ 

Ju^ didd. 
Averse, v. ^j^j^ nafar min. 
Aversely, if\^\i hi-ikrdh, ijb];^ Ji^ 

hikol kardhlat. 




AvenioDyXl^ Qrdh^ s\Jc^\ tsiihrah. 

To have an ayenion, »jS:»^\ 
Averts V. ^^^ da/^ May Gk>d 

Anger, $. c. ^i\^ mashab. 
Aught, J^ shy. 

Augment, augmentation, ^^Wj 
w^aiat, jbjj^ %%diyad. 

Augment, v. j|j sdi, i^lil o^^/l 

Angor, angnier, <• ^U? idli^ 

Angoration, angary, ^}\i fal, 

Angnst, J>Jb»- jaMy ^<^L> %dmly 

Angnst (the month of), c^T dh. 
Aviary, ». ^^/^iS j^/m, j^Jall^^A^ii 

Avidity^ f:^ fama^. 

Annt, «. (by the father's side), ^Ux 
comifi^. An annt (by the mo- 
ther's side), ^U hUU. 

Aroid, 9. ^^v,,,..;^^ ^anna5 mm ; 

(to oppose), ^j^ i^arad. 
Avoidable, L^\is^i\jL^, ^J^) 

j^j^^'i^ Idyih alihUraz. 
Avoidance, avoiding, Cyjl-^.r^n^-l, 

fftinub, j|^.j;l>-\ Mird%, jtX.». 

Avoider, «. c,^;">y^ mujtantb. 

Avow, 17. y iar. [v^ydl. 

Avowable, j\jJSi\\^^jf^\jf 

Avowal, jl^l ikrdr,, ^^J^j^ ^i^^f* 

uJ|^1 i^ird/, fji*i^ Uudik. 
Avower, «. jL^ mukur. 

Auspice, J Li /dZ. Auspices (pro- 
tection), ^Uk»- hmdyatf ijs\*u^ 

Auspicious, Juh-i^ mukbil, Juju j 
MP^2(^, cZ^^i^ mabkhiU, J^^^* 

Auspiciou8ly,^ASi!)lj lilhhayr^ ^JjumJ 
hisa^in. [sa^daU 

Auspiciousness, JUSt ii&d/, ijU^} 

Austere, cflyr. ^onl/, ^jmjIa ^d^tii. 

Austereness, austerity, ^^j riyd- 
dat, fc— ftiJ'. ^un/^ <L«Ltf <ardma^. 

Austerely, ^Li^ Jl^ hikol sardmat. 

Austral, ^-;^i5j-ya»tl5l. See Southern. 

Authentic, ^^^^ sahih, ,X^\ asU, 
^I&sr^ muhdkkdk. [iihat. 

Authenticity, ^aJl^ haklkat, Isf^ 

Authentically, La»* hakkan, JJlj 
Isf^ hikol tihat. 

Author, «. (of a book), c»fl v ^^ 

miManm/, t^^ tnuaUif; (an in- 
ventor), C^^L id^M, «3l^^ 
mujid. An author of evil, Ju^i,^ 
mufsid. Of the author (when 
quoting any author), ^Jiy^. 

Authoritative, j\jcj\jJ sfi ikttddr, 
S;jiui^^^»-li^ «^A»^ kudrat 

Authoritatiyely,j^\j biamr. 




Authority, ijXi kudrat, jIjlsJI 

iktid&r, S»- hvkm, < hl..> tuUat. 

Absolute authority, ^}^^^s:i^^ ; 

(testimony), ij\^ shahddai. 
Authorize, 9. (give power), (jojJ 

fawwad, ^ja:>-j rakhkJuu, 
Autocracy (independent power), 

Jir^LMMtuJ^ toiurruf muitahil. 
Autograph (a particular person's 

own writmg), J^lafL that yadd. 

The royal autograph, cJj^Lf^ 

khat thof^f. 
Autumn, uju^ kharlf. 
Autumnal, l<^J^ hharifl. 
Auxiliary, ^jj^ f»tt^dtr«i, ^\j 

Auxiliary, ». ^;-x^ mu^n, jj^^U^ 

mucdwinf j00\j nuiir, [a^wdn. 
Auxiliaries, JuaJ] amdr, ^;\j-cl 
Await, v.Jxc^\ isianmr. 
Awake, r. ^ nahhah, laibt ayik». 

To awake, or be awaked, ]aA^\ 

Awake, \T»fl^MM<< muUayk%%, 
Award, v, c^ shara^^ jS^ hakam. 
Award, «. <Lilj^ «Aari^0^, aJLs^ 

Awards, >»l^l ahkdm. 
Aware, J^Li ^dAtr, \a.L:.^. 
Away (absent). c^^^U ghayih. To 

^o away, ^^.^JiJ «fl^«J. To be 


away,Ci-^UyAd3. To drive away, 
J^ tarad. To send away, J.^^ 
Awe, ^Ljb hayhatf u,»j"w A^ot^, 

Awful, i^Jji:^ mMJbAfi/, a Asr^ mtiA- 
Awfulness, iuJb hayhat. 
Awhile, ^Sll^ib^, ii^, '£jb. 
Awkward (foolish), \ J^ haUul; 

(perverse), (^y^*i^ mayshnm. 
Awl, i.jjir^ mtikhna. 
Awless, <?.>j»H> 3»Zfi hayhat. 
Awning, <• Ls,.*:^ khaymat, iX:^ 

Awry, ^j^*^ ww^attwtf/, ^Jj^ 

mtdtaid, ^^\ a^aj. 

Axe, *. (^*li faas. 

Axiom, s. if*XcXi kd^ah ; (evident 

proposition), <Uia3 kadia{. 
Axis, *. axle, axle-tree, jy~^^ 

tnihwar, i— ^n9 hiUh, 
Ay, j^fu na^m. 
Azimuth, 9. ^UmJI. 
Azure, (^jUmi samdwi, c^«^^^^ 

Idjwardi, s^j^-'^^-^^J^ <iira^ 


Baal (the idol), ^Uj ^iz^tf/. 
Babble, r. ^i^ lakash. [a/ ib/dm 
Babble, balblirp, pKl^*^.!^ i[<7*fff/ 




Babe, «. oJj imU, Jit ^. See 

Inliuity child. 
Bftby, «. (doll), Lji h^. 
Baboon, $, ^^4m^ eMymAii. 
BabjUm (in Chaldea), JjU Bdhel. 

Babjlon Gn Egypt), ^j-blj. 
Bflcchftnalian, ^^^ MJbifiii. 
Bacchna, (jm»^V -^^^^^ [tf^sod. 
Bachelor^ «. (unmarried man), S-^1 

Back, #.^ M^. The back of the 
hand, i^Jil\^ sahr ai kaf. The 
▼ertelx« or joints of the back 

Back (again), Ijjt (^dan^ tjU^ 

Back, r. (ride a horse), f^^j rikeh. 
Back-bone, «. ^^JaJU^ iUoros 

Back friend, «. (enemy), j A£ ^n. 
Backside, s. (anus, podex), JuuU 

muk^fjiO duhr. 
Backsword, «. cp.j>ii m^/. 
Backward, backwards (behind). 

Backwardness (arersion), »\J^^ 

Bad, j^j^ iharrir, ^jJj radl, 

%^'*mn<' khahu ; (sick, ill), ^j^r^ 

Badge, s, iUlc ^Idmat. {matld. 

Badger, s, (animal), ,^J^jLii: 
i^andk u'lard. 

Badly (wickedly), U^ sharran. 

Badness, jLJ ySudi, d»-li kah&hat. 

Baffle, 9. u^XfS^ kha/yyab. 

Bag, ». (j«M^ i(l«, J|^ ehu&L 

Baggage, c^L^it M^d^, Cir^^^l 
a9wdhf JU)\ a«iW. 

Bagnio, «. (hot bath), ^Uk». Atf»im4;n . 

Bail (bondsman), J«i^ io/t^, ^;:*^ 
dam\n\ (security), JI^jl^ mt^- 
io^. Ban far appearance, SM^ 
jya^ ka/dlat kudUr, Bail for the 
debt, JU2U^ Jbf/d2a^ «»d7. To 
give or become bail, Ji^, JMJ 
takaffal. To take bail, ^^ i20miif . 

Bailable, 2U0! J^w ffotioMk al 

Bailiff, 8. (officer employed to cite 
before a judge), j^s^ muhder, 
i^j^ ehdwUh. 

Bait (meat or food), Ij^ ghadd, 
l%Ut ta^m, Cli^y kut. 

Bait t7. (to ensnare), S-^ J^ yasa^. 
To bait (at an inn), vij/* nmlft. 

Baiting place (inn, stage, etc.), 
Jj-:^^ mantaly J^^ar^ mahall; 
(amphitheatre for baiting wild 
beasts), ^j^Ju^ mf(^n, Siyu* 

Bake v. (bread), J^ khabat. 

Bakehouse «. ^^ /urn. 
Baker, 8,j^^ khahhdt. 
Balance i. (scales), \J^ji^ m\iAn, 




^li kabhdn. The scale or bason 
of a balance^ lO^^^J^ Bdkai 
mlzdn. The tongue of the balance, 
^Ua^I^UJ lisdn al mlvln. The 
handle or eye of the balance in 
which the tongue yibrates, ^^^ 
^J^\ ^am oZ mlidn\ {eqpji]i' 
hxi\nsL)filCi\ju9mu^d%lat\ (com- 
parison), <<j,M*,7 toA^f A, J-f^i^ 
toifMl/, balance of accounts, Jlm^j 

Balance v. (weigh), ^J^ wMon. 
Balancer, s. ^\j^ woMstdn, ,J\J 

Bald, fA^\ aala^ 

Baldness, ^L^ sala^ [ritme. 

Bale, i\\) hdlt, sC^ji farde, i^jj 
Bale V. (bundle up), ^j^ hazam, 
BaleM (sorrowful), /^y^^ magh' 

BalefuUy, (»^J>^ hihol gham, 
Ballista, «. f^»:f\^ manfanik. 
Balk, V. u^^oU- khayyab. To be 

balked, «>». ^ InT* takhaytfob. 
Ball, «. ^J^ Atfrra. A ball or bullet 

(for fire-arms, cross-bows, etc.), 

M gulUf or A>-. The eye-baU, 
JciiXfr. hadakat, fj^^f^^\, ^^. 

Ball, 9. (ballet, dance), ^^j raib. 

Ballad, «. [u£ ghind, 

BaUoon^ i. (large ball), ^^\i hdloon. 

Balm (balsam), ^^mAj Mfont. 
Balmy (soothing), ^^^ layym\ 

(odoriferous), ^^IsA^ mm^o/^. 
Balsam, mL ^a^Mun. 
Balsamic, ^^^^mL ^a^fffitf. 
Bamboo, b. ^^jji^ khagiardn. 
Ban, 8, (edict), J^ hukm, j^\ amr ; 

(a curse), iijii la^nat. 
Ban, 9. ^a1 la^. 
Band* 8. (tie), ^j ro^te ; (union), 

dQkittih&d, ^MjMuifdk. Bands 

(troops), ^^y ^ a/tf^^;. In bands, 

swaddling-band, I0L4JI Mm&L 
A head-band or hair-band, ^Lo^ 

Bandage for a wound, b, )c\ij rihdt 

Bandit, banditto, j;jyyi^U kdti^ 
aUarik, Banditti, ^^^^^IcUai 
kuttd^aiiankf ^^ htsHs. 

Bandrol, 8. (banneral), 2y^. 

Bane (poison), a 

Bane r. (poison), ^ Mmmam. 

Baneful (poisonous), a-mu^ mtmm ; 

(destructive), (J.^if« mufdik. 
Banewort, ratsbane, jUSt^ «am al 

fdr\ (arsenic), ^jj zamlkk. 
Wolfsbane, dogsbane, 

v.,..^ jjl khdnik aulh. 

• •• 

Bang, 8. iULl latmat. 







BniAf •. ojff iarad, ^Ju nafa\ 

To be banished, ^^ nufl. 
BMiiwbfld, ^<ft2k«« munfa\ 

BaniBher, 8, J^^^ munfl, 

Banishmenty djo iard, _aJ nafi. 

Bank, #. (of a river, sea, etc.) J^L> 
<dA«7y lJ^LI tAa^f ; (a place where 
money is laid up to be called for 
occasionally), wil^^l^J dukkdn 
$arrd/, vJXj hank. 

Banker, s. \^\jc sarrdfy i 

Bazikmpt, 8. ^jiSa^ muflU^ jy*S^ 
malsur. To become bankrupt, 
^jiS3\ afla8. 

Bankruptcy, (jjli' ifl(i8. {hayrak. 

Banner, 8. SjJX»j bandiera, ^i^ 
Banneret, «. j1 jj|^ hayrakddr. 

Banquet, «. ^LiL*^ dvydfai i^^J^^ 
walimat. A banqueting-house, 
LJl^\j\^ ddru'd diydfat. A 
banqueter (the master of a ban- 
quet) , ^lJ \.j-.^] 1 c,'^'>- L^ «d At} 

Banter, «. <^C;t^ tahrijat. 
Banter, t^. ^yib harraj, .J^ mazah. 
Baptism, ^Jjax^ ma^mflc/tit}^. 
Baptist, 9. (baptiser), Ju4jt^ tnu^m' 


Baptise, v, ^f^ 8ahaghy S4X. ^mmad. 

Bar 8. (of a door), (^V^ J darbd8 ; 
(an obstacle), f-^t« mdni^. A 
gold or silver bar or ingot, ii**»» 
sablkai. [struct), Juo 8add. 

Bar, 9. (a door), JiS jb/o/; (to ob- 

Barb, 8, (horse), 15— Jf« 

Barbacan, 8, ^j» hwrj. 
Barbarian, 8. (foreigner), 

gharih. A native of Barbary, 

k^jiji harhari. 
Barbarism, barbarousness(in speech), 

ialf ghdUU\ (ignorance), J>^ 

jahl, Chross barbarism, Jf>- 

i^^j^ jahl murakkah. Notorious 
barbaiism, jf^fuL^U 1 f ghalat 
mashhur (barbarity, cruelty), Ji? 

Barbarous(language), IoSjI^ mugMat; 
(ignorant, rude), Jjbl>- yaAti? ; 
(cruel), J 11? zdlim; (foreign), 

Barbary (in Africa), ^U>- JMdger, 
jj^jSt), h J J harhariat, o jL« 

Barbed (bearded), ^ J<0 /aAu dakn. 

Barber, «. j5l>. halldk, ^\^ w«- 
suiggln. [halldk. 

Barber's shop, «. ^^|j^«^ dukkdn 
Bard, *.^U» «Aa^Vr. aeeto^V,. 




Bare (naked), JojC- ^arydn. 
Bare, v, (strip), J;^ jarad. 
Bare-bone (lean), t-i-a^ nahlf. 
Bare-fEused (impudent), L»-2b Md 

BarefacedneBS, iji,**^ JMdrat. 

Barefoot, L<i«^ niuhaffa\ \ij>- hafdj 

^Li*- hafydn. larraas. 

Bareheaded, fjJ\J\uJjJ^mak$h^/ 
Bargain, s. (agreement), «>^ ^ahd, 

j\id\ ittifdk,j\)\i hd%dr. 
Bargain, r. jljU J* ^wnai Utdr. 
Barge, *. i-i- iafinat, jyj %awrak. 
Bargeman, 9. i^/^, hahrh 
Bark (of a tree),^;A5 kuihr. 
Bark, v. (peel), ^ «a^A, jIj 

kashshar; (as a dog), »^jt ^wa\ 

^ nabah. [laimliUch, 

Barked, bark-bared (stript), ^^1-^*^ 
Barker (stripper), ^L »d^M; (as 

a dog, etc.), ^ ndhih. 
Barking, «. (stripping), ^ Aa«Ar; 

(as a dog), ^.3 noJA, i^ ta^wiat. 
Barley, j^ tha^r. A barley- 

oom, ijiii^ shatJrat. 
Bam, 8-j\^\ anbdr, ^)^ makhMn. 
Baron, «. ^^J^, hdron. 
Barracks, <LLlii kashiaL 
Barrel, ». J-^ hartnll. A barrel 

of "wine, L^\jLiijS^jaratshardb, 
Barren (woman), i^U ^dkirat. 

Barrenne6s,yL& ^niir, ir^Ui^ ^nidni^. 
Barricade, s, barricado, Ju» »iu2J. 
Barricade, v, ^/w^^J^ ^tfnial 

Barrier, s. Ju» «ade{. 
Barter, X^jU*« mu^wadatf iljU* 
mubdtMat, ^l^sT tafdrat, jb^ 

Barter, t^. JjU ^diW, jP^IJ %Wr. 

Barterer, «. (j^j^ mif^^irfi, JoL« 
mubdddf U^l)^ Mfdridn. 

Base (low, mean), ij J dimil, ^^J 
(^iZn, j^S^ hMr. Base-born, 
Ijj jjj icoio^^ zind. The base of a 
colomn, J^^UiXclS kd^idat 

Baseness, ^U»- hakdrat. 

Basha, «. Lib Fdshd. 

Bashful, |»m«2a:^ mffAtoAm. To be 
bashfbl, ^^s^^ iiUM. 

Bashfolness, U>- Aoyd. 

Basil (sweet herb), ^; Wj rfAdm. 

Basilic (palace), ^^ kasr ; (a large 
temple or mosqne), ^^W- jdmi^ 
(plur. ^^^ ja/wdmi^ The 
great artery of the arm, ^^Jl^U 

Basilisk «. (serpent), ^-*il o/j^'. 
Basis, i^Ll MBdBf Sjl^U (plur. 

4X£\y). [id^ia 9aU$. 

Basket, «. Ju«^ ^a^ai/, f^^j tanbil, 




of a fi>imtaiii, fj^^ hawd, ^j» 

i0rimi (plor. CSfi hwrai. 
Bastazd, «. Uj jJ^ tra^nc^ SMid. 
Bastaidor baataidixey v-J J^ &aiM&iJ&. 
Bute 9. (beat), i^jJ darab. 
Burtinado, 9. ^^;<^ d^oi. 
fiastbo, #. ^^ lufj, (plur. -^^^ 

htrAf), ^y^suJj hdttlan. 
Bat «. (animal), ibtjLi^ watwdt. 
Bath, #. (hot), ^l4». kammdm. 

The keeper of a bath, ^^U^ 

Bathe, «. J^ ghoiah [tghtisdl. 

Bathing, J^u^ ghaal, JL^jlcI 

Bating (excepting),^^ ^Aoyr. 

Baton, s. Li^ ^a«a. 

Battalia, c^-^^luJU^^ mo^a/ a/ 
Aar5. To draw up an anny in 
^^JL^ iof al c,a$kar Id harh 
9ufQf tufUf. 

Battalion, s. CS^\ > hduk. The 
colonel or commander of a bat- 
talion, i^\j^ mir aldy. 

Batten, v. (make fat), ^j^k^ iamman; 
(to become fiat), ^^^^^j semm. 

Batter, «. J^s:-* «a^-, Jj <2a^. 

Batter (paste), ^^^^ if»fln. 

Battle, M. *^j>- ^rly Jl:J i&t^d/. 
A field of battle, <-^.Ll^lju^ 

mlddn al harb. Battles, 
hwrOh^ cSjbjW* muhdrabdt. A 
aea battle,^^1 J l:J katdl al hdhr. 

Battle-axe, «. /^li y^. 

Battlement, J^/oii/. The battle- 
ments of a castle, ^UiUJ) Jj^-oi 
fMll al kal^L 

Bawdy, adf, (jm^U fdhish. 

Bay, «. (of the sea) ^)^ khahj. 
The bay-tree (lanrel), jU yildr. 

Bay, V. ^ nabah. 

Bayonet, 8, h^ harhat 

Be, V. ^\^ kdn. 

Beach, s. Ji>^L« sdhU (pi. ^}^\^ 
iuwdhil), j:^\fj^\^. [mandrat. 

Beacon, s. ^^ ^aldmatf i^L^ 

Bead, 9. ijy^ kharaial, A string 
of beads (a rosary), <L.^Luw« 

Beak, «. (of a bird), .liu^ mintdr. 

Beam or ray of light, 9, pIjc^ 
ihu^d^. Sunbeams, ^jm>^^\ q\mJ^ 
shu^^ ashshams. 

Beam, r. ^i ^ ji J ^ aha^iha^. [munir. 

Beaming, beamy, ^)l Idtni^fj^^ 

Bean, s. Lj^ /u&tyd, ^}^ fol. Bean 
pods, c-;|^3^ iSrAomfi^. 

Bear, v. (carry) ^}a^ hamal ;• (to 
suffer ),^^ taba*^, fjAot^tahammaL 
To bear loss, .^ khawr. To 
bear away, ^Jj (fa/a^. To be^xi: 




arms, JL^^)a.>^ hamal iildh. To 
bear fruit, ^Ja^ hamal, jA^ 
oimar. To bear an office, c,i.*rtv7 
tanasioh. To bear the ezpence, 
0^js>> liharqf, uJfj^ aaraf. To 
bear oompany, ^\j rdfai. To 
bear an affection, i^^r%^ hab, ^jjILa 
^uhek, JU mdh To bear up 
against, /^^\^ kdufom, u-iJlsL 
khdlaf. To bear patiently, j^ 
$ahar. To bear witness, J^ 
Bear, 8. c^J dub. A she-bear, Aj J 

dubhi. The constellation of the 
Greater Bear, jSi\^ji\ al dub 
aldkhar. The Lesser Bear, 
jt^S\c-^jJl al dub alcaghar. 

Beard, 9. L^s likyat (plor. ^^)y 
^ J dakan. [laho dakn. 

Bearded, ^U^jJ sA /tAjra^, ^J^ 

Beardless, J^\ amrad. 

Bearer, s. (porter), JU»- hammdl. 
The bearer of a letter, J^L»^ 
t^j:L^\ hdnUl al makiuh. 

Bearing (situation of one place in 
respect to another), ^^ymawda^ ; 
(suffering), j^^ 8abilr, 

Beast, 8. ^^\5-->- haywan (plur. 
CL:Lj1^:^»- haywdnat), i 4 j( ) 
hahlmat (plur. ^jlf^ hahdim). A 
wild beast, (j^ul^j wahsh (plur. | 

U^^3 troAfifA). Beasts, s^ljO 
Jbi0d5. See Cattle. 

Beastly, i^^^j tro^Ai, ^»^ ^oMm ; 
(lascivious), ^^ly-^Li fahs8h\ 
(nasty), (j*^ ne^. 

Beat, 17. (strike), S-^ d^od. To 
be beaten, f^jaj\ indarab. To 
beat (conquer), i,^.^^ ghaiahf Jio 
wafar, j^ kahar. See Yanquish, 
oYorcome, subdue. Tobeatbacki 
^J da/a^. To beat down, S-^;C^ 
kharab. To beat up (attack sud- 
denly), ftJsfi hafam. To beat (mix 
ingredients), Uls^ khalat 

Beat, «. Jby^ darhat. 

Beaten, l^jj^o^ madrUb. 

Beater, 8. f^j\^ ddrib. 

Beating (partX c^-^U ddreb. 

Beatific (happy), C^U^ mubdrak, 
Jytm^ nuu^ild, 

Beatifically, ifolAMii Jjj hikol 8acddat. 
Beatification, beatitude, if jL«.«i 

Beaver, «. U!\u.^ kalb al md. 

Beauteous, beautiful, J^^^^ jamll, 
^JM^>^ haaan, v^^ *f^/f c-gjU 

Beautcously, beautifully, JU>* J^ 

Beautifulness, beauty, ^;am»- AtMn, 

JL^-iSf- jamdl. Incomparable 




betnty yJa} ^ t»^2^«M»^ iWcM rnoMo 

Beanty, #. (a lovelj woman), iL^«^ 

Beautify, v. ^jJjJ ta^an. See 
Adorn, decorate. [ih&fMit 

Beanty-qpot, b. JU^ JMl, ^U 

Beoaficoy m. ^^Sj^loc. ^far atfln. 

Becalm, v, ^^^ ioklan. 

Became, preterite of Become. It 
became, jl^ 9dr. 

Because, J^ Uamta. Because of 
that, or on that aocomity (J.^«3J 
Uaalek^ C^*^i^^\^ mm ajl 
tMt, klJ^J^ ftUoMokk. Because 
of this, or on this account, \i^ 

Beck, s. beckoning, ij[j^\ iihdrat, 
iy^ ghamauU. \jhmiuaL. 

Beck, beckon, v. Jj^\ ashdr, Ux 

Become, v, (fit or suit), ^ Idk, 
t_ - -^f ndtah. 

Becoming (suitable), c^^^^i^L^ mu- 
ndotb, fjjj layik. [latdfat. 

BeoomingnesSy ii\Jiff tardfat, ^Ual 

Bed, *. ^5/ firdsh (plur. ^ji 

/tcrM. To make a bed, ^j^j-^ 

farash. A bed-maker, (^|y-i 

ftrrdMh. A manufacturer of beds, 

j^L* munajjid. [annawm. 

Bed-chamber^ b. ^^)i^' oudai\ 

Bed-sheet, \mJL!i»j>' eharBhaf (plur. 
u.J^]^ ehardBhif). 

Bedrid, (^l/J^^^/l? ^«rf A affiriUk. 
Bedstead, b, uL^asT* ^aM^. 
Bed-time, ^yJl^L «d^a^ aniuifrm. 

Bedabble, v, bedaub, t^jl launooB. 

To bedaub with gold, ^ iala\ 
Bedaubed, CL>^1^ mulawwoB. 
Bedlam, ^Ii^j^U mdrutdn. 
Bedrop, v. iaL nakkat [Baghgkar. 
Be-dwarf, v. (make little), ^m 
Bee, «. alfi^ nMi (plur. JaT iiaM). 

Beeswax, ^Lu£w4y& Bktm^^^oBoti 
Beef,^ aL. ^oAm iotor. 

Beer, sj^^ 5iisa, 2[^ Mm. 
Beet (root), B,jJjyi^ Bkawandar. 
Beetle (insect), Ja>- ja^, <U*A:>gw 
£Atf;i/a«a^. [root 

Beetrave or beet-radish. See Beet- 
Beeves, ^r^^y tnatpashi, 
Befal, V. (jOjC- ^ad, (^JS^ hadoB. 
Befit, ^^.^U ndBoh, j) 2dj&. 
Befitting, ^jJi Idyik, ^^^^mjIji.^ 

Before, J^f aunoal, Sjl awwdlan^ 
f\^\ amdm. Before this, 1 jJbJ^ 
kabl hazd. Before the time, ^^ 
^Ull t kahlassstofndn, Before dawn, 
y^\fj^ kohl asBubh. Before 
entering, Jjf^^J^^J^. Iteioi^ 




aniyaly J^jS^JfS. Before some 
people, (^^diuif ^t Ji. Before God, 

. ^tjcj^. As before, JJ^^^^'^' 
Before-mentioned, j^j^9 j^^9 
j;jL», ^|^luL« . Before-hand, 
tj^ atffwalan, ILS kdblan. 

Befringe, tr- J/^ tarranL. 

Beg r. (intreat), ^VTj^ ta/rajja\ 

Beget, V. J«al:J tandBol, jJj tr«/!M^ ; 
(to produce), ^^^ oiAnr. 

Beggar, i. jJi fakir. Beggars, 
\jSii faiard. [idr fakir. 

Beggar, t^. *ys^ shahad, j;JiJ<^ 

Beggarly,^^^! Jl^ mid al fakir. 

Beggary,^ fuhr. 

Begin, v. ^ Jcjf ibtadd. 

Beginner, ». u5«^^:^ mtfS^o^. 

Beginning, s. IjcjI t^^u^. Making 
a beginning {part.) i^*^^^ 
mubtadi. In the beginning, 
JJ^Ici. The beginning and the 
end,j:>^^\jjji\. From beginning 

Begird, v. l^U- hdt,j^\>^ hdiar. 

Beglerbeg, 9. CSjJ^^ hegUrheg. 
B^one, •; ruh. 
Begotten, *^^y mawlnd. 
Begrime, v. 0^ sawwad. 
Beguile, v.jSi ghadar, qJS^ hhada^ 

Behair,^U. JUa^, Jai^l 4^1 On 
thy behalf, CS^\^ mm ajUk. 

Behaye, v. uiCLi %Mk. To behave 
carelessly, JiUjf iaghdfal. 

Behaviour, cl,^l,.t tultJt. Good be- 
haviour, c^ j1 adahf ujy ^(/l 

Behead, v. ^Ij^LS Jb^^rAM^. 

Beheld, ^^^^^ mti^dyafi, j^^^^^ 


Behemoth, <• (hippopotamus or rivar- 

horse) (Jt^ji hamii. 
Behest, j^t amr, Jl». huhn. 
Behind, \j^ ward, \j)fj^ min wttrd. 

Behind (remaining), Jb hdb; 

(out of sight), c^U gh&fH. 
Behold, t^.^laJiMMT. To behold atten- 

tively,^^l3jjf^^t om^anqimwar. 
Behold ! 1«3JU Adnoid* 
Beholden (bound in gratitude), 

Beholder, 8. Jk9\j ndxir\ (witneea), 
JJbL^ shdhid; (spectator), ^jis»^ 

Beholding, part, JJblu*^ mtuhdhid. 

A beholding, obligation, il.^ 

Behoof, itxAi fdgidatf ^u naf^. 

Behove, v. c^-'^^U ndiabh, ^^ Idk. 

It behoves, l^^.iLjn^ mtmdW^. 

It does not behove, (Jj^jt^ ghayr 





Being (ezistonoe), *>^j tMjr^i ^^ 
hmmi (oondition), JW hdl, ^Ll 
MkSn. BeingSy ^z>\f^^y mawjUL- 
tat, iZj\:Ji hayndt. Being (ex- 
nting), pmi. *^y^y^ mmpfnd, 

Be it 80, ^ k<m, ^jL\i fdfyahm, 
Bdabor, v. S^/^ darab. 
Belgrade, j\/ib BOgrdde. 

Belie, r. (oonnterfeit), jJj AoAmI. 

Belief (credit given to anything), 
c\jtsA i^UmOd, oULu:! i^ttiod. 
Belief (inieligiooBmatterB), ^tijf 
dyaidf^ i^^f^J^ moMhab, ^J (Jin. 

Beliere, v. tXSss] a^takadf ^\ aman, 

BeUever, ». (one who gives credit to) 
jLfirjc^ mu^takid. A belieyer (in 
religions matters), ^^y mUmtn, 
The heUerers, ^f^y, [jt^^y^ 

Belike, Jx! 20^0/, ^ MAi . 

(plor. ^/MbJIly nuwdHi). 

BeUigerent, beUigerons, ^j[^^\ 

al muthdriMn. [/dkh. 

Bellows, ^^^^ manfath, ^U:^^ ffum- 

Bellj, ^^^iaf hatn. Loosing the belly, 
adf, iJfAM-^ muikH. Big-bellied 
(pregnant), ^lX«L>- hdmilat or 
^J.^hMa\ A belly-band, ^Uj 


Belly-boand, ^A* i \^ mmiabU, 

Belong, V, ^/u>* kha$, s^*^mAj\ 
Belonging; |Mir^. Jllic^ muta^aUk, 
Beloved, L^^^^^f* nuMikh, Jy^*^^ 

ma^hnk (fern, ^jf^^ nuMnbat), 

Sjy/U%^ tna^hilkai. 
Below, ^j:.^'^e^taht. Below the oastle, 

JUiLSl\c:,^%a^ taki aUsal^. From 

below, c:,^%a^^ mm ^oU. 
Belt, «. j-^ ibmor, j\Jj tutmdr, 

Bemoan, i^J^jIj taoBiaf, jma^ 
Benoh,<.(tribnnal),£4Ccr^ makkamat 
Bend, t^. JU md/, uJlar. ^taf; (to 
snbdne), ^fatah, i^Ac, ghalab. 
Bendable, ^yi\Jj\j, ,^yci\^jLii^, 
09^ycj yata^unoty, [under* 

Beneath, ui^-io^ tdht. See Below, 
Benediction, 9. i!^ ioro^. [ikidn. 
Benefaction,^. ^1^ kardmai,^j\Mi^^ \ 
Benefactor, ». ^^^ karim, ajc^ 
mtin^tJH, (k^^iJj* -^ benefac- 
tress, ^\U^, ij^, IaiJ 
Beneficenoe, j^ kkayr. 

Beneficent, a^c^^^»-Ii^ <sAf} ibrMH, 
ajc^ mtm^«p»i a£j^ iorfm (plnr. 

el/, u/), t/^at^/ Most 

beneficent,,^UJl j»jf^, jSUSl ^^ 
i^xrti;} alakkldk, ^J^m^^^*^. 

U mufid, ^\} nOfi^. 

Beae&t, (. *\mj\ im^m, ^L.»-1 
ihtSn, ^aj naf^, »M\J/dgidat. 

Braeflt V. (do good), ^jmo-I a^an, 
M»i\ mtfam; (to gain advantage), 
^^\ mta/a^ ,i\Jc^\ istafSd. 

BenoTolence, *^ laram, L$\^ 
iardmat,iMLii thafakatji.^^ bUf. 

BfflieToIeDt,i.jLy laRf.ani^wmtt^m 

BenoToleatly, t—sU J^ hikol ItUf. 

Baijamin, or benzoia (a kind of 
gom), CJ^jjskr, haJAor btmuii. 

B«nigD, fj^i^ thafik, fjk^i^ mtuJifii. 

B«nigmt]r, AiU^ thafakat, ii\j ra/at, 
iZJJjS^. \piiJLi, 

Benigoly, i_jLL1JJL^ bHul hdf, 

Benison, ». (benediotioa),^ barakat. 

B«nt, {.part, of bend), JjU mdyl, 

mvn^tif; (addicted), jJ^c^ 

Bequeath, e. k-^ vahai, t_uj 
mikaf. A bequest, aIo^ leaayat 
(plnr. l^L^ WMdyit). A bequest 
for pious nsee, t_uj walcf. 

Boeare, p. ^Jh^l a^am. To be- 
reare of life, J;J ;U&i/. To bo- 
reave of hope, w-t-^ thayjfob. 

Beieft, |*j)^«^ moArfiffi, J^U« 

'. *!» M 

Berhyme, ( 
Berry, ». ^ 

(plnr. '-r'yT^ Awifti, huU*- 

Besoroen, v. Ioab- Aa/oK. 
Beseech, p. c _d3 tadarr*^. 
Beseeching, jiorf. and adj. i}^-*^ 

Beseem, e. i__ mt^'r ndfoi, ^ai'j- 
Beset, ff. LW) oAd^ 
Beahrew, v. ^^ {a^an. 
Beside, beaidea (near), ^-r-ij* b"^ ; 

(over and abore, exoeaa), ^^^f* 

fflmifin, IjkC ^odd, IacU Md^a^, 

1:^, LlU- Ad«Ad. 
fieei^e, c. j,4>\»- AdMf, l»l»-t oAdf. 
I. y-e^«^ (HuAdW. 

^». AMar, i;«jl«* 

MwAdnrof. [inwiA«nr. 

Besieged, jj-**^ nwAfflr, jo^f 
Besmoke, v. ,^_f^<J AiUAAaH. 

Besot, V. ^/lAt) dahatk. 

Bespeak, v. (order anything befi»e> 

hand), ^Ac^,^^ woua' ^o/a'. 
Bespeaker, «. ^<i*)-» « 
Bespeckle, v.jM « 
Bespit, e. ^^^^^. ^«^ fjUa'. 
Bespatter, e. ^j^ batak. 
Best, ^-^^ dUtr, ^^r<utt-1 oAsm, 
1 iH^, u^l at-yab. The 





best book, (^Ikuu^JIc^UXit 
sikUdbtdtmikUdh. To have the 
best (to excel, OTeroome), i^Ac, 
^haiahfjsia lafar. To do the best, 
jJLfiJ Uikoffod, 

Bestial, L<ut4^^ wahahu 

Bestir, r. (oneVself), ^(i^JbJjj 
l€ud hinuUtaho, 

Bestow, 9. c-^ ioahab, t»aag^ 
a(j^f ; (to place); w^j wada^ 
To bestow attention or endeavour, 

Bestowed, L^yby mawhuh. 

Bestower, m. c--^|^ todhib, 

Bety ^^ «^ir^, ^^ rahn. 

Bet, r. ^^1; rdhan. 

Bethink, ^\ tyi^ij&ar, k^) ^Aas. 

Betide, v. ^J^o^- A^mo/, CJ4\». hadaa. 

Betimes, %j:^^Xs. ^la* wakt. 

Betoken, v.j\J^\ askdr. 

Betray, v.jSa ghadar, ^^U. thdn. 

Betrajer, ». j\sc. ghaddr, ^U- 

Betroth, r. I....J2SL i&^<^. 
Better, JJi^ a/Sa/, ^^\ uMlr, 

^*-^l aslahf <^^jb\ at-yab. 
Bettor, *. t^Lufc^ mushdrit, ^K^ 

Between, betwixt, ^^ i>Vi*, ^j-^U 

«»d^m#. '^twecn his hands, / 

^*\!cr?- Between equals, ^^ 

jjl^Sl. To interpose between, 

]a^y tawasiat. 
Beverage, ijjJ^ sharhat. 
Bevy 9. (of people), — y /<w^'. 
Bewail, v. M rca^rflj taassaf ^U, 

-.U ndA. 
Bewailing, j?ar^. c-...%>gr noAl^. 
Beware, t^. ^*^:jls>-1 ^'^nai,j«3a»^f 

Bewet, V. 4^Jj nadda\ 

Bewilder, v. c\j dd^. 

Bewitch, v.jsr^ sahar. 

Bewray, v.jSh ghadar. 

Beyond (the further side), Uj ward \ 
(remote, distant, far, further), 
Ju«> ha^d. Beyond measure, 
^^\^^fawhalhadd. Beyond the 
river (the ancient Transoxania), 
jfDUjjU md ward annahr. Be- 
yond hope, Jj^*UH jy fawk al 
ma'mul [JUa. 

Bezel, *. (of a ring), ^\sf\y ^ 

Bias, Jy^ mayl. 

Bias, r. JU wd/, cjiLcl in^ataf. 

Bibber, 8, i^^^jj^ Bharrih. 

Bible, «. j^JLftJIt-^lifli ff/ kitdh 
almukaddas, i\j^\ altawrdt 

Bicker, i;, U^l^J* ta^hju, 

Bicome; bicomous, ^^riiSlji «u 




Bid, t^. (order), j^\ amor. To bid 
for, aLi Bottom. To bid adieu, ^Jj 

fffodda^. To bid good daj, aL* 

Biennial, ^^^^p^^^ sanatin. 
Bier, s. ^*^yi^ tdhut, ^Jmju na^h. 
Bifarioos, bifold, u^Li« mudd^J, 

Big, j»:M**s^ JMim,j^ kabir, ^ 
^Im. Big with child, ^L«l>. 
hdmilat. Big with pride, y;»ic^ 
mutakabhir ; (swollen), ^^-a-^ 

Bigamy, «. ^\^\ji£fr)l\. 

Bigamist, 8. iji^]j^^.'^^y^> 
Big-bellied, ^l>- hdmilai, ^^^^ 

Bigger, ^lasS a^fom^jSS ahbar. 

Bigness, I-^Lu>- jasdmat, i^jt^^ 
Bigot, «. bigoted, (j^y^f^ muta- 


Bigotry, ^^u..Mt^ tooiwde, A .hii^mi^ 
wdswcuat, J^V^^l^ aymdnhdtU, 
Bile, l;i«0 «a^^. 
Bilge, v. ^J^. See Shipwreck, leak. 

Bilious, ^^^]/^ iajrdtpl, \jiZi\diy 

muwoMid assa/rd, 
Bilky V. (^/Aki ghoih. 
Bill, «. (of a bird), j\k^ minkdr ; 

(an account), ^^L**^ hkdh ; 

(b(md), CS^m^ ; (anignment or 
order for the payxuent of money), 
£i\y^ hawdla. 
Bill, V* (as doves),^ nalkar. 
Billet, 8, ^jJ^f ^j^ iporaiai. 
Billow, 8» ^y mawf (pi. 0^^y\ 
amwdj). The dashing of the bil- 
lows, ^yl\^\jf ^yi\J\j^ 

Billow, V. T^J^ tamawtoty, fioLj 

taldtam, L^Jtu^] idtardb. 
Billowy, ^^y mauHffdj, 
Bind, V. ]a)j rahat, dA& ^aiad. To 

bind a book, ji>- jattad. To 

bind over (as surety), Jl^ kafoL 
Binder, 8. ]aj\j rdhiL A binder of 

books, Cy^-.^jly* mufaUid hUb. 
Binding (the act of binding a book), 

jJiasT tajhd. 
Biographer, 8. i^^j rdtol, Jb-iLj 

ndkil, ^\>^ hdla. 
Biography, Jiu naklf iAjj rawdyai^ 

<-^jl3 tdrlhh. 
Bipartition, iJua\^^ mcMdsafihy 

i^Ju*a\j tatuHf, 
Birch (tree), "ifj hitold. 
Bird, 8. jij^ tdf/ir,jJiff tayr (plur. 

j^ tayar). The bird of night 

(the owl), iS^)j^ tayr at layl 

A dealer in birds, i^jy^* A 





bod's liB^j\3&^ mmkdr. A bit d- 
mf^ ^jmii iafat. A Inrd-catoher, 

BizdUme, Ji J d^k. 
KrQi, ^y mawlad, ijSj, jJj3> 
«JL« fialdil. The pangs of ohild- 
Urtli, u^W* makhad ; (Kneage), 

J^l M^ J^mJ fUM^ L,.%**J fMM^> 

ymiis^jnu. OfmeanbirliijJ^ff^ 

BirOi-plaoe, t . ^j iroton. 

Biscidty «. tUoMkAJ hoiimdt 

Biihop, «. (.JSA^^ utitf/ (pi. 
cidit/; dUiU otdib/aQ. 

Bit, «. (small piece), hiai kU^t. 
k Hi of bread, J^iji^. A bit 
of doth, if6j, Sij^. Bit by bit, 
in bits, dUckiiUcLj. A bit 0r 
numthfbl, IaaI lukmat. 

Bitch, 9. U^ haOMst, 

Bite, V. J^ ^add ; (to cheat), j*>i 
ghadar\ (reproach), |»::Jli Bhakm, 

Bite, biting, 9. ^L-ic ^orfAi; (a 

trick), ^Lsw Af&i^. 
Bitter (in taste), J^ flwirr; (severe). 

Bitterly, ^|/«^ htmardrU. 
Bitterness, ij\j^ murdrat ; (re- 
proach), fPJ^ 9hatm; (calamity),* 

Bitomen, ^ Mr, kAi iii|^. The 
bitumen of Jndea,^^^i^ hmnmmr. 

Bituminous, t^j^ kiri, iJ^ nafll. 
Black (in colour), Jj^^ a9wad. 
Black and white, u^^^j^^^ 
a9%oad tea aiyad, A black mole 
on the face, ^U« 9hdme, Black 
lead (antimony) J^ kuM. 

Black, 9. j\^ 9aiwdd. See Black- 
ness; (mourning), jf«X». Akifii. 

Blacken, v, J^ 9awwad ; (to become 

black), «3^1 wt^oi^. 
Blackish, Jy**^ mmwad. 
Blacker, blackest, «3^1 oBwad, 
Blackness, C^y^ 9awdd. 
Blacksmith, 9. J^I^ hadddd. 
Bladder, «. 40 li^. The gall-bladder. 

ij^j^ mardrat. 

Blamable, (^y^ mcamUm, m^J 
Momlm (fem. ^Um^J samimaO, 

Blame, fault, ^-aAJ taitlr, \kl. 

Ma^, j»^^ jar am, *-.*_j^^, 

c^ii sani ; (censure), aX^ 

Blame, v. \^j wabbakh, ^i Idm, 

A J samm. 
Blameful. See Blamable. 
Blameless, v^ ^^H. 
J^iamer, #. aU J aamtndnu 




Blame-worthy, aiSJIu^^^Ij tcdjib 

oMSLom. See Blamable. 
Blanch, v. ^jcjj hayyad. 
Blanch, v. (become white), {j^}* 
Blancher, «. fjol^ mubayyid. 
Blandishment, Jh^^LiJ tandil. 

Blandish, v. Jh-^l-^ maUak. See 
Caress, cajole, coax, soothe. 

Blank (white), ^/a^\ ahyad; (un- 
written), ^jLs sddah; (vacant), 
^U. khdll. 

Blanket, s. i^\J lihdf. [Jaddaf. 

Blaspheme, v. y^ hafar, uJj^ 

Blasphemer, «. J\^ kofir. 

Blasphemous, c^;^ kufri. 

Blasphemy, yfi!^ hufr. 

Blast, «. (of wind), ^Lsr^ nafhat 
(plur. Cl^Uc^ «a/M^ 

Blaze, «. (flame), c».>^jf J /aAti; 
(publication), J IfJlil uhtihdr. 

Blaze, r. Ja^ Bha^l\ (to publish), 
j^\ ashhar. 

Blazon, «. (coat of arms), iU)U 
^Idmat, ^luJ niaAdn ; (cele- 
bration), j\fJ^\ ishtihdr, ij^ 

Blazon, v, (to celebrate), j { m>\ 

aMar ; (to embellish), ^^ij 
Bleach, v, ^^^ajj hayyad, 

Bleacher, v. (^/ojL^ mubayyid. 

Bleak (cold), J;U loHd. 
Bleakness, J^ lofrd. See Chillnesii, 

coldness. {j^amatk. 

Blearedness, Ju^ ramad, 
Bled, preterite of bleed, 

Bleed, v. (to open a yein), 

fasad; (to lose blood), uJp iiai<|f. 
Bleeding at the noQe,i^^jre^f(jvlJ) 
Bleeder, «. /•li^. 
Blemish, «• i>,,.^jr. ^aii, 41 J AK^A* 
Blemish, t?. c».«<Ir ^ydb. 
Blend, t?. laU. iUo^^ 
Bless (with happiness), ^U J dtk^ 

2tiAi« ; (to bless Ood), ^dJl/^ 

shakar aUah. [iff^idf. 

Blessed, cl^L^ mu^SniA, Jufu» 

Blessedness, ij\xi^ sa^dat^ l^j 

harakat. Eternal blessedness, 

^Jj^IjUmJI ; (sanctity), im»\ji 

Blesser, s, lL^L^ mubdrik* 

Blessing, i^j) harakat. 

Blest. See Blessed. 

Blind, ^^^ a^ma^ (plur. ^^Uf 

^t^mydn, fem. L^ ^omyd\ 
Blind, ». ^ ^nia\ To be or be- 

come blind, ^^^\ in^ma\ 
Blind, Bt (for a window), JLj^Ij^ 
■* harddye. 
Blindly, U4J(1\^^ ^W al^myd. 




Bljiufnww, [f ^fmd. PaiUindnfiM, 

BSndnde, «. (weaknees), c^»»»>^ 
*^f J*^ tf^'«- 

Biinkard, ••j^\ aflutr. 

BluBfdl, JjJUm^ ffMM^ilJ. 

Blifter, «. ^U»- M^^. 

Bithoiessy blithesomeness^ LLmuJ 

Block up or blockade, t?.Juri uM,jAs^ 

l&uar \ (to obstract), ^>^ matia^ 

Uockadey «. ijo^^ muhdsarat, 

2b\^\ thatat. 
Wocikhead, s,fj^\ ahmah, jJj hdhd. 

filoekishxiess, if jL balddat. 

Blood, /•J (^m. Blood (murder), 

^J!:j katl; (offspring), JmJ nasi; 

(lineage), s^^m*] naaab. Of 

noble blood, v.^^^ sharif; 

(temperament of mind), ^U^ 

Bloodshed, Jzj katl. 

Blood-thirstj, J U? 2dlim,j\j>'ja$adr, 

Blood-sucker, s. AaI^ ^alaka (plur. 

Bloody, ^yi^ damawl. 
Bloom or blossom, Jbj %ahr, sybj 
wahra (plur. ^^j^j zahrdt). The 

Blooming, pari.jibyt muMkir. 
Blossom (flower), fS km. 
Blot, $. (obliteration), ys^ mahn. 
Blot V. (obliterate), ^^sf^ tnaha*. 

To be blotted, ^^^\ mmaha': 
Blow, 8. hj^ darhatf hie^ UUnat. 

Blow V. (as wind), ^ nafakh^ v,,^.» 
^i. The quarter from which 
the wind blows, c,..^^. The 
quarter to which the wind blows, 
^J\d\j^. To blow (with the 
mouth), ^ ; (to breathe), ^j*J^ 
tanaffas. To blow a horn, ^ 
nafakh. To blow upon (treat 
with contempt), ^^Ul ahdn. 


Blower, 8. ^\j nafikh. A blower on 
the flute, etc.,^L,tf safir. 

Blowing, part. ^\j nafikh. Blow- 
ing, 8. ^^ huhuh, aLuCjI 

Blue, i/)UkM) 8amdwi, ^j\\ azrak. 
Blue or grey-eyed, ^^1 azrak 
(fern, li^j skjr^). 

Blunder, 8. ^ 8ahu, lali ghaiatt 
Ua£w i&^^, JU) so^^. A com- 
mon or vulgar blunder in speech, 
jjf^kLi ghailat nuuhhur. 

Blunder, v. lalij^ ^mal ghalat. 

'Blunderer, 8. blunderhead, .1a^\ 

h\i)om,oi y^mih, ^)ja:^ ^ajt/ku^da, / ahmak. 





Blunt (not sharp), «X».ybU wUt ho 
hadd; (doll of understanding), 

Bluntness, icHj ialddat. 

Blur, $. c^^jf. ^h. 

Blush, $. JQif^ kkajlai. 

Blush, V. fj^ kh»jd. To cause to 

blush, Jjk^ hhajjai. 
Blushing, adf, ^Ji^ khqfldn, 
Blushingly, J^jL htkol ihqfal. 
Boar,^Ji£L ihansUr (plur.^jL^ 

j^ndslr). A wild boar, j^:i£w 

Boar-spear, $. ^U^ Aor^'. 

Board, s. (plank), -^1 lawh (plur. 

^^\ alwdh). 
Board, v, (ceil or roof with boards), 

v^aA»» sakaf. 
Bearish, i^jij^ hhanzlrl, (J\^:^>- 

hatftodnl; (brutal), i3sSki hild 

Boast, s.js^ tafakhkhur. 

Boast, V, ^U7 tahdha\ 

Boaster, «. ^ux^ mM^^dAt,^ic\i^ 

Boasting, ^ar^.^^icu^ muftakhir. 

Boastingly,^^!^, jls^b hiifiikhdr. 

Boat, «. ^-^li ^drt^, j;jli JIbdyt'X*, 
^^yLsJUaka, JiXm^ sandal. How 
much is the &re of the boat? 
4--J, U/IJ/^jtam kird dkarih. 

Boatnum, t. gT/O^ Mh. 

Bob, «. (a blow). Jb^ dmhtii. 

Bob, f . <--^ (i!0rtf& ; (to cheat),j«Xfi 

Bode, V. JJIaJ tafawwal. 

Boding, bodement, JU/d/. 

Bodiless, Jum9»-L ^'te /moJ, jfi 
Juii^ yv t y^oyr mutajanid. 

Bodkin, «. Jy^ moAAros. 

Body, 8. Ju*^ >iwfl<?, jM**fir /•*•• 
(plur. i^luu^l iffidm). The body 
of the sun,^ ^j«M«ybLJli*p^. A 
body corporate, ^Li^.^-. The 
human body appearing indiatinel 
and black at a distance, ^J^ 
shabah (plur. ^lJ*l Oikhdh), 
Natural bodies. X«^Myi/*LM>-\ 
ajadm al taibl^t, A collective 
body, {-'4^ jam^ A great 
body, j^^i^. To assemble 
a body of troops, ■ ^-■'^^ ^^ 
yawa^ ^kar. Every body, 

Boil, t7. ^^^ ^^/a', j;Li fafoib. 
Boil some eggs but do not let them 
get hard, fJ^S^^j(^/a-jjLj^ 
(jwu>-,»-j is^f^ 3ayu^ tra lakin 
la tukhallih yihas. 

Boiled (cooked), r^fla^ mo^&ftiU. 
j^JuMb^ moiluk; (as water), 
^Am tnugA^l. Does the water 




boQ? ^^JUfi^UltJjb haltdmd 

Boisteroii!i» J^«3J^ thadid, ii.^U 
Boistarousljy jjy. To behave 

BoisteroosnesSy if JJ^ shiddat, v,,^«tfir 

ghadah^j^j w5r. 
Bold, jy**^ j^^f, fW=^ ^^'fi^, 

s^jp^ j'orl; (impudent), U^^ 

&t2d kayd. 
Bdd-fiused. See Impudent. 

BdidneoB, i^\fr J^ra-at, icLs-* 

tkofdcfU, iXuj^ jas&rat. 
Bobter, «. JCum*^ mamad. 

Bolt, #. (of a door, etc.), (jwljj-) 
il0r6d«, ^jli ghalak (plur. jlc\ 
agJddk). [alhah. 

Bolt 9. (a door), ^^U!^J^^ J darhas 

Bolter, s, JVy^ ghirhdl, Jio^ 

Bolos, ^. ^U>. ^5&t. 
Bomb, S. ij^ kumhara. 
Bombardier, s. ^Tji^ kumharji. 
Bond, s. (for debt, etc.), CSSLaj 
tam€L$9uk (plur. CjlCL^J) ; 

(anion), jla^l ittihdd, jUJ\ 

Bondage, OuS i^yc^ (pi. jjjl kuyud). 

Bondman, s. Ju£ ^ai(^, i.l^^L«^Juc 
^abd maaUak, j 

Bondmaid, bondwoman, s. ^.jl>- 

jdnat, 4^ |^ya«7drf . See Slave. 

Bondsman, ^t^ ddmin, fJJt^kaflL 

Bone, ^. Jas- ^asm, aUxs ^ikdoi. 

Joint bones (of tbe heel), l.^oi^ 

^^& ; (of the hands), ^^ujf^ ka^ 

(pi. (jmU^ ka^s) ; (of the back), 

^^l^^-rw khara% atzahr. A 

carious bone, ^j, mj ramlm 

(plur. ji^j, |%U;). 

Boneless, ^lia^iiJUi tndlaho ^dm. 

Bone-set, v, Jiifi\jf^jabhar al^m. 

'Bone-setter, a.Jis^ tnt^'ahbir. 

Bonnet, «. ir^^J^ tarhoah. 

Bonny, ^y^j^ jamll. 

Booby, 8, J^l^ hahlul. 

Book, t-^ls^ ;fe»Mi (pi. 
{^<^^^ mashaf (plur. 
ffMsdhif), The books of Moses, 
^^^c,,'^ •; jT. The rabbinical 
books (Old Testament), u,a.<^l 
Lj\iJ\. The book of God, 
<d!!c.^l::^ i&f^a^ allah. The most 
excellentbook,c.^U3iAM^ 1 L-^li^ 1 . 
The books or psalms of David, 
j^i\ azxahur. An account-book, 
^J da/tar. My book, ^^ 
J6*^Jl. Your book, tlX^l::^ 
kitdbak. His book, <)sj l:;^ kitdhahu. 
The original or first copy of a 
hooky i^\:i^\^\ ad d ]citdb. 





Book-keeper, <. i_ A'^ mtihdtM, 
c->Uuk.^blX<>t« mitik alUtih. 

Bookbinder, jJiir^. [ddris. 

Bookish, Jiek^lt tdlih ^ilm,{jMj\j 

Bookseller, s. ««--^^ ^ hatfyd^ hUb. 

Boorish, LS kabdf JiifaUdh. 

Boot, «. ^J>' jcumih. A boot- 
maker, uJliLi sakk&f. 

Boot (advantage), if Jjli fdyidat 

Bootless, if JjUL hildf&yidaL 

Booty, «. Ia^ ghanlmat (pi. ^l:^ 

Borax, ^j^ horak. 

Border, «. jL^ han&r^ Lj^\»^ hdthiat, 

S-^^ yein^ (plur. c-^^^r). 
The border of a country, Jk»^ 
hadd{p\uT, JjJ^ hudad). The 
border of a garment or cloth, 
<LJal>. hdahiat. 

Borderer, «. JJls:^ muhaddid. 

Bore, V. ^^^ «a^. 

Bored, l^^aL^ maskiib, 

A «t) shamdll. See 
Boreas, _iUJaly^ Aiiu^a ghamdli. 

Borer, s. tw^^ft^ maskah. 

Bom, <^^^ tnawlnd. Base-bom, 

Borne, part of bear, J^ILsa** 
mutahammaL Not to be borne, 
4^U^eVi^y^ fAayr mutahammal. 

Boreal, ^J 

Borrow, f^.^leuif^ wto^dr, ^^y0^& 

Borrower, b, j jtr«.Mi»# miMfo^fri 

^yiLjLMMf mustahnd. 

Bosom, «. ^^;«a»- Am^ (plnr. ^lio^t 

Boss, 8. ^«x»- A«^^. 

Botanic, botanical, (JLj nabdtl. 

Botanist, «. CL^ljJui^ mti^afliMi 

Botany, di^LJl Jx ^ilm atmahdt. 
Botch, 8. (mark), &\ J ddgh. 
Botchy, J^<X« mudanhil. 

Both, K, J^ (fem. ^IJ^), ^.f^l 
Both worlds, ^^3^ a/ JbNMilii. 
Both the seas, ^JiJ^^ ol hahrU^. 
From both sides, ..•.^^^WL.^ 
mm ajjdnibin. {jUdUM. 

Bottle, 8, ij\i^y^ 8oddyehf ImljU 
Bottom, c,.^,fl.r. ^aib&, yu iba^r. The 
bottom of hell, j^:^^jf6 ha-^ 
jahannam. The bottom or keel 
of a ship, \,,^jAi\i^M. ^M 
al markah ; (a valley), v/*>|^ 
wadi; (profundity), ^ ^umk; 
(limits), la^ hadd. To the bot- 
tom (completely), UUj tamdman. 
At the bottom, j»J^^iS ftlka^. 
Prom top to bottom, {j^^j^^^j^ 
c^^Jiftl^^il min arrd8 ild' al^aH, 
\ Bot\yomle&s, j^i dlU md^o^ ibrdr. 




Bough, #• f^ji far^ (plur. ^^y 
fitru^. {mmhiora\ 

Booght (jMN^. of to bay), u^JiJ^ 
Bouncey <• (noise), iti^ karka^h. 
Boonoe, 9. (to make a noise), ^y 

Bound, bounds, boundary, Jk>. hadd. 


To fix the boundaries, JJk>. 

Bound, part, of bind, J*Xs^ 
Bound (obliged), ^y^A^ mamnHn. 
Bound V. (limit), jl>. ^«m^^^. To 

be bounded, JJ^oT tahaddad. 
BoundlesB, iA^ ^ t« mdlaho fkihdffoi, 

Jk>^4lL« mdlaho hadd. 
Bounteous, bountifbl, . ^sr* Boihly 

Bountifully, bounteously, Sjls^ JXj 
hikal Mokhdtaat. 

Bounty, boontifulness, ^^ karam, 
Icr* $aihd, ij[ir* gakhdwai. 

Bottsy, ^\J^ Mhrdn, 

Bow, «• ^^ i»tc^«. The rainbow, 
T^sJ**^ i»tc^« ibsoA. A saddle- 
bow, u^tji^ karbiu (plur. ^^^\y 
hmrdhU. A bow for a fiddle or 
other instrument, ^Uc^. A bow 
used in dressing cotton, u,iv*^ 
wumdaf. A bow-string,y3^ watar. 

Bow, «. (rererenoe), i^^ rak^\ 
(aalntatioD)^ ^^JL do^m. j 

Bow, t7. (b^id), ^^ ^of. To 
make a_ bow or reverence, ^^^ 

ro^^, Ju.9 saUam ; (to sink under 
pressure), Ji? soZcMfi. 

Bow-bent (orooked), ^^\ a^wj. 

Bowels (plur. U^^ om^d) ; tender- 
ness, iASLii ahafakat. 

Bowl, 8. (jmU? t&9s, ^Jui ib<iaA (plur. 
-^Jj\ akddh), fjJ^ has, ^laai 

Box, $, ^^X^ Mnduk. Bring out 
these things from the box, , 

akhrif hauh al hdjdt mm OBMndOk, 

A small box, XJl& ^ulbat. A BwaS- 

hox,]oyu^iS&^idhatsu^L A box 

tree, ^^^Jb &aib. A box or blow, 

^uLl latmat, [taddrahn. 

Box, r. (fight with fists), \yj\^ 

Boxen (resembling or made of box- 
wood), jc^uA^ 3aJUf. 

Boy, «. ^^ 9ahl, ^ fat<^, jjj 
walad. Boy, is it morning? 

tala^alfqfirf Aservantboy,Ajl£w 
khddm. Boys, ^l:*f<^ nf^dii. 

Boyishness, Li^ subd. 

Brace, t?. tXAf ^oJbdM?, Li; ro^. 

Brace (tie), iftXA^ ^ukdai. A braoe 
or pair, -p.jij soc^'. [^immdM^. 

Braoea (for trowBen)| (^1^3^^ 




Braceleti *'j^y^ suwdr. 
Brackishy JU mdKh. 

Jsyj\ iftakhar, [takaibhur, 

Bragi 8. i^\k/9 mufdkharat, J^ 
Bragging, part. _JbLs^ mtUahdhl. 
Braid, v, (weave together), cjil laf. 

To braid hairi^Ai^ dafar. 
Braid, «. la^y^ %h»rltf r:J^ Icharj, 
Brain, «. ^t«J dim&gh. The mem- 
brane of the brain, dUJSt/»l 
fimm al dimcLgh. 
Brainless, iU j)b hUa dim&gh. 
Brake (preterite of break),^^^ hoBor, 
Bran, i\\as^ nukhalat. 
Branch, ^j>a£. ghasn, (plur. ^^Uail 
aghsdn), 9^ /tfr^ (plur. c^^ 
/tirtl^). A branched candlestick, 
^Ijut^M^ ahamcoddn. A branch 

of a river, J^ J^ jadwal (plur. 
Jjlj^/flkifflfr*'/). A branch of a 
&mily, c, ^*u,f fMMn^ (plur. c^LjI 

Brand «. (mark made by burning), 
i\j ddgh. A fire-brand, ij^^ 
jamraL [nahhas. 

Brasier, «. (worker in brass), (jMlfisT" 
Brass, ^W* na^«. 
Brat, s. Jil? ^^. 

Brave, Jr^r^ *%«{_, cf/T >tfr? ; 
(magDi^cent), jjiae^ ^OMim. 

Bravery, ^Ls^ thafd^; (magni- 

fieenoe), J^^ ifldl 
Bravo, «. (assassin), t«jJ\cJU«i 

sajtk al damd, J^Li kdM» 

Bravo (well done), ^IcJUU 

^dfdk (Ulah. 
Brawn (the arm), tXcLa sd^. 
Brawny, J«as ^H. 
Bray, v. (bruise), ^J^r* Mhak, To 

bray (as an ass, etc.), ^J^ iMak 
Bray, «. (of an ass, etc.), ^J^ nahk. 
Brayer, $. (pounder), ^j>^Li sdhik; 

(as an ass), ^\j ttdhtk. 

Brazen, (jj^nahda, ^\es^nMUt. 

Breach, 9. (aperture), ^ssj\ ifMdk, 

A breach of Mth, j^tjJii ghair 

Bread, J^ ihuh%. Boy, bring 

bread,J^(..^^.'wi^Jt!j\j yd imM 

/{^ i&Au&s. Unleavened bread, 

j^sij^ Jl^ubz ftUir, Leavened 

bread, ^^^a^s^J^ khuhz khamlr. 

Coarse bread, jl^Lutgw ^tM^Jbir. 

This is very good bread, \jJb 

ifcott^l ta^eh. This bread is bad, 

Breadth, fjOjS' ^d. According to 
the breadth, w^ ^.arrfan. 

Break, v, jtS kassar. The break of 
day, 0^^\ auMhh^ To break 




AfJfvlJli makau tO^hd. To 

hieak «n agreement, J^l^"^ 

fiuiM ui^ahd. To break'in upon 

(■HBmlt), fjs^ h/^am. To break 

(melt as frost), <^^ waiwwal. 

To break out (become known), 

jil^j\ anshahar. 

Breakout, «. \ji0A\j*iS hair assafrd, 

jyiai fuiHr. Bring breakfast, 

f^ki c»^'>- jt6 futur. 

Breakfast, v, \jLsi\j^ hoBor auafrd, 

]foeaat, «• jJl^ mu^ (plor. j^*^^ 

nuhir). A woman's breast, ^5JJ 

«Mft. The breast of a garment, 

Breath, ^j*Jj nafas (plnr. (juuUit 
anfu)^ (j^Ji:^ tanaffiu; (life), 
^lyd^; (an instant of time), 
lahzaL iLjJ daklkat. To 
draw breath, ^^/mJ^J tanaffoi. 
Shortness of breath, ^jJci\^j^ 
duk amuifas. A breath of air, 
^^ natHm, is^ nufhaL 

Breathe, r. {j»mj tanaffas. To 
breathe odoors, ^ nafah. 

Breathing, «. ^jJcJ tanaffw. 

Breathless, ^jJci\^i^aLt maktu^ 
dnnafu. [pantalon. 

Breeches {or trowsers), ^jj^Ua^J 

Breed, «. (procresi^^^ a^ uvf/fif; (to J 

produce), ^J^ khdMi; (toeon- 
ixiYe), ^j:S^\ Hhtara^; (to bring 

Breed, $, JmJ nail, (^/uJ»^ Jim; 

(species), J^^t asl, [wdUdat. 
Breeder, «. (prolific female), i*ii\j 
Breeding (education), ^^3 tarhiififif 

aJju ta^m. 
Breeze, «. ^^ noHm, Li^ sabd or 

9uhd, \yb hawd. 
Breezy, l5^\^ howdy. 
Brethren, ^^y>-^ ahhwdn* 
Brevet, a1i ; jLj pdtenta. See 

Diploma, letters-patent* 
Breviat, breyiature,jlid:«^l tkhiiidr, 

jo^Js^ mulMasar. 
Brevity, iltfi^l ihhtisdr. 
Brew, V, (beer), ];t?^ J^ ^amd hirrd. 
Bribe, «. i^j roihwat, i^ji hartiL 
Bribe, v. J^j) hartal. To take a 

bribe, ^^j^ tabartal. [til. 

Briber, «. ^]j rdshl, Jt^ wiuior- 
Bribery, S^ rashwat. [karmld. 
Brick, «. (for building), (X^^-^v^J 
Bridal, <. (jm^ ^t<r«. 
Bride, ». (jwjyft ^oril* (plur. (^5/^ 

^ardy«f). The biide-chamber, 

^^Ls'lLpjl ondat ajjdhoat. The 

bride's portion or presents sent by 

the bridegroom to the bride» 




Bridegroom, «. yj>>i^ ytnU. 
Bridge, «. yitB^ jitr. The bridge 

of the noee, ^.miiVi.^,^, 
Bridle, «. i^lar lijam (plnr. ^^ 

44^1). A bridle ornamented 

with gold, etc.), y^-^j rakhi. 
Bridle, v. ^ lajam. To bridle the 

passions, \au^ dabai, Ja^ ibsom. 
Brief,^^:M^ kartr,jBacjL^ mukkuar. 

Brief, «. (writing), k:&>. khaU; 

(epitome), jlfl^l ijdM. 
Briefly, Sj^oca^ muktoiiran, 
Briefiiess, jLdir^! ikhtU&r, 
Brig, brigantine, ^}i/\ tbrik. 
Brigade, s, \^ Uwd. 
Brigadier, «. ^j^ja^ ^^r liwd. 
Brigand, ^]j^ hardtnh 
Bright, brilliant, ^Jlsj- jah, j^^ 

Brighten, v. (make bright), ^-^l 
lamma^; (to make gay), Lmj 
^a^; (to be or grow bright), 
^5y^ dawc^. 

Brightness, brilliancy, Lj (^yd. 

Brilliant diamond, 8. ^^Ull <ilm€l«. 

Brim, ^Ji\\iifum ashihy. 

Brimful, ,Jl:w«^ mum^oft, jJm^ 

Brimfollness, liL^l tin^tTa. 
Brimstone, c:.^ >^ ^t^^ 
Brine, ^LtLt md mdlih. 

Bring, v. 4^U^ /fli. To biing 
about (eifeety make, do), ^^j^a 
^jmal. To bring forth childreni 
JlJj, To bring proo^ u:^^) 
a$ha$. To bring off (disengage)^ 

^khaOas. To bring off (dia- 
soade), ^^ mana^. To bring 

over (persuade), ^3 katta^ To 


bring to an agreement, JL-ij 
Bring, ifnp.j»a^\ aMiTf (^U te^ 

Brink, «. uJ^ ^a/. The brink or 
bank of a river, j{ v llt—i^Jg 
^o/* annahr. 

Brisk (quick, spirited), LuLJ muikU. 

Briskness (gaiety), )s\JLj natk&tf 
^ farah. 

Brittle, ■y>M.(rJl JjU i^M atiabUr, 

Uu>U da^f. 
Brittleness, t^Mo du^f. 
Broach, v. (pierce), C;^ 9akah\ 

(to split), fjJ^ ahak ; (to utter or 

publish), ^;f^t cLshhar,j^\ ioharf 
Broad, ^^jS- ^nd, ^^|^ iOd$i^, 

,^vmJ ftuih. As broad as long, 

^jy« fnurahha^ Broad and long, 
l^j \jjc ^dan tea iulan. 

Broil, 9, ^^no:^ khusUmai (plur. 
c:^U^.<3£y. i^AtMiimcE/). 

Broil, r. (grill), ^^^ 8kataa\ 




{pari, of break), jymS.^ 
iTfj^Sz^ munkoiir, Bioken- 
d, jy^i^ ma/tur. Broken 
msander, mVir*^ munkaU^ 
m in pieces, (JL^fiu* mafiut. 
m (yiolated), ^ 5 " v ^ 

9, ^J daldlfJLtAAmj samsdr, 
^ker's hire, brokage, broker- 
Sii^dildlat. A female broker, 

{jM\a^ nahds. 
r. J^ nasi. 
$.jJu)j^ nahr saghlr, 
^j^ iohar, fjAio^ tahammal. 
Am\i^ mukumat. 
[jj^ shurba, iiy* maraka. 
, «. ^ akh (plur. i^^\ 
In and i^\ ukhwat). The 
r's brother, ^ ^am. A 
er'fl brother, JU^ khdl, A 

er in God, ddJ^JJ. A 

er-in-law (the sister's hns- 

Kj^ shar. How is your 

er? CSyS^\J\^LJJ kayf 


hood, ^^^ akhawiyat, 

ly (like or as a brother), 

4jL:i^(^ fi manzalat akhl. 

I. (the eye-brow) c-^^U- 

Brown, j.^4b^1 iiMuir; f(^. V 

«aifirA.. Brown sugar, ^#4^1 

9ukkar annar. 
Brownness, jU^ MWiar.'* 
Browse, v. ^j ra^. 
Bruise, 8. ^Jl^ sadmai. [dU. 

Bruise, «. |*Ju9 <a<2(fm; (beat), jj 
Bruised, Jy«^ madkak, O^^^**^ 

Brumal, i^j^ «Aatot^. 
Brush, 8, lAJ^ji farsh&ye. 
Brutal (belonging to the brute 

creation), ci^^t^^- ha/ywAnl, ^^^ 

Brutality, Ji? %ulm. 

Brutally, UU? ttdtnan. 

Brute, 8, Ia^ hahimat (plur. ^l^ 
hahdym), f^^yt^ haywdn (plur. 
C1^13Ua>. haywdndt), Man has 
reason, a brute none, ^LjSI 

^aifc/ ommS aihahlmatfald. 
Brutish (resembling a beast), J^ 

fH^\ fnUl al hahlm. 
Brutishly,<UM^\ Jl/t mUlalhahimat 
Bubble, 8. (a fraud) jJl£ ghadrfS^ 

mikr. A bubble, bubbler or cheat, 

^U yhdbin, ^^^u)L« mtUd ^l. 
Bubble, V. (cheat) ^jLs. ghash. To 

bubble (blow as water from a 

fountain), wJ naha^ 




Backet, s. ^J daln. 

Buckle, 8. (a curling lock of hair). 

Buckle, V, (to curl) ujdj xaiaf, «Xa>- 

Buckler, s, ^y tun. 

Bud, 8,jj tar. A rose-bud, '^J^JJ 

tar ward. 
Bud, V. jjjj tartar. 

Budget, 8. J1^>- juwdl. 

Buff (buffalo leather), (jmj^U* jl^ 

jVW jdmil8. 
Buffedo, 8. (or buffle), i^j^\^jdmil8. 
Buffoon, 8. HjSi^**^ mculeharah. 
Bug, 8, ^ jjJutJ fu8fu8at, ^^IVljk !^ 

Bug-bear, «. JLc^- khiydl^ (Ji}i* 
tahwll (plur. Ji J V ^^^^tl). 

Buggy (full of bugs), ^^^jJuuJl^ 

Bugle, 8. {or bugle-horn), ^y hak. 

Buglos8(herb),j^1^LJ l%8dna88ilr. 

Btdld, V. jA£. ^mtnar, ,<:j bona* ; 
(to depend on), 4X^cl&\ i^amad, 
fjij\ attakal. He has built a 

. house on the bank of the river, 
j^\^VJii^^\j:^^^ hana' 
hayt ^M 8hdti annahr. 

Builder, 8.j\AXy mu^dr, uj hannd. 

Building, 8. Lj hind (plur. ^LjjI 
ahnij^ai), ^L-J hunydn. Public 

buildings, Ju^^^JLjuit ahmi^ 

Built, ,cr^ muhM\jytJf^ ma^mfin 

Bulb, 8. (or bulbous root), Ju^ hatal. 

Bulge, V. (to founder, as a ah:^), 

Bulk (magnitude), <ulaf. ^oiMiii^, 

J Jj ^euiir. The bulk or mould of 

the human body, jJ kad, L^[3 

Bulkiness, ^LuSf- ja8dmaU 

Bulky, j»-***5r jo^fm, mj^\m^ 
^osfm ajji8m. 

Bull, «.jj^ «fl«T (pl.^|;-5 «frafi),j^jJU 
The constellation of the Bull, 
j^\^ji hurj a88awr, The star 
called Bull's-eye or Aldebaran, 
^UjjLJt addahardn, A ball's 
pizzle, )ff^ 8awt. 

Bullet, 8. i\i^ guUi. 

Bullock, 8. (young bull) Jl«^ ^^7. 

Bully, V, Juc^ tawa^i^, JjLfJ 

Bulrush, 8, ^^ huahe. 

Bulwark, «. -y ^wr;*, iJlS ibo^. 

Bump, 8, 'J^ nafkhf aj^ waram. 

Bunch, 8. (of flowers), AiU hdka. 
A bunch of grapes, J^ai£, ^ankod, 
<i ^- L >fl S >. A bunch of dates. 

Bunch-backed, c^«x».l ahdab. 




» Ak*? iuife. A bundle of 
C«^ hmmai. A bundle 

-^ if O I Juri ndddat harmil 
, t, ^jiJc^ manfoi, 
Ulc ghdlat. 

r» Jfr«J^ hikoljahl. 
(a low vulgar woman), 

(float), Ulli^jJiCj^U 

Ji-4>- huml. Of equal 
Jj*Xc ^tfif/. A burden 
.1^ kharaj. Free from 
[untaxed), uJU^ mw^d/. 
r of burdens, J-^L>. 
A court in caravanseras, 
, where they load beasts 
Jn, j^Vfi. khan, 
<J-^»w^ hammal; (to 
jjb wZam. To lay 
r unload a burden, 


p futizal al huml, 
), V,, ^mr>.^ mul^b. 
(bui^her), jJJI^l 

3 <fq/», ijlij?- jtnazat. 
place, *^;-JU makbarat. 

Burlesque, #. i^i***^ nuuJkharai. 
Bum, f?. j^ Airai. To bum 

with love, Jm^ ^heJt. 
Burner, «. ^j^ ntwAn*. 
Burning, 9. jl^l li^djt. 
Burnish, v. JS^ sakal. 
Burnisher, #. ^IJIJU^ gaUal 
auOah. [maih^. 

Burnt, Jjj^-«^ maArflifc, J^jt,^ 
Bursar, «. (treasurer of a college), 
<U;4u!!j!dJjflL khassnaddr al ma- 
drasat. [See Market 

Burse, s. j\j\) h&tdr, j^ ««jt. 
Bury, f?. ^ J dafm. 
Burying, «. ^ j rfa/n. A burying 

ground, ijJi^ makbara. 
Business, JkJL «^W(plur. JU^) 
ashghdl). Is your business now 
completed? JIlLL^IuLijJJjb hal 
tamahughlakaldnf He is exceed- 
ingly active in that business, 

ho tnujid jiddan fi tdik aahshugU. 
Important business, jif^l amr 
muhim. A necessary business, 
i^Lo- hajat (plur. ^j-j>- 
hawdyj), A manager of busi- 
ness, Jyj^ wahll. To appoint 
one to do business, J(^ waJUkdl. 
Public business, iXJuJtJU^l 
ashghal al mamlakaL 




Buss, t. ^yf hawii. To hoM, {j*A» 

Bust, 8, Jli««J Umsdl. [hdsi. 

Bastard, s. i^jr^ AuM. 

Bostle, «. S^Lc ^att AsP" ^'ale. 

Busy (employed), JyLuiu« nuuhghul, 
J,icJL^ mmhtaghU. To be busy 
(employed), JjclI! Uhtaghdl. 

But, ^^ &Pibn, l^f ommd ; (except), 
S\ «//a. There is no doubt but 
if . . . ^^uXli ^ shaika anna. 

Butcher, s. c^l^ kasidh. The 
trade of a butcher, c^L^l^l^ 
kdr aJ JcasBdh. A butcher's shop, 
c^UofiSl^l^J dukkdn al koitdb. 
A butcher's knife, jjl^Li sdtiir. 

Butcher, r. ^J ssa^aA, L^m»nn kauab. 

Butchery, J:J ^a^?. 

Butt, 8. (at which marksmen shoot), 
uJ«v» Aa<2r}/, ^UJ m«Ad»; (a 
barrel), tJ:?^ Jarmi/. 

Butt, V. (with the horns), J^ natah. 

Butter, ^jA^ aamUf gjjj tuhdah. 
Toast some bread, and butter it, 
i^j ijSs ] a > ^^J^il^jA3kammir 
%huwayyat khtibz wa hut calleh 
tuhdah, A butter or oil merchant, 
^Um) sammdn, JUu hakkdl. 

Butterfly, a, 8j\£j hashshdra. 

Button, 8,jj %arr (plur.j|^j\ anrdr). 

Button, V'jjjj tartar. 

Buttress, s, l>^ ^amud. 

Buxom (liTely), ^jia*'*^ mu$kkin. 

Buy, V. 4,^1 iihtara*. Wo will 
bay some things, ^^aMJi^jJMj\jAf 
L^l Imdnd naahiari ha^ athfd, 

Bayer, «• i^fi>^**^ miuJUafl. 

Baying, <. \jlL\ iihiird. Baying 

and selling, f^^w^ ha^^ im 

shird. Baying on condition of 

transferring to the seller the debt 

of a third person, ilUd^«i 
batf^ aJ kafdlat. 

Buzz, V. (as flies, GtcXj^jj wmwatt. 

Buzz, buzzing, 8. ijjj^ wai^wamt. 

By, 4 A ^:r* ^*^» {J^ t*^ ^ 
you go by land or water? 

/{ dl bar aw ft al bahr? By 
me, j^i^ minni, [^ ^annl. By 
thee, CXu^ miff ok, CS\.r ^mnak» 
By him, her, or it, JU^ mino, 
ijs. ^nno (fem. \f^ minhd, [f^ 
^nhd). By us, ILt minftd Ux 
^annd. By you, Jj^ mtffjbm, 
Six. ^nkom. By (or near) the 
river, j^ \ Jcx ^a»<? annoAr . By 
agreement, jUj^lb. By heaven, 
AUb, aDL", ddJ. By chance, JJ 
^^o/. By that which, Uj Mud. 
By force, k-^ jabran. By all 
means, <LxJ\ a/ battah, ZIajtI}* 
IVljumlat, U^\) U'l kuUiyat 




CUw or Kaba (temple of Mecca), 

Gtbal, «.(priTate ooiifederaoy),^!^^*.! J 
Gibalistio (oocnlt), l5^^ miMfl. 

GiblMige,! lakhana, cJ jftU 
wuUftf. Bring some cabbage^ 
csolifloweny tamips, carrots, and 
CDComberB, (^fjfl I ^O^v,, »g^ 

tkuwayyat nudfaf wa kartktbU, 
wa Uft wajanunr wa hhiyar. 

Cabin (of a ship), ^l^ kdm&ra ; (a 
cottage), ^if h>ih, 

Gabinet, «. (box, etc.) Jj^X^^ sanduk ; 
(a private apartment), ?j-l rw 
hhaUoat. A cabinet council, ^^jj J 
^\s^ dlwdn khdi. Tbe secrets 
of the cabinet or of state, j]j^\ 
i^l^4i\j asrdr al mamlakat. 

Cabinet-maker, 8. J^ najjdr. 

Cable, «. Ax^^ ghomana. 

Cackle, v. (as a fowl, etc.) ^|^ 

Cackle, b. J^am naknakah. 
Cacophony, ^JL, lahn. \mayyeL 
Cadarerous, ^^:^^\^y^^ misl al ^ 

Cadenoe (of Tersea or periods) ^J^j^ 

aKII mltdn alikaldm. 
Cadet (younger brother), jkJi\^\» 

Cadi, 8. (judge), ^\i k&dl. 

Caftan, 8, (an eastern garment), 

^^UftS hafldn. 
Cage, <. ^joH hafa8. 

Cajole, V. J^ fnaUak, (.Jt) J^^. 
Cajoler, 8. ujLt)U muldtif, j^ 
JlJucJI ib«fr aUamtik. 

Caiti£^ 9'jij^ 8harir, 

Cake, «. ^CaoK %'a, (Jiot^ ib^i^. 
Bring bread, sweetmeats, and 
cakes, vIXa^^CIi^UjIl^^^^CjU 
Ad^ J&Atf^ t(^a haUoiy&t wa ha^. 

Calamitous, {j^y^^ manhiU, 

Calamity, ^U^^^ mtMf^, <U:%g^ 

Calash, «. (carried by camels, etc.), 
-^jyb hawdaf. 

Calcine, t?. ^jt^^ kaUM, 
Calculate, r. i^-^tnf^- ha88ab, Jlc ^oifi/. 
Calculation, calcule, <^L4»>. Aiia^. 
Calculated, L^y^js^ mah8uh. 
Calculator, 8, ^.,^^^\s^ muhdBtb. 
Calculus, 8. (stone in the bladder). 

Caldron, «. Jk.» sail, ^|^ A;mkl». 
Calendar, «. (almanac), /»»j^JLJ 
iaiwm (plur. (^%^ talbuiolmV 




Calender^ v. (emooth oloth, paper, 

etc.)i j£«0 ioial. 
CalendeTi «. (Muhanunadan monk), 

jjJi kaimder. 

Calenture, «. (fever peculiar to hot 

climates), ^y^^^- humma\ 

Calf, 8. Jjs^ ^ijl (fem. JOus^ ^yZa^, 

plur. J^«^ t^'*0- 

Calibre, jUfi ^»^dr. 

Calico, aI£>- ihdm. 

Calif or Khalif, XLir;^ ihah/ai. 

Caligraphy (beautiful writing), 
ksrl^MO- husn al khat. 

Call, V. ^j»c sarakh; (name, ,^4^ 
samma* ; (to invite), a^ ^asutm. 
To call before a judge, ^\j rdfa^ 
yj>.l. To call together (con- 
voke), ^f^ jama^ To call 
(proclaim), ^/^^ ndrfa*. To call 
(visit), j|j «2r. To call back to 
life, L^\ dhyd. To call in ques- 
tion (to doubt), klSj^ 9hak. To 
call one in question (to interro- 
gate him), J'L» saal. To call 
to account for money, u^>^»>rl»- 
hdsah. To call for help, ^;Ui«i>\ 


ista^n. To call to witness, J^ 
shahhad. Call the porters, ifjj\ 
^ULt indah al hammdlln. 
Call, 8. V— JV> ialah, \jj nidd; (a 
demand), v_ -^^ ^a^3, l>-^ rtf/d ; 

(an order), a^ Auibi. Obedient 

to a call, wk>^ mtf/i^. 
Called, SJ^Ux^ ma</tl5; (named), 

^4mm^ musamma* ; (to be named), 

^^^maJ tasamma\ 
Calling, i^JLt ^oM. A calling 

(profession), ^Uc^ ian^. 
Callous (insensible), {juyuM^j^i- 

ghayr mahtfU^ (jMb>-lb hiUi kaa. 
Calm (placid), ^^jU A^ift, ^J^ 

fra(ft^; (not stormy), ,<»-t^ idM. 
Calm (tranquillity), jiVJb hadm. 
Calm, f7. (^Jjb haddii, ^jL^ tMan, 
Calmed, ^^\^ sakin, \^jU hddi. 
Calmer, «. i^^^ mukaddl. 
Calmly, ^^^ J^ ^*^/ takiln. 
Calmness, ij\jJb haddwat. Calm- 
ness of mind, JUUjl JJb haddwM 

al hdl. 
Calumniate, v. ^ taham. 

Calumniator, «. ^Ij idhim^ jXij 

nammdm. [tuhmat. 

Calumny, calumniation, ^ t ( " 

Cambric, «. i^^j^ kamhrik. 

Camel, «. (a he-camel), iJA^^jamal; 
(a she-camel), iLiLj n^ia^. A 
camel-driver, JL^^ jammdl. 
Camel's hair, uJ^^ taftik. 
Camelion, ^J^^,j{ harhakhiu 
Cameleopard, s, iij\jj turdfa. 




Cuap^$,i^Jj^\orii. A royal camp, 
yS^^^^jj^ ordi mutaJlA. To 
pitch a camp, mJ^ khayyam. 


A trench round a camp, ^ ^ ^^ nrtT 

GBmpaign, s. (plain) ^^/V« mayddn. 

A military campaign,^^ safar, 

L^j^ harh. [Jflfrl. 

fJampestral (belonging to fields) 4^ 
Gunphor, jy^^ i&f^r. A cam- 


$ham^ hdfuri. 
Can, 9, {jJ^ kas, ^^ Jcadah. 
Canaille, ». J^«^^ ar%dl. 
Canal, 9. jKs-^ hngh&g. 
Canary-bird, «. ^^J^ kandriya. 

Cancel, c. ,-flc^ nitf^', ^ fkwaiiA. 
Cancelling, cancellation, ys^ mahu. 
Cancelled, ,^5^^ mumhl, 


Cancer, 9. (diseaae)^^!!^ 9artdn,^\ 

akUe ; (a crab), ^Ua«Lj 9al^tdn ; 

(the celestial sign), jjU^ 9artdn. 
Candid, ua^\ ahyad\ (sincere), 

• jLtf 9dd%k. 
Candidate, 9. c^U? tdlib. 
Candidly, JJuJli hiUidk, 
Candle, t. IxaJ^ sham^iU. A candle 

maker, ctLl 9hammd^ The wick 
of a candle, J*-*-:^ f<M (plor. 
Jj\:;i fatdyU). Candle-snnfferSy 
^JO^>^ makrad, A candlestick, 
^Ij^mJi 9ham^addn, Bay two 
candlesticks for me, J|^j;^\ 

Candour, i^^J^ khalfU^ ^Xa 9idk, 

Candy, v. ,r{/^J^ ^amal myrabhuf* 
Sngar-candy, d^Lj^C^ 9ukkar 
nahdt To candy (form into con- 
gelations), dA>p^jaminad\ (to grow 
congealed), Jc4^ yf»wrf. 

Cane, 9, ^ ;-^ * ka9abe.' A cane or 
walking-staff, Ldj^ ^Md. 

Cane, t?. L^Uc;.^ i^oro^ hU^d, 

Canister, 9. (J^J san^J/. 

Cannibal, 9. iJM^^(^J^^^^^ 

Cannon, s. (^^^ top, ^x« f7i0((/^^. 
A cannoneer, _£^^ ^(^Af. 

Canon, «. ^^y^ kdnun (pi. jj-jly 
ib(£7anl»), ijx\j kd^tdat (plar» 
jLcly X;au;^^»d^). To frame canons, 

book of canons, ^•JIjaJIc^Ll^ 

Ai^d3 al kawdnin. 
Canonical, (Jy^ Adnfinl. 
Cant (barbarous language), lai-& 

ghalat; (auction), jlj^ mazdd; 

(hypocrisy), ^^ makr, U j r*^5. 
Canter, s.JS^ makkdr^ ip\£.g}w)Lfth« 

CAP £ 

Ca&tiole, *. (liynm), mAm>J taiMh, 

Canton, «. (tribe), Jl~i iabllat ; (a 

parcel of land),^^, JJttU^. 
Canton, v. *m« ibMom. 
Canvas (cloth), (^U_u^ ytn/dt. 
CanTBH (eaqniiy), \J'r^ tafilih ; 

(Bolidtatton), i^^^ talab. 
Canvoaier, *. ^JeMp^ mutafiMit. 
Cap, «. iJ'j'J' tarboth. A. Uooriah 

cap, ij^jf (called by the Spaniards 

O^ble, JjU kahS, ^JU laUr; 

(intelligent), (_i;Ue ^dr^. 

Capable of bnuneae,^ Ju «_-a- U 

Htlub tadbir. To be capablc.jdJ 

Capablonew, capobility, ^-IjLJ 
. taiaiyat, ij-ii hidrai, jljxi^l 

Capaoioui, ^\j tciti^, —wi /<ulA, 
(>ipaciouancwi ^•»-'j tcat^at, A«r^ 

Capocit]:. ScaC«pablcncu,capacious- 
neai. Tho intellectual capacity, 
A^ ,0^1)^1 »l kaieiri olmMlrilMt. 
A lood ««Mitr» ijV ■"•^'«'> 

10 CAB 

Caper, s. (a pickle), jCi lUMdr. 

To caper, ki noH. 
Cc^ital(cliief),,jL«lMA; (criminal), 

Capitol, t. (chief dtj), idaUJ^J 
(Idr aitatbmat. A capital stot^ 
JUiJI^jn); fOt at mat, iHu 
capital of a pUlor, J^««J1^tj 

Capitation, *. (poll-tax), Ai^janifri 
Capitulate, v. (aonender on ooot 

ditJons), ^jji^ fi^ laUam bithmiii 
Capitolation, Sj""-V-^""" tatllu 

bi ihu^l. 
Capon, I. i^iik-^lICj Ht mtiiUri. 
Caprice, t_i^ ibojc/*, 1^ Aovci. 
Gapriconi (dgn of the zodioo), 

Captain, i. ^UaJ iiipMn, j^^ 
(...^^t rayii tU wtartai. A 
captun genend, 1^|^1. 

Caption, ^H>fJ jtoM. 

Captions, o*r*^ am^iarii. 

Captivate, r._^^ war. 

C^tiTe,_;--il «tr. 

CaptiTi^, ^-V^ itbaiifat. 

Capture. ijU gMarat. 

Cor, ». <(J,- t«rrf«i. 

Carabine. *. *^]^ br&ilita. 

Oaracun. .'• .o tdnncdn, i\j\i 




(pfanr. Ji|yi). The chief of a 
emrsiiy l<^\u^ju^ k&rawdn 

Cttat, : \»\j^ tardi. 
OBifBiiaerm, «. ^U* ihdn. 
OBbuiicled (aet with carbunoles), 

Gttd, ^j^ warak, A card for 

eotton, etc.^ 'r^'^^ mahldj. 
Qudy f^. (to caid cotton), ,J^ halaf, 

Gudamomy Jljli,,,^r>- hahh al Ml. 
Gnded, cJjJo^ mandaff ^^-^^ 

Onder^ «. (of cotton), ^JU. Ao/J^;* 
Ondinal, Ju^l mA, JL^J^ 

One (attention), J^ jad, ijt^ 

' ha^rai ; {ca'Q.tion),\9\c>^\ ihtiydt, 
j«X>- hazar; (anxiety), i^\^2^\ 
idtv^dh; (regard), Ju^ tnayU 
jlic\ tjit^r, Li^laJl f«f/d^. 

Care, r. or to be carefiil, f^Jb] ahtam. 
To care for (regard),^^^1 isobar. 
To hare a care (to be cautions), 
jS:,^\ ihicatar. 

Gazefol (provident), JiU ^dhil\ 
(cantioaB), iLii/t mimtdbth ; (fall 
of anxiety), i^Ja^a^ mudtartb. 
He is a care/bl izuu?^ tJ^jj^ \ 

{jMjiJs^ or \jolj^ Aft rofirf 

ifttfA^arw or AorU. 

CareMly, ItLi^-l lA^d^. 

Carefulness, LL::^^-! Qdiydt^ a^lcjl. 

Careless, (negligent), JiU ghdfUf 
_ftL «dAi. 

Carelessly, JU^l J^ itiE^' iJbidl. 
Carelessnessi Jl^\ tAmd/, JiU3 

Careen, v, (to stop leaks), laiiS ib(/a^. 

Career, «. (race-ground), ^^Ju^ 
mayddn (plur. ^;£<i>l:!^ moyAiJIii) ; 
(full speed), ^^^ raA(^. To spur 
a horse to full career, jU Bdk. 

Caress, «. j;LiJ iamaUuk. Flatter- 
ing caresses, d^lit^ ffMitfi^o/il^. 

Caress, t^. j3^ mafiaA, uJl^H Zd^. 
Cargo, «. ^L^ tffoskai. [al^araba. 
Carman, «. <L,jyuJ\uy>^iwl.g «dAi^ 
Carmine, ^Iti la^l. 
Carnage, Jsj ib^. [nafadnl. 

Carnal, (^Umms^ jusmdnlf ^jLuA-j 
Carnality, ^^^^ tawhdn. 
Carnally, S^f&Jili hikol shdhwat. 
Carnation (colour), ^^ ^tmdbi. 
Camelian, /Jh^ coAl A. 
Cameous (fleshy), mJT^ mulhm. 
Camiyorous, rj^y^^^^"^^^ 

(dumhUih ajfawdrih. 
Carob, i . (plant), <-^jj/5. AAarraA, 




Carouse, v. (drink), im^\^' 
Caipenter, s.j\pf^ najlfdr. The trade 
of a carpenter, ij\sfr nijUrat. 

Carpet, LLuJ hiBdi^ <Lt»i;lg iunfusat. 
A carpet on which they prostrate 
theniselves at prayer, 2fjL4^ 
•ajjaddh. We want some small 
carpets, Sj * L^iz ^blsr'^^U 
^yzin Bojjdddt Boghlrdh, 

Carriage (of loads), i^yks>^ humUlat, 
(condact), Ji^x ^mal, A car- 
riage (coach, cart, etc.), <0^ 
^raha, l^j^^ ^X^ haroua. 
Get ready the carriage, i^^J^\jia^ 
haddir al karossa. A carriage in 
.which women travel on camels, 
etc., 4P'&^ hawdaf. 

Carrier, «. JU^^. hammdl. A letter- 
carrier, c^jiCJf J^U- hamil al 

Carrion, lUi laahat, liu^ jlfat. 

Cwnoiyjyp^ jautr. 

Cany, v. J«4>. hamal; (to trans- 
port), Ja3 nakaL To carry or 
behare one's-self. J^U ^md. 
To carry off or away, ^j ra/a^. 
To carry one's-self carelessly, 
iJjUJ tagh&fdl. 

Cart, 9. ijjS. ^aba. 

Cartilage, t . cJjfyac gk$dr%f. The 

cartilage of the noae« i *^ t 

CartQaginoos, Jm^/^ gkair^fl. 

Carve, v. (in stcme, wood, ete.), 
(jyuki; hoImA. To carve (meaOy 
-.^ tikirriflA, ^lai hatta^ 

Carved, ijltyc^ manhuh. 

Carver, 8. /^U) nakhdih. 

Cascade,* ^^^^^^^^j^^j^j^ 
nahr ndul min jabal ^aU wdA. 

jil BhaOdl. 
Case, 9. (box), J^J^««« toiiJfti; (a 
sheath), uJli ghildf, A needle- 
case, ^;f::^ mayharaU A caas 
(state of any matter), JW JM^ 
j^\ amr. The truth of the case^ 
Jls'lJ^L^ hakikat alh&h Sup- 
pose the case, K^^faradati. TSo^ 
statement of a case in writing, 
^^\sf\ijyo 9^rat al hdl, 

mahdar. [jtha^ri^BL 

Casement, t. JJjmJ^cJuJ^ MkMdk 

Cash, Ji3 nakd (plur. Jyo tmiiuO* 
Cask, 9. (barrel), Jt^^ barwM. A 
cask of wine, JuJ<wlr>^ Uddyi^ 

Casket, t . ZJic ^«/^t, ^jlioS ka9^aL 

Cassia, (lig.) << rVil ■< MftiiUt; 
(fistual),^^^L£k JU«ydr«»Miffr. 




Om^ 9. ^j tmmtf^ ^jo tarak. To 
OMt (oandenmX S>^ Mtmn. To 
cart np, i,,,^Mi«»^ hauah; (to 
Tt»mit)| fyAs^f iitafragh. To 
etst %WKff ^jb tarak; (to be 
wrecked), jjL ghwik. To cast 
the eyes towards, ^k) na»ar. To 
cast (model), jya satowar. To 
casf the balance, ^j rqffah. 

Cast, «. ^^j rami. A cast or 
mould, v.^\3 ito/>3. A cast-away 
(infidel),^!^ kafir. 

Castigate, 9.(pnmsh), c^U ^kab ; 
(to correct), c^31 oi^^M. 

Ontigation (chastisement), L^ 
^mkuhaif c^U& ^iito&; (emen- 
dation), —1^1 ulak, 

GMtle, «. iuJi ib/&a^. The bastion 
of a castle, ^uIlaJI^^ 3^9^ a/ 
kal^. A strong ar impregnable 
castle, ^yor^^jtia^^ himon kasin, 
A moat ronnd a castle, (jm^ 

Castrate, v. l<^^ kkasa*. 

Castrated, ^^^^ mukksU 

Castration, La^^l li^d. 

Casual, JU;\ ttiifdkl. 

Casually, UU^I ittifakan. [diyat. 
Casnalness, i^j\£.Jju> aifat ^ri- 
Casualty, «. jiij) My^Jt. / 

Cat, t. laS Jb'^^; (a she-cat), ^ 
if^. This cat has large claws, 
ij^ji^^\i\\aji\\s:b ka%d al kitt 
lako atdflr kablrak. 

Catalogue, t • ^U^ fakriiot. 

Cataplasm, «. ^^) lahkka, 

Catapulta, «• ^j;;»:>jgv< mayt/anf^. 

Cataract, «. Jmmi «ay^ (plur. J^:*^ 

Catarrh, aI^ %ukdm, Jj3 m's/. 

Catastrophe, «. ^ 3a/(2. 

Catch, 9. cLCii^ mw«i&. To catch 
(to be contagious), c^J^ ^aci^a'. 

Catch, 8, (seizure), c^vm^ inofi^ ; 
(trick), ^/k*-Jj <a/5f», j^^JJS 
taztolr ; (contagion), \)j toahd. A 
catch (hook), ^^Li kalldhe. 

Catcher, «• (^li X'^^. 

Catechise, c^. ^^.i^rJlJic. ^llam 

Categorical, (JLl tA^A* -^ <^te- 
gorical answer, ^\ tiim,A^, 
jawdh skdft, ^J^Uc^Ls^ jatodb 

Catenarian, J^^nL.r.^ mutataliih 

Catenate, v.jj^^janzar. 

Catenation, J^uJiamj taialstU, ^jAmt 
sahilat ; (regular connexion), 
4j1U ^aldkat, ^LmaU^ mundiibai. 

Cathartic (a cathartic medicine), 
JifMbu musakkiL 


Catholic (umversaDy ^^i cumilmf . 

A Eoman Catholic, ^^fA^SS 

Catholicon^ «. (onivenal remedy), 

Cattle (of ^e larger kind), \J^y^ 
haywdn (plor. CL^Lj !•:*>- haff- 

wdndt), ^^1^ matodshi. 

Cayalcade, «. L^y mawJcab, 
Cayalier, «. (horsemao), J^<»-^ 

hhayydly (jw^li fdrii. 
Cavalier (brave), Jj^*^ fnubdr%%\ 

(haughty), jJc^ mutakabhir. 
Cavalierly, ^^I^Jili hikol takabhur. 
Cavalry, J^ khayl. The enemy's 

cavalry attacked ns, jJuJl^l^ 

\jy^,^\ JsMydlat al^H iktaha- 

Cave (cavern), ^U^ maghdrat. 

Caught, part, of Catch, 

Caviare (salted eggs of sturgeon or 

other fish), j\^ hhvihydr. 
Cavil, 9. (frivolous objection), 

, * > ^^ *Lr'^" ""^ i^tirdd hUd 

Cavil V. ^jj,jL^lj^yi^\ i^ad 


Cavity, «. <-J^ jawf. 
Caul, 9. (small net), ^C^ «Aa5a^. 
CauMover, «. ia^^ hamdblt. 
Caulk, p. (a abip) hili ial/at. 

384 CAU 

Canse, «. i-,,>tf...i aoiai (pL ^V*^ 
M5d6), C.^b to^M; (alaw-anit), 
^5^J da^a* or i^J, ^Uuyt 
intff 4/b^a^. The cause and eflEbc^ 
Q^^J^t. The particular oanie^ 
^U^W7^.^<a&iiAAd«. Thekgd 
cause, ^^^-1^5^.5^^-^ mBfH 
shar^i. The evident oanae^ 
jib^i^^uy. The material oauae, 

Ju3U<iLf ^t/M rndddiyai. To 
carry on a cause at law, ^-ij; 
r^/a^. Without cause, Vi»i..<%p--^^ 
3»^ mii;fi. Why do yon laog^ 
without cause? ^uX^^^/ufJ 
v_ - ' ^«A tadhak Md aiM. 


Cause (pretext), ILe^ ^tOat, jLu 

Cause, V. J^ ^omo/, l,.>.*.o 9ahM. 

To cause sorrow, Jt oAom, *^ 

ffham, i^jj^^ ahzan. 
Causal, j^^U/fi^ift, 1^^^^^ ff»il;i^. 
Caused, J^*i^ f?ki/^il/. 
Causeless, causelessly, u.^.<<^^]Lj 

3i7d mnjib. 
Causeway, «. (jljo tarik. 

Caustic, Jy«^ mw^^. 

Cauterize, v. ^j^f kawa\ 

Cautery, «. (or the mark made by 
it), ^ hay. Cauterizing instru- 
ments, i\^^ mikwdt 

Cauterized, s^^ wmkmowa\ 




Gntioii (pnid0Doe)y l^Ui^t iUiyAt^ 
^ Jj ta/Ullr^ j^ hoMor ; (seca- 
rity), ilMi iafdlat, JJ^ kafll; 
(wwii]]ig)| 4^U^ ■ naHhat. 
Cbotioii, 9. ^ naaahfji^ hauar. 
Cntionery t. ^j^^ damln, 
OntkniB, lplj>r>fw^u,>>%fwL^ $dh(b 
ikUydtf jJCLdr* mfMaxiiTf bLr^^ 
■iwtoyaiibii. To be caations, !^J 
Uyakhn, {jm^\ Moras. 
Gmticrasly, tLi»-\«jC Hkol ihtiycLt. 
Cease, v. (leave off) ^^^Jl^w hhaloB, 

il^ te-ai(, ^ faragh. 
Oeasdesa (perpetual), J\^} dayim, 
Oedar, «. (tree), ^jy^a aarwat, 
Cefling, i^M^ 9akf, ^^jb tawdn. 
Cdebrate, v. ^X^ madah. To cele- 

Ivate a festival, JuLc ^ayyad. 
Celebrated, ^^f^ nuuhhur, ^^Sa^ 
wtamduh, 'n^ycy matcsnf, j^^ 

$kaMr, Jax^ mu^atzam. 
Celebration (solemn performance or 
remembrance), c-jb^J^ ^d 
ihafff; (praise), ^X« tnadh, d^^^ 
htmd; (celebrity), jlfL-i»l ishUhdr, 

Celerity, isj^ tur^t. 
Celery, t. ^jJfJ karafs. 
Celestial, ^f^LiN^ samdwt, ^X-Li 
falakl. Tbe celestial inhabitants, 

Celibacy, ^jjj^ ^Mjfot, 
CeU, «. ^^]j tdwiyai, 

Cement (glue), ]^ ^^ra ; (for build- 

^%\ ^j^ ^^»J (union), jLa?l 
ittihdd. [laham. 

Cement, v. (unite), J-^j wasal, a^ 

Cemetery, ^r^^^ mattara. 

Cenotaph, 8. j^y% moidr. 

Cense, a. ^|/^ hhardj. 

Censer, a, (for incense), *;-a^V-^ 

Censorious, aUj namm^m. 
Censoriousness, /•l'^ maldm. 
Censurable, j^^Jzamlm (fem. <U^ 
%amimat). [/•jl /atrwi. 

Censure, c,.\*j^'> ta^lh, ^^Jb ta^. 
Censure, v. ^j wahhakh, a J samm. 

Censured, ^j^ X« m^mum. 
Censurer, «. f^,y mutoabhikh. 
Census, i^^A:Jljl«Xc ta^d an- 
nu/Ha. [hil mdyat. 

Cent, li\^ mdyat. Per cent. ^UlU 
Centipede, a. (poisonous insect). 

Centre, a. 'fy markat, la-jj trcwa^ 
The centre of a circle, J-^ 
/ ^IjJI mariba al ddyrat. 




Central, centrally, centric, k«»y;^ 

Gentry or sentry, ^^1 alghafar. 

Centaple, uJl^t^U m&yat ad^f. 

Century, «. ybJ dahr^ J-*>- fil, 
^^ kam, ii^^[^. 

Cephalic (caring a head-ache), 
iUjJl4^^L« tnukawwi aldim&gh. 

Cere-doth, ^/^JL^ mushamma^. 

Ceremony, ciACj iakUf. Beligions 
ceremonies, Au*ikX\\^jJsiff taks al 
kanUat, ^jM.^^\CS^\i^ mandsik 
al kanUat. 

Ceremonial, ^Ui>.l ihtifdh. 

Ceremonious, ci^UlO^.^'wl^ sdhth 
takallufdt. Ceremoniously, Jij 
^}\scJ>^\ hikolihtifal 

Certain, (jAs.'^ muhakkak, (^j^J^ 
ma^Um, ^f^si^ tahXh^ ^\^ voddih, 
A certain person, ^LJ faldn. 
Certain intelligence, ^sf^j^ 
khahar aahlh. It is certain 
that .... ^LJ\«^vie«^ sahlh 

innahu. For certain, j; JLcvJ \ ^Lc 
^ala* attahklkf ULiac? tahklkan. 
Certainly, ^jJl2\^\s> ^M al yakln, 
cl^)l Idikak, ^LLo^ hakkan, 

Certainty, ^^^Jb yakin, As- ^Im, 
Aai, djKS^ sahhai. 

Certificate, %. if jlf^^ sMMM. 
Certify, v. J4^ sheked (voL) 
Certified, Jas^ muhakkak. To he 

certified, ^Ja3 takarrar. 
Certitude, ^jJiJ\Ae> ^Im aiyaib»» 

See Certainty. 
Cerulean, i/^^ JjJ^ as^ Mmdipi. 
Ceruse, -^\juL»t isflddj. 
Cess (cessment), t^j"^ kkardf) 

f^yos^ mahsul. 
Cessation, i^My tawakkufg H^ 

mahlat, cILa3\ inkttd^ 
Cession, ^JmJ ta8llm,^jajyu it^ML 
Chafe, V. (warm), ^J J daffa\ l<4*^ 

Chaff, ^jJ tihn. 

Chaffer, t?. i|jV J^ ^mal hd%dr» 
Chafing-dish, Jiu^ mankal. 
Chagrin, ^^^ huzn, >£ gkam. 
Chagrin, v. ^^j^ hazxan, ax ifham. 
Chain, %.j^\ zanfir, ^JJuJuj aihM 

(plur. JnmjLj saldsii). 
Chain, v. jy^s^ janzar, jS^j zanjar. 
Chained, jj*^ mujanzar. To he 


chained, jlJ^aT tajanzar. 
Chair, «. ,<^^ i&tfr«f . Bring a chair, 

Chairman, «. eAf^^L/^ij *^ 

a/ tnajlis. 
Chaise, 8. <0^ ^aba. 
Chalk, ^'U MdfAir, .!>- Aau?tf dr. 




Oudky, i^jt^\^ MoAif^. 
OiaDeDge, «. (to fight a general 

bftttle), «--^^ hdrdb. 
ChaOeiige, «. ij6 J dmo^* 
OdDenger, t . ^^ muMa^i, 
Qmnber, ^^\ auda. The chamber 

of JQstioe, JL4>.Cjr^ mahkamat. 

The treasury chamber^ JLijfiL 

iJUnpui^. The chamber of the 

Chamberlain^ «. ^^c^U. ^'»3 (pi. 

Chamelion, t. ^l{^ hurhdffe, 
Chamomfle, ^yb Jdifl,i«/ 
CSiamp, V. ^jac> ^add, cI^Olc ^oM. 
Champaign (open flat country), \jsr^ 
9ahrd. An extensive champaigD, 

Champion, «. ^l^ *hujd^, JJ^ 

Chance (fortune), vj:^ 'V; ^oM/, 
t>,,>^j»rr'y iMMi&; (accident), jUJ\ 
Uii/dkf ijoj^e- ^rid; (possibility), 
^ICtt Miidii, JU:iL>.! ihtimdl. 
By chance, UUJ\ ittifdkan. 

Chance, r. \J^joira\ t^jj^^^ hadas. 

Chancellor, s. j .j I «» ; ^ JuuuUyer. 


Chancery, «. (chief court of justice), 

h Xm:S iantldriat 
Chandelier, «. ^1jut4J« sham^addn. 
Chandler, 8, cUJ« »kama/d^. 


Change, t. 
Change of constitution,. J)Ls^1 
^\j^\ ikhtildl al mizdj. Achaoge 
(succession), iiUs* ihUd/aL 

Change, f. J J^ badalfjlsi^hayyar; 
(to be changed), jJju taghofyar. 
To change clothes, J Ju7 tdbaddd. 
To change appearance, cs^,JLy 
^^ tayhayyarai sUrakthu. To 
change one's mind, iji^jS^ 
ghafyywr fhrahi. 

Changeable,j;*Jcl1 Jjli idhil attayh-' 
yir; (inconstant), l1>\ >j<UL^ 
mdldhu sabdt. [aasahdt 

Changeableness, CI^L^JIaJ^ ^adam 

Changed, ^^;^;jbL^ mutaghayyir. 

Changer, «. (of money), uJVJ^ 

Channel, «. (JJ^ ftiHib; (of a river, 
etc.), i^js^ mqjra^ ; (a frith or 
strait of the sea), jU^ hughdt. 

Chant,!;. ^^^^Aonna'. See, To sing. 

Chaos, ^j^ A«^tZl(3. 

Chap, «. (fissure), jM^afA^i^. A chap- 
man (purchaser), v^^^^iMAi^ mushtari. 

Chap, V. Jm* «A<!kJ&i&. 

Chaps (fissures), j|^ g A «Attiba^ ; 
(jaws, mouth), jd^ hali. 

Chapel, «. (place of worship) ILil^ 
kdpelld, Juit^ ma^had, 

Cbaplet, s. (a rosary)3;^^«M^ motboKa 




Chapman, «. ^jJL^ mMihUurl, 
Ghapt (chapped) j^ibL« moMskkf 

j^LL« maftah. 
Chapter, t. c-ib MJ (plur. c->l^' 

oite^ft), J^ /m7 (plnr. J^ 

Character (mark), cJ^ Aof/, la£^ 

khatt, iJ\J^ uhdrai, &2ii nukUU; 
(quality), i^Aa^ ufosf; (reputa- 
tion), iy^ shuhraif J-.i>-^j. 
A public character or office), 
\__ '^'-^ tnamah (plur. i^^^^^Vi^ 
mandsib). [toasaf. 

Characterize, v, (describe) u, o .» ^j 

Characteristic, ^J^^ tcaaft. 

Charcoal, ms? fahm. 

Charge (custody), ^Liosls^ muhd- 
Jkat, i^\j>^ hirdiat; (mandate), 
j^\ amr (plur. j^^j^ awdmir) ; 
(office), ^.^^lo:^ mofMo^; (agency), 
ll\^^ wakdiat; (accusation), ij\Li> 
thakdyat; (expense), ^^j^ kharf; 
(an attack), (^ys^ hufUm. 

Charge, v, (commission), J^ wakkal\ 
(to impose a task or burden), Ji<4>- 
hammal; (to command), ^ C "w 
hakam; (to attack), ms^ hafam. 

Chargeable (costiy), ,^U ghdU. 

Chariot, 8. iJj£- ^aba, ^Qus^ ^qfalat 

Charity(tendemess),<U5^ muhabbat ; 
(alma), ^ju^ aadakat. 

Charitable (libecal to the ] 

Charitableness, iixo 9adabU» 
Charitably, XI*^ J^ WWwuA 
Charles's-wain, (^^^Icl^Uj 

Charm, a. (amulet), J>J[U>- htm 

ieachanimexLt),jsr» iihr ; (a 

ment), i^Sp^jaah. 
Charm, r, (bewitch), ^;«-» i 

(to please highly), Lmj 

]a^ hat. 
Charmed, tj^/u*^ nuurur. 
Charmer, «. (enchanter), j 

adhir; (a beloved object), c^ 

Charmingly (delightfully), ks 

^\jjmj\^ bikol haz tod inahirC 
Charnel-house,^ kabr. 
Chart, «. ^J^ khdrta. See 
Charter, a. JJ^ aanad. 
Chartered, J^^ mukdwal. 
Chase, a. (himting), Ju«0 aayu 
Chase, f7. Ouwa7 taaayyad, [} 
Chased (put to flight) ^^^ 
Chaste, c-gjfir. ^f\f> A < 

woman, ai^^ic ^fifai. 
Chasten, or chastise, v. s^^Ke- ^ 
Chastised, s„^\jl^ mu^kab. 
Chastisement, c^Uc ^ikdb, c 

ta^lbf c^f«Xe ^mdb. 




Cbai (or ehiUhat), J^j J-3 hi 
CbBKp, i^/^s^j rMm. Iwa kaU. 
QMnpeii, w» i»jL 9dwam. [rMu. 
CkasolT. - j^i^*^!..!^ " ^ Niaman 

Cheiit, •- (fraud), iL:*- Allii^, Ju^ 
iiyi. A cheat or cheater, ^1 Jls 
§lmMir, ^\Li ghuhdUUK 

Cheat, #. J *Xs yAotlor, Jul ghath. 

Qieated, ^ytJU nMj^MiUA. 

Cbeek, v. (repress), L^ (faM, 

Cheeked (cnrhed), ^y^ momna^; 

(leprehended), u^U^ mif^AM. 
Checkmate (at chess), (Ji^UaFll 

Cheek, «. Jo- hhadd. The two 

cheeks, J^Jc^ himdikd. 
Cheer (gaiety), ^^^^ moMrrat, 
Cheerfdl, jj/**^ masnir, 1?^**--^ 

fliaAfft/, fj^^ji farhdn. 
Cheerfollj, j^j^J^, ^*^^ 9unir. 
Cheerfolxiess, j^j^ tumr, tLy-J^ 

imhi$dt, <^lfJ< ibtihdj\ ^jifarah. 

' Cheese, ^^j-^r >««^«»- 

Cheesemonger, «. ^V^ jahbdn. 
Chemistry, L^tM^Jf Jl^ ^Im alkimla. 
Chemist, «. \ ,«♦/<> ■U>^ mu^Um 



Chemical (belonging to chenustry). 

Cherish, r. (protect), i<«^>* Aoumi' ; 

(to caress), j;L« tnaUak, 
Cherishment, JbU>. himdyat 
Cherry, «. (jw^ £<ira«. 
Chersonese, «. jj^j^ ydwiroA. 
Cherub, cherubim, the cherub angels, 

^j^lG\^)Ult ai maldykat al 

Chess, ^^^A^ Boiranf. 
Chest, «. Jj«3^2>«« sandnk. 
Chestnut, «. ^Ujjm.^ kastana. 
Chew, 9. wo^ madagh, (JLxU ^o^A. 
Chicane, chicanery, <c L > - hlUU. 
Chick, f. or chicken, ^^y farrnj 

(plur. ^1/ fardrlj). 
Chide, r. (reprove), <^^ wahhakh. 
Chief, A«xL« mukaddam^ ^^^\ ash. 

The chief part (of anything) J-^ \ 

m/. [X;AtM«tl«an. 

Chiefly, ""LJU ghdUhan, ^\^y.zD^ 
Child, «. jJj f£^a^ (pL J^^f atc^^diO. 

A sucking-child, j^j Jit ^i}? 

Childhood, ^^ tufaliyat, L^ ««^d. 
Childish, Jl^b id^t/. ChUdishness, 

Chill, chilly, J^b 5dn«. 
Chill, chillness, chilliness, ftJ^y 


Chimera, ». **} trndbn, Jl«lj J^^ 

JMfat bata. 
Ckimnical, ^j wahnl, Jie\) h&til, 
Chimiiey, ■■ h.^.^^ vuMManat. 
CbiD, t. (of a mas), ^lJ daktm; 

(of a woman), ^«£m1. 
China (ompira), ^;*>^t diL*^ mam- 

JaEoj oMlit ; (porcelain), (<m<««InI. 
Chine, «.^^1j^ IWm ana^. 
Chink, (. ^^ thuk. 
Chintz, L=.-^^ olU. 
Chip, 0. *ji/aram. 
Chirography, lULfk. Jbi^f y«M. 
C^iromanQy (fortune-telling by in- 

apecting tb« hand), jJ) J^ ^im 

Choice, t. i^\iaj\ intiihab. 
ChoicenesB, i—i\-i tuif, J^ fadl. 
Choke, r. (anffooate), (Ji^khaiuiii 

(to obrtnict), jh4 mM. 
Cboler (bile), 1^ ntfra ; (anger), 

Choleric (irascible), fc-Jj.df giadnl. 

Cbooae, «. jLjui-1 ihJU&r, j-arl 

o^toXAm, (...-^scijl intaiJtah, ^JJ 

Chop, e. ^laJ ibto^; (to change), 

Jjj badal, Jjj ituJiii/. 
ChoppiDg-kdifb, t.^^U adt&r. 
Chorography (deeoription of coun- 
trieiaX jJL/lkii^ iaihtlt ai hil&d. 

ChoTua of ungera, \^ijf tfianu. 
Chosen, i_a£W« wmMKA. 8m 

Chriit, ,f,f^ »l awtlA. 
Christen, v. Jiac ^oMiurf. 8w 

Chriatendom, A^. ff ^»i,*l^tldU4H 

almMmSlik ahuiMigat. 
Christian, (. ^^tfW« wmIAi. 
Christianity, ,_yKW«11^;jtkl1 Mm 

al nuUlhi, 
Christmas, j!L*]1 J^ j^d aJ wOJoi. 
Chronicle, ^j\j MHU (pi. <^j\y 

Chronicler, i. :Ajy wmmuriik. 
Chronological (belonging to di»- 

nology), Lj<<j^3 MrliAl. 
Chronologiciilly (in chronolapeal 

order), ^^,*iiJl^_;l;i-^-~»-ji«^^ 

^la' ntil^b MriM ommIm. 
Chronologist, t. ^jy* mtuamJA. 
Chronology, -^y^-sJl-J-e jAt 

Chrysolite, *. ^^j>j tabatytd. 
Church, I. Zw^ ianUat (pL (^^ 

kandj/it), Aiu bay^at. 
Ctiurdi-maD, «. lacljtod^is. 
('hurth-yard, *. >^-s.« mMtHvL 
Churlish, {Ji-^-j wa^. 
Chyle, ^y^ ii/d«. 
Cic&trioe, cicatrix, ^J dagk. 





(Snetert «. kJL^ miff, 

CmetavB (belt, sash, gizdle, etc.)y 

(Slider, •. jU; rmaOd. 

(Smmbar, ^[;Aq^ mmjt/rak. 

Chmamon, ^^ kirfah. 

(Spher^ «. (in arithmetic);^^ «(^ ; 
(an occnlt manner of writing)^ 
y^j rami (pluT.Jyj rumii%). 

(Srde^ «. ^^ J ddjfrat The centre 
of a circle, iji\j\\Jtj^ markaz 
mUdyrai. A mathematical circle, 
j£JCUm^ Jid «Aa^ mustadir. 

CMedfj^j^ mudawwar. 

Circoity t. ^^ J ddjfrat. A circle of 
eoontry, |J\p^ hawdll. 

Circular, j^«V« niflM^trtt^or, jJOm*^ 
mustadlr. A circular line, Lrw 
j^jL« i^^// mudawicar, 

(Srcolarity, a circular form, JC^ 
^Ij J ahail dwdfi, 

(Srculate, t^-^O dawtoar. 

Circulation, j^J; (of the blood), 
jjlj^jJ dawdrdn. [mudawtcar. 
Circumambient, !du&^ miihlt, j^X« 
Circumcise, v. ^;:v£^ khaian, 
Circomciaed, ^^f^ss^ maJthtHn. To 
be circumcised, ^j::^:^^! ikhtatan. 
Gfeumcision, ij\sj>^ khitdnai. 

(%tiimlbrence> i^\j dd^a^. f 

Circumfluent, a^^a:^ muklt. 
Circumfuse, v,Jlsj\ intashar. 
Circumgyration, {^\jb tawdf. 
Circumjacent, fj^ao^ frndtasil, u^^ 

CircumlocutioD, ij^ ^draU 
Circumscribe, JJk»- haddad. 
Circumspect, ^X« mudabhir, ^lju^ 

Circumspection, LI, j •; ^1 Mifdt, 

^Jj tadblr, ^fLxJI iniibdh. 
Circumspectly, ^L^JiufJC^ (tXio/ 

Circumstance, ^^S kayfiat^ <U .>to 

hakliat; (something relative or 

dependant), ( J ^JC^ muta^attik; 

(conditiou), ]ffjJi» ahart, jXS^ 

Circumstantial (accidental), iS^\ 

iUi/dJtl, ij^j^ ^ridl. 
Circumstantially (exactly), ^ J JO 

hihddikkat'y (accidentally), UUjt 

itUfdhan ; (fully), ""lioA^ mv/iM- 

Circumvallate, v.j^\^ hdiar. 
Circumvallation, j^Ur* 9nt^«ar0^. 
Circumvention, j*X£. ghadr, ^^^ 

Circumventer, s. Jli«^ muhtdl. 
Circus, «. (an open area for sports), 

^ljU« mlddn* 




Cistern, s. (jo^ hawdy i^y hurkai, 

fflj^ 9€thrij. 
Citadel, «. ^Ui kal^. 
Citation (summons), i— .^lV» talah. 
Cite, v.j>a^^\ XBtahdar. 
Citizen, jJlj^^\ t^ hdlad. 

City, 8. iiJ*y^ madinat (plur. ^X« 

Civet, j\)j nahdd, CjCm^ mUk. 

Civil, polite, civilizedyCi^l.rfu. >*rwl.g 
sdhib ndak, v^jt(,.,.^U sahib 
aifl^. Civil or political affairs, 
il^ji\jy\ umUr addawlat, 

CiviUty, CJ^ stditk, i^J\ adah, 
uJU lutf, Xiiy latafai. 

Civilize, v. (^3\ addah. 

if m 

Civilized, ^*^y muaddah^ ^c-^ 

Civilly, ujy J^ &tb/ hUf. 

Claim, 9. t^yS'^ da^a\ 

Claim, 9. u^^JJ? ^0^5. 

Claimable, ^JJLlfjjll Jayikattaiab. 

Claimant, daimer, «. ^«x« miMtt^^f . 

Clamor, ^Li^ siy&h, <iL^W sayhat. 

Clamor, 9. ^U «dA. [iko^dyt?. 

Clan, «. ^JuJ hahllat (plur. Jj^lJ 

Clandestine, i<-A-fi^ it^, ,^5-"-^ 
mukhfl, jf^***^ tnaatar. 

Clandestinely, ]^ «trraii. Clan- 
destinely and openly> ^)Uj l^ 

Clang, clangour (of a trumpet^ 6te.), 

Clank (of chains, etc.), 4 vVi;Vt 
Clap, s, (of thunder, etc.), Jsj ra^ 
Clarification, iuLoj tagfiyai. 
Clarify, v. ^Jlu> 9affa\ 
Clarion, s. jy hiik. 

Clash, 9. (dash against), ajLoJ 
tatddam, {joju ia^arrad. 

Clash, clashing (dashing), s. AjLdJ 
tasddum; (opposition), ^lJUU^ 
mukhdlafat, [ialdkalL 



Class, «. ^mm3 ihfm, c ^ naw^ 

Classical author, 9, r-^x* 

mwffoUif mu^tabar. 
Clatter, dJOji karka^. 
Clause, «. ]efjJi» skart. 
Claw, s. i^Jkk^ mukhldb. 

Clean, cleanly, ybU^ ^Am*, 
nasi/, ^Ai noibl. 

Cleanliness, ^UaJ iMSd/o^, 5j\Ju 
nakdwat, ij\^ tahdraL 

Clear (transparent), uJu^ 9hafptf\ 
(bright, light, shining), y-J^ 
munfr, w«) 2dmt^,^<«A^. A clear 
sky, ^<»-li0fyb hawd sdki ; (evi- 
dent), ^^^^^ mubln, ^\^ wddik. 
A clear proof, 4^«^ij<L^ kylftit 
voddihat ; (unmixed), jr jLi aiitib ; 




(adb firom danger), aJL> s&lim; 

(bright), ji^ji^ wmmpir ; (evident), 

jJt\^ wBJdr. 
Clear, entii^y, idv. ^JU^j^UUJ 

iMfdmon tM kmndlan. 
Oear, r. (abeolve) ^-ic ^fa* ; (to 

jostify), ^ horror ; (to cleanse), 
«q^'. To dear (gain), 
f ibi0^, t^j reheh. 
Clearly, f^U? sdAiran. 
Qeameas, (J^jj raumak, L^ <^d ; 

(di8tinctn68B),jU;L<«t imtiydfi, 
CkaTe, V. (split), ^J^ «AaJb, j^Li 

/oU. [9atiir. 

Qearer, #. (chopping-knife, j^L» 
Cleft, j^U^ mafiahf^^AM^ nuuhkok. 

Cleft, «. JhI «^ jLywit. 

Clemency, ^U^^-. rahmat, iAj>-j^ 
siarAama^, <<i&^ Bhafakat. 

<3ement, aJ^ ^Im, JUa^I 9haflh 

Clerk, #. c^l^ i^^t». 

Clerer, JL?L2i thdtir, 

dererly, ijUa^jCj hikol shatdrot. 

deremess, iJ^laJ^ shatdrat 

Cliff, 9. ijSf^ iokhrat (plur. j^i^ 

Climate, clime, «, ^U^ mandhh, 

CHmb, V, JjLa 9a^ad. To dimb a 
wall, (^y^ ta^rhath. 

Qincb, V. (the fist), 'J^j;^^ ^^^ 

Clinical (confined to bed), ij^j^ 
ij^jsi\) fnorid bilforshot. 

Clink, V. ^Jff tan, ^J^ tantan. 

Clip, V. ^Jsai iata^ 

Cloak, 8. ^^ moiUah. 

Cloak, V. iJ^ khafa\z^ tatar. 

Clock, «. ^L) «d^a. An alarm 
clock, A;wt mimo^^fA. A dock- 
maker, (JUL) sd^ti. 

Clog, «. (obstrootion), ^^ vulm^. 

Clog, V. ^:^ tuaiM^, Jurf «aJ<^. 

Clogged, e y««4^ mamnU^ • 

Close, V. (shut), j;Lc ghalok, iLi 
«a^ ; (to condnde), *4J tammom, 
m:^ hhatam ; (to inclose),^ «0r. 
To close or unite fractures, etc. 
J^^j fooBal, j0^ jahbar. To 
close with (come to an agree- 
ment), )oJL sharat. 

Close (shut),^^^ magMuk; (near), 
c-^^ karih; (private), ^IsS- 
khdt; (compact), fj^^ matJn; 
(joined), (Jj^y matotnl; (oc- 
cult), ^Jik'^ mukhfl ; (attentive), 
^jz^ muiafaJtkir. 

Close, 8. (pause), cILaJI inkiid^; 
(condusion), Z^jUs^ JthdtimcU, 

Closed, J^JuM.^ nuudnd. 

Closely (near), v,,,^,»pS ibirii; 
(secretly), Vli«rraii* 




CloseneBs (narrownen), ituJ dliat. 

Closet, «. iA^ tMwat. 

Clot, V. oSio^ jammad. Clotted, 


Jc4kscu« munjamid. 

Cloth, ^^ jukh, ^^Ui, (♦Lri. 
iU^iii. A saddle-doth, ^«^ 
harda^t A doth wrapped xoimd 
the middle when bathing, Jby 
AUk>- /il^ hammdm. 

Clothe, V. u«J3 /aM«w. To dothe 
one*8-8elf, {j*t^ talahhas. 

Clothes, (m^\y\ astffdh. 

Cloud, «• f^ (fhaym, 1)\m^ aah&hat 
(plur. c^lfiT' aahdh). A doud 
of people, j^^^^ j(im^ kaslr. 
See Multitude, crowd. 

Cloud, V. mX& ghiyyam. See To 
obscure, darken, grow dark. 

Cloudiness, Ia^ %ulmat. See Dark- 
ness, obscurity. 

Cloudy, |»^^ mtighayyim. 

Clove, «. Ji3y5 hwrunftd. 

Clove-gilliflower, «. jLft3^ kurunJuL 

Cloven, j^aJL« maahk&k, Jj-Li^ 

Clout, 9. <Ui^ ruk^t, <G^ khirlaL 
Clout, 17. (mond with patches) ^J; 

Clown, «. ^ faUdh. 
CUojr, p. ^f^l asJiia^. 

Club, 9, (stick), Loe ^otd. 
Cluck, V. (as a hen) c;^li iUl 
Clumsy, Agjuti y^Aim. 
Cluster of grapes, 9. £Juas>» kk 
To duster (collect toge 

Clutch, XioJ habdat. 

Clutch, V. (to grasp), ^jo^ hA 

Clutter, 9. \^yB. ffhawyhd, i 

toalwalat, LLc ^ydt. 
Clyster, 9. <Uto. Ai«£na^ (plur. 

Aui^). To give a dysttf^^ 

kakan. To recdve a d; 

^^^Afl^l inhakan. 
Coach, «. ^jC ^aia. 
Coaction, ij^j^ dmruratyjms^ 

j\jb^\ idtirdr, 
Coadjutant, ^ji^U:^ muta^um 

coadjutor, JUi^ rafii, t^ 

«Aarf^ (fern. iSjjJ^ 9harihi 

\^jJ^ 9hurakd), 
Coagulate, v, >x^^ jumid, C 

lated, «X4^/« tnunjamid, O 

lation, jUrf^l injimdd^ «X 

Cod (charcod), f^ fahm, 
Codesce, v. ^jji Idzak. 
Codescence, coalition, jUjt «fc 

lhs^\ ikJUHdt, ^J:^\ m 

a\a^\ indimdm. 
Coarse, Li kahd^ IxJlc ghaiUiiL 




Comely, i^lcJCj bOol ghala»ai. 
Ooftst, J»-Li sdka (plar. J»-f^ 

Coftt, #. J^JF^ ««r<Mf (French). 
Cotx, r. (^Ji?) Idiaf, ji^ mmOmL 
Coaxer, #. ^J^a^ mumanH, 
Cobbler, t. ^JUt*^ mrmdffdti. 
Cobweb, «. ^; <^''* ^^^ naif 

Cochineal, U^ ihViriM. 

Cods, #. (Ijo J iM. 

Cocoons, J5 km, (Jj\;^ skardnik. 

Cocoa nut, k/*X^^ y<n(;3( AtiM^. 

Cod, «. (pod), c^y^^ iAantO^. 

Code, #. ^^\^\l^\z^ kitah ash- 

Co-equal, ^j^J^ mukdrtn. 

CaerBlfjti}ji fard ^mr. 

Coffee, iFjfl lahwa, ^ hun. 

Coifee-pot,>^l j;j[^\ ihrikalkahwa, 

CfdCtr, #. ^^JJwtf sanduk, 

Cofin, # «^^^ ^&fl^, J^iX:^ 

Cogency, ify ibitra/, ij^j^ dar&rat. 
Cogent, 4^y ioirl, i^j)/^ daruri. 
Cogitation, ^ fikr. 
Cogitate, v.^fzj\ iftakar. 
CognoeeiUe, 4— i/^ yvn^airif. 
Coheir, #. i^]^bclX»^ <ibrii& 
UlmlfiU I 

Coherence, cohesion, ikJL^ muUh 

Mokat, jlLt QMk. 
Coherent, J^c^ mtMak. 
Coherently, JLo-JII^-Jl^ ^oW 

Cohort, 9. ^^fawj. 

Coin, iL^ sikke. A die for coining, 
^lC) «tH'^. The place of coining 
(the mint), i^ 9%kki. 

Coin, f^. a. uX«» «ai^, <-r^ didrai. 

Coined, (^^Cm»^ nuukuk. 

Coiner, <. jJL>c,>\^ darrdh sikki. 
Coincide, f^. J^l^ tedfak, J^U^ ^^oi. 
Coincidence, ^1^ mutrd/o^^. 
Coincident, Jh^^j^ muwdjik, (Ji^^ 

Coition, ix^\£s^ mufdma^t. 
Cold, adf, Jj\j hdrid, ^^1*^ harddn. 

Cold in constitution, -^V«411J;Ij 

hdrid al mizdj. 
Cold, «. t}j) hard. Intense cold| 

jij^j tamharlr. The cold fit of 

an ague, iO«^ hardiyat. 
Coldness, i*^^ji harUdat. 
Colick, i, ^jLJl^^j wqfa^al hatn. 
Collar, 8. (of a garment), ^b ydib, 

^j %\k; (an ornament for the 

neck), JAP ^akd, J^ tawk (pi. 

jljWl). A dog's collar, iJS^ 
Collate, p. J)\i k&hoL 




Collator, I. Jj\i^ muiabil. 
Collation, aLIL« mukdUht. 
Collateral; i^j^jf^ mutawazi. 
Collaterally, i^^.uajCc-.c^, ^^^ 
k/j^^ hiwajhin mutawdnl. 

Colleague, i. CSijJ^ sharli, (jJfj 

Collect, V, a. ^^'^ joma^ J ^m. 
To collect wealth or proyidons, 
J tt w4>» jama^ mdl. To collect 
arguments, ^ draw oonclusioiis, 
Jjcu.l1 iitadal. 

Collected, collective, ^^^sjb^ tnuf- 
iami^, c^^ijr^ mqfmn^ To be 
collected, ^^i^aH infama^* 

Collectible, ^4Je\^^^ji^ mumkin 

CoUectiozi, 9. cUi>*1 ijtimd^ A 
collection or miscellany, 9y^>^ 
mafmH^. A collection of things. 

Collector, «. ^^l>- jdm*^. A col- 
lector of revenue, fj^as:^ muhaml. 

College, 8. ^jX9 madroiat (plur. 

{jMj\x^ maddrU. [hamdblL 

CoUiflower, 9. (Cauliflower), ^^^^Ji 
Collision, ^-^jl. ^ ^ mmddamat, 

/^Jioj UudduM. 
Collocate, wi^^ wada^. 
CoJJocatioB, fU0^9 wad^. 

Collude, V, (conspire to delinrad any- 
one), Jl:L>.t aM/,^U. khOmur. 

Collusion, iL^ hllai. jUjI itUfii. 

Collusive, J* Jki ghadddr. 

Colly rium, «. (ointment for the eyes, 
a black powder of antimony, etc^ 

Colonel, 9. i/!!];:!^ mlrdUiy, 

Colony, «. ^.>-U<uU^ jamd^ 

Colonnade, «• «V*\^ ^awdmHi. 

Coloquintida, «. (bitter apple, a vio* 
lent purgative), Jhi^ hamoL 

Colossus, 9. i,*Mjt\M«* Vi r^jcif* 
(ji^^^l^ shdkhi ^oilm tgjiam 

Colossean (giant-like), (ji^o^^l Ji#« 
misl al^afrit. 

Color, ^^yJ lawn. A white odor, 
^^o-jl ahifod, A black oobr, J^l 
a9wad, A red color, y4»-1 akmmr 
(fern. ]j.A..^ hamrd), A yellow 
color,^^1 asfar (fem. \jSLfi tafird). 
A green color, ydir^^l akkdmr. Jl 
brown color, jA^\ asmar (tea. 
\j^i^^ 9amrd). Sky-blue color, 
4^jU«a 9afndicl. A purple color, 
vj|^jt ofywdni, A blue oolory 
^j\ atrah. Of a changing odoTy 

Color, V, ^tJ ^mmtaho 


Colondy ^^f*-!-^ mulmpwan, f^j^ps^ 

mMtMhwwm. [uJU^ ihaffiif. 

CokrifiMy irjL* idda; (transparent), 

Colon (standard), Jld ^aiam, iAj 

rdfmtf ^j^ hayrdk. 

Golnmny #. J^ ^ama^ (plor. Ju^l^ 
uNTdMiiO. The oolnmn of the 
state, ZJjjJliljk^ ^wndat addawJat. 
The column of religion, ^Ji^\J^ 
^ftmUd eddin (these are titles con- 
ferred upon great men in the East). 

Comb, #. ]aJL^ mushi. A shepherd's 

oomb, ^\J\]aM^ mtuht arrd^. 
Comb, r. LL^ nuuh-Bhat. A comber 
(a lady's maid or tire-woman). 

Combat, t. a^U/* mn^drajb^. 
Combat, r. (fight), ^j^ hdrah. 
Combatant, «. jj\ ■ m>^ mii^drts, 
w^ «lflc^ mnAdrt^, JjU^ mukdiil. 

Combination, jU;1 i/^t/d^^, olc^t 

Combine, r. Jjj tcaffak, Sm^-^j 

rMaifj^J dabhar. 
Combined, ^jia,^ mutafik. 
Combnatible, ^j^ ^ri, ^^ro^ 

ffMarik. [amtdr. 

Combostibleness, jUI^JjU hohliyat 
Come, V, kj^ aUa\ l>» jd. To oome 

into the mind, ^b^i^LcL khaiar 

397 COM 

/I hdliho. To come in (enter), 
J^J dakhal; (to comply), ,««9^ 
ra<^. To come near, (.^^ karrab. 
To come off (deviate), J^ dal; 
(to escape), ^L>>^^^aIc L khatUu 
hdlako. Tocomeoffbadl7,U;^JLaEr 
takhayyah. To come on (to rash 
to the attack), ^i^ hajam. To 
come over (pass), ^ ^o^or. To 

come over from a party, Jjlc 
^adal. To come over (deceive), 
jJlc ghadar. To come out (be- 
come public),^^flit imhdkar. To 
come to (consent, yield), ^j 
radl. To come to, (come up to, 
or amount to), Oj halagh^ ^ 
^mal, f-*^ jama^ To come 
up (grow out of the ground), 
vj:^ nahat. To come upon 
(attack), fjB^ hqfam. The time 
to come, jLttUM^iIl^l^t ossoifidn 
al muatakbU. To come or arrive 
(in speaking of a person of conse- 
quence), i^jJL tharraf. 

Comedian, «. l[X»y3\t^,i^jiil h^h 

Comedy, «. ^«>^^ ibm«ftd. 

Comeliness, ^j***^ kusn, JU^ 
yomd/, ^jj rawnak. 

Comely, ^;am»^ ^oimw, J^^^yamf/. 

Comer, #. 4JI oti. 




Comety 9, i^^x^lL^^r^ nujmat 

Comfort (consolation), ,JuJ ttuaRl, 

(assistance), ^yc> ^aum. 
Comfort, V, ^L» saUa*, [murih. 
Comfortable, comforting, f</-^ 
Comforted, ^X**^^ tnutasaUl. To 

be comforted, ^JuJ tasaUa\ 
Comfortably, ^ImjjCj likol taaaUl, 
Comforter, «. ^Jum^ musalll, ^y^ 

Comfortless, <uLu3L &t7(3 taslttfat. 
Comical (exciting mirth), 

mudhik. Comical, comic, if 
. mashhara. [^ JL^ tourud. 

Coming, 8. vj^ (^tl, ^Uj^ itydn^ 
Command, 8, j^\ amr (plur. j^\^^ 
_ tfire^JBitr). By the command of 

Ood JUji3J|^Lj hi amr allah 

ia^la\ The royal command, 

. ^^UaLJlJl^. hukm a8iulidn. A 

command under the king's sign 

. mannal, cJj^ixsL khM tkarif. 
To obey commands, Jts>^\ miasal. 
According to the king's com- 
mands, ^UflLwJtji^lc-^ M i f^ ^ ktuab 

amrasiuUdn. Command (supreme 
authority), a^ hukm, 
CommBnd, v. ^^ hikam,j^\ amar. 

Commanded, jpj^U mSmlUr, ("J^^'^ 

Commander, 8. j*^ amir, SS^ 
hdkim. The commander of an 
army, JL^\j^\ amfr tiffapih. 
The commander of a garrisoily 
lailsr« muhajk. The commander 
of the &ithfhl, ^^^^^ykJ\j^\ 
amJr al mUminln. 

Commandment. See Command. 

The ten commandments, AU\bl#^ 
ica8dtfd attah. [^asattr. 

Commemorate, v. ^J wakar^ j^«3J 
Commemoration, ^J wukr. 
Commemorable, j^«3j pukar. 
Commemorated, j/j^ fnankor. 
CommemoratiYe, (^jl^Jj ^ttidrf. 
Commence, r. IjcjI ibtadd. 
Commencement, tjcjl tbUdd, 
Commend, v, (praise), -. «X/* maiak^ 

uJ«0j fcasaf. 
Commendable, ^^«X4^ numuMf 

J^gi.»gfc> hamid, t^ycy mawt^f. 

Commendably,Ju^i»>^eyj Jnnaw^ 

hamid, [mtuOL 

Commendation, Juf>- hamd, ^tX^ 

Commended, ^j«X4>^ tnamduh. 
Commender, 8. -.jL« mddih, ^^J^ 

Comment, v, ^JU sharoM. 

Comment, commentary, «. 

• • 





imr3 UfArat), ^^ fibrA 

(plur. CL)]b jl; ^K^O* 
tator, oommenter, «. ^|^ 

ce (trade), ^Isf^ iijdrat; 
Doune), l^lLjrvt ikhttldtf 
"* mtikhdlatat, 
Qial, i^J^ofT tijdti, 

srate, t'. *»-j raham, J^ 

oration, <iJu^ $hafakai, 
^ marhamat, 

sary, «. (del^^te), ^^ 
,J^\^ mubdshir. To ap- 
a commissary, J^ wakkal. 
sarjehipy $, il\^^ toakdlat, 

non, 8. (warranty patent), 
mnad; (delegation, full 
rX ^l^^ icakdlat, ^^yi3 
i ; (perpetration), (^ICj^l 
i. The commission of a 
, ^\x^\l^\^j\ irtikah 
»^d«f. The commission of 
Biy, Upl^jULS;! irtik&l 
U Commiasion ( office ), 
^manMb. Commission on 
ky etc., ^^ ^muU, 

c™-,™. . ^1 -». ^^ 

mmoaikal, J^ ^amf /. 
Commit, v. (to deposit), ^J^ iMMbi^i 

wi^ wada^; (to do, perpetrate), 

UyXT^t fir^dM. To oommit to 

prison, ^/um»^ Ao^. 
Commitment to prison,^, ^/um^ Aoif • 
Committed to prison, {jisy»>s!^ mah' 

bus, ^yt***^ mMfUn. 
Commodious (convenient), %mm '^V* ^ 

mundiib,^j3\ytmmpdfi]t; (useftil), 

Jui/« mufid, ^\j ndfi^ 
Commodiously, iAi\yJlCj hUtolmu* 

wdfikat, ^LiiiU^ J^ hikol mundta- 

hat, ixsc^JCi hikol manfa^. 
Commodiousness, <UmiU^ mufUttahat, 

iAi\y^ muwdfakat, it^j\i fdyidat. 

Commodity (advantage), ifju^li 

fdyxdat'y (conveniency), <?^l;.^ 
Commodore, %.j^f^ytf eommodore. 

Common, i^U ^m,jy^L^ miMMftr, 
CSylik^ tnuihtarak ; (plenty), 
ji\^ wdfir, j^ kM\r\ (ignoble), 
,aA». kalAr, Common Bense,i>J^t 
CJjJLji^, (Uhas al muakiarak. A 
Common, ^^«3u^ mlddn. 

Commonalty, common people, com- 
mons, commoners, aVjlIN al^Qm. 




ahdll al mamlakat, ^\^\ A\y^ 
^iodm anndi, i^J\ arra^at. 
Commonly (univerBally), VtyAS> 

wqfh al^wnUm ; (frequently),^^! 

Common - weal, common - wealth, 
J^^^^ yiflfmAfir, (plor. ^Usr 

Commotion, 4^^ harakat ; (tu- 
mult), hzi fitnat ; sedition (per- 
turbation), ^\ JaJt idtirdbt iiUij 

Communicate, v, (impart, reveal), 

c^arrq/*; (to bestow a part), 
hassoi; (to receive the 
sacrament), J^l^J tandwal. To 
communicate (as the pestilence, 
etc.) ii^^Xc ^ada\ To communi- 
cate a seciet, jj\^ 9&rar, 

Communication (revealing), j\^\ 
«8Adr, i»jl|y«3 ta^f\ (participa- 
tion), iij\J!L^ mush&rakai ; (con- 
versation), ijj^^^ muhdwarai, 
iyill— itw mu^iharat; (inlet), 
J^«X/* madkhal. 

Communion (intercourse), JLss^ miA- 
bat. The communion (sacrament), 
(jwJJullj^b^l Jjlij tandwul al 
kwrhdn al mukaddas. 

Community, jyi"^ jamkBTf \j\xj 
ra^^d. [al tMU. 

Commutable, Jj JuiSI^^^La^ mmmkm 

Commutation, Jjj haddlf JjJuJ 
tdbdih d) jL« muhddalat. 

Commute, f^. J*>j hadal. 

Compact, 9. jUJl ittifili, *xac ^M, 
J^ ^ahd, )ffJ^ nhart. 

Compact (solid), Jj^asx^ miunjamii. 
A compact discourse, j^\fT^^ 
kaldm mukhtasar, [mad. 

Compact, r. Ad^. laham, SAs^Jam" 

Compactedness, compactness, jl^a^^f 

Companion, «. ^J^j raflk^ i^^>'\^ 
Bdhtby ^ji*^\ anU, A pot-com- 
panion, w Jj nadlm. 

Companionable, uJjIU mdlaf. 

Companionship, ^j rufkaL 

Company (society),^ nMat^ 
Ljl4^ jam^at, JLLLc kkuUai; 
(a partnership), i^jJL ihurhU. 

Comparable, J jU^ vm^ddU, ^jL^i^ 
f^tAS^\ nwmkin attanuHl, JLJLj 
yuMah. [wajh ail UmuHL 

Comparably, J^l^aSl^j Ig ^ala^ 

Comparative, ^UJI JjU kdhH al 
mukdhalat, A comparative noun, 
Jii*gg.r.H^ Mm al tafdil. 

Comparatively, i-^ jMsMmi, 




Qongmmaif compare, likJ^i iatMah 
(pliir,! ? >l|j; M toililJtoO, i]jlL« 
■ mtd ^fliirty (jmL^ i^^^. Beyond 
oompariMm, ^UJUL Mfi ioMnhf 
^y^tA^i^fJ^i fdfik ottamM. 

Compart, amJ hatmn. Compart- 
ment, ^mmS Kmh. 

Compaaa, #. (circle), ^t J dayrat, 
ZaL>- kalaiai; (space), jltXL« 
middr; (extent), jtjc^l imti- 
idd; (ability), iy howat^ f?^^ 
tahliyatf Jifi ^akl, A pair of 
compasses, jICj Hkdr. The ma- 
riner's compass, dL«lj£.jLi JM/a^ 
fliclfiMi. To compass (encircle), 
bl>-t o^^ ; (to beside), j^\>* 
AdMr; (to attain), Jl^ hastal, 
koiib, tf^j rebeh. 

Compaasion, < u &^ thafakaty iij rik' 

Compassionate, ^.JuL^ muahfikf 
jJlJ^ ihafik, ^'^\^j rai^k 
«/ kaih. The most compassionate 
of the merciful, ^^jti^^^l^^d^^^jK 
mrham arrahmln. 

Compassionate, r. ^j raham, ^jLii 

Companionately, ^U>^jJ^ hiiol 

rakmat. [mm&iih 

Compatible, ^pl ^yt^> u^wL^ 

Compatibly, JL-iL^ J^ hiM mu' 

Compatriot, «. jJb^t t^ ^o/itii. 
Compel, 9. /^j]\ aham, j^ jabar^ 

/♦p katam, s^<^i^r ghaaah. 
Compelled, ^^jL* mdkam, (tjF^ 

muttimm, jy*-^ mqfhur. To be 

compelled, ^JpiS tlUaum. 
Compellation (nomination), 

Compend, compendium, jL^l ih- 

tUar^jOik^ muktasar. To make 

a compendium, j^acj] iktatar. 
Compendious, ja:,s^ mukhtoior, 

^y fnHjas. A compendious 

discourse, J^^^K kaldtn mnjoK. 
Compendiously, \j\sfi ifdnan. 
Compensate, v. ^jc ^awwad, vil^ 

Compensation, ^y, ^ad, \js^ 

Competence (power, capacity), ^ Jul 

kudrat, i^\i kdhUfyai. 
Competent, JjIj kdhd, ^*i Idyiky 

c,,%i»L^ mundiihy jjIj kaiir, 

i^j^^lj wdjib, (j^y^a^ fMntdhik, 

vil^ k&fl. 
Competently, ZSUJ^ hikolltydkat. 
Competition, eU; nand^ ^lx« 

mundM^at; (contest), IL^ pMrot. 

COM 402 

Competitor, t . i^iiji; raJtUb^ M^t%^ 

Compilation^ compilement, u^U 

idhf,^^^jam^. See Collection. 
Compile, v. (from various authors), 

^A^ jama^ To compile a book, 

t^li^cp;^ sannafiiUlh. 

Compiler, «• («^IjJLI1w«U^ jdmi^ 

al hitah 
Complacence, complacency, J^l^^Uj 

rida hhatir; (civiHty), ^Ubl 

latafat. [See Civil. 

Complacent (affable), i^jiJa! ^^I/l 
Complain, r. ^<^^f %Bhtaka\ To 

complain of an injury, ^^^^dj 

iashakka' mm. 
Complainer, «. ^1^ «AdJ^, JLwLjl^ 

Complaint, «. LUL& shakdyat, \^J^ 
thakwd ; (malady), ^^ marad. 
Complaisance, complai8antne88,(«.iy 

Complaisant, i^j^\^*^r^\^ sdhib 

marHat, i^^iAi latlf, 
Complaisantly, cfila) J^ Kkol UUf^ 

ijiy J^ hikol latdfal. 
Complement (fullness, perfection, 

completion), f\Aj tamdm^ a\^\ 

itwUlmy Jss^\ ikhtitdm. 
Complete (without defect), J»«l^ 

hdmU\ (finished), ,^^f^^ muntaM. 


Complete, v. ^^aj Umrnam^ J^ 

Completed, J^\^iSffi»7, ^UJ tamdm. 

Completely, UUJ tam&wum. 

Completeness, completement, com- 
pletion, Ifjl ifUthd, f\:sj>\ 
ikhtitdm^ aUJ tamdm, aUjI 

. itmdm. 

Complex, ^J^^ muUMak. 

Complexion (of the face), »j^ 
chahra ; (constitution), ^S 
mizdj, ^Ju^ iabi^atfjia^x. ^i 
Of an adust complexion, ^/h^Ij 
•^U^JI f/dhii olmiMdj. 


Ui ridd. 
Compliant (obedient), ^U? ^y^» 

^Ja/f mutl^ {-^^ miildM^, 

Complicate, r. LLl khaht, laj^ 

Complicate, complicated, 
mukharhat. To be complicated. 

Complication, complicateness, UifL 
Compliment, s. cJJlC ^ai^/!r^, a1»i 
saidtn, j;L«J . After compliments, 
i^LJlj^ ha^ aasaldm. [hdroL 
Compliment, v. aLj sallam, (JL^b 
Complimental, ,<aJ^ ^am/fiti. 




Oonpijr, #• ^j fwi^, JJ» kahil, 

CSomponenty i^j^ mmodUif. 

OompofleyV. (arrange), S^ rdkkdb^ 
Joj iMMM. To compoae a dif- 
ference, JL^ idlah. To compose 
a book, ^\sii^'^»ff tMmaf kiidh. 
To compose verses, jLidlJi; 

Compoaed (arranged), /*jJ^^^ ^^m^- 

sfiM ; (formed), i„^j^murakkab; 

(placid, calm), ^L> 9dkin. 
Composer, «. (^L^^^i^jLi^x^ mi»- 

mamif kiidh . 
Composition (formation), ^L-aJlt^ 

ikidiat ; (compounding, mixing), 

Sm^^y Uirkih\ (union), jlair\ 
iUik&d, Composition (arrange- 
ment), s-^^ ^^^^ l*LlacJl 
miisdm. Literary compc^sition. 

Composure (of mind),^Urf^lx«<4Ll 
UwOndm al kh&tir, JUf^JbLi^ 

nfdkiyat alh&L \jr/* ^f^^"^' 
Compound, v. (mix), kLa^ lehalat^ 

Compound, compounded, c^-o-^ 

Compound, t. ^^~^^Jt tarilh, A 
compound word, ^L^d[^ 20/ia^ 


mmniin al tarbh, 

Comprehend, v, (conceive), cl/;j\ 
adrahf jyai tasawwar ; (to com- 
prise), ^}AsJL\ uhtamal, (^js^>-1 

Comprehended, d^X* mudrai. 

Comprehensible, /»^ (,g^ mq/%am. 

Comprehension (intellect), M^fahm 

(plur. A^ fuhUm), Jic ^aib/ 

(plur. J^ ^witflO, cJljOl lardifc; 

(containing), Ij % fv\ thUwd, 

JUcJ«t ishtimdl. 

Comprehensive (conceiving), cL^Xv 

mudrik ; (containing), J^-JL^ 

mushtamUy ^y \ iv^ muhiawfm 

The comprehensive or intellectual 

power, i^jJ^iy kuwatmadrikai, 

Lij^as^iy hikwat maUarrtfat, 

Comprehensiveness, ij[^j taidwat, 

iSjS^tJL^y kuwai madrikat. 
Compress, r. ^a%*at cos^, jo^ 
ha9sar^jia£' ^ar. [Bandage. 
Compress (for a wound). See 
Compressed, .^-ifl«^ mahtttr. 
Compressible, Jfjj.J:. ^^ Jjli kdM 
attadylh [taiylk. 

Compression^ compressure, 
Comprise, v. J.<c^\ tsktomdl. 




Compromifie, i. )ojJ^ shart, J^ uthd. 

S JUbU^ mu^hadat. To oompro- 

miBOi yM^jj^tffJ^ ^amal com- 

Compulsion, compulsivenesB, j^j 

tawr, ^ wulm,j^ jahr^ S?*^ 

Compolsive, compulBatory, compal- 

Bory, JU^ %&lm,j\p^ jdhir. 
Compulsively, j^-sj- jabrany \j^ 

kahran, L^ ghdiban. 
Compunction (contrition), cjLsLj 

taassaf, <L^iJu naddmat, ^y 

tawhat. [tnuhdiahat. 

Computation, ^jLm>- hudh, d^lsr* 
Compute, V, ^j Lu»- J^f carnal his&h. 

\_— '^ hoiah, 


Concatenate, v, jj^ jantar. 

Concatenation, ^J^^ yawsfr, ^;-flfj 

Concave, «— ij^ tnt^'awwaf, uJ^l 

tffira/. To make concave, <— ^/-^^ 

Concavity, i^^jaw/.jMj kacr. 

Conceal, v, l^*^^ akhfa\ ^5-^^ 

thafa\ J^ khahha\ 
Concealed, iJ^ mukhfa\ 
Concealment, concealedness, \a:>A 

ikhfa, \is^\ imifa. 
Concede, v, ^^\»A^ iallam hiUhy. 
Ctme^t (conception), cJl t jl idr&k, 

pfihr-, (fimcy), JU^ «*yci/, 
Jlfikr takhofyul, jj^ Uuawumr. 
Conceit, v. Jj^ takhayyal, ^y 
tawahhanK [muiaUid. 

Conceited, ^i^a^ muionma^, olL« 
Conceitedly, jU^ J^ &tiJb/ ^indd, 
Conceitedness, self-conceit, ^v.n3 

Conceive, r . (comprehend), Mfahim, 
To conceive resentment, i,, "^^nr. 

Conceivable, ^JIh^jl^ nmiasawwar, 
M^icj f/un/ahem, [marhm. 

Concentric, J-.^«^aJ /oAo /orrf 

Conception (pregnancy), J^i»- AoM; 

(intellect), |»^ /o^n, i^\jJ\ 
Concern, v. (belong to) ^ja:>^ Um, 

^Sj^^nr^'A tntuab %la\ 
Concern, concernment, Sjt« mddai, 
j^^auMTy (JjL-i* ihu^Mf ^L«r^^ 

maslahai; (care), i^LcJb^ ihiimdm; 

(affliction),^J^ hwm; (af^Bction), 

4Us^ muhahhat. Of great con- 

cem, Af« mtfAtmm. An affiur of 

great concern, Jla^^^st^^ mm* 

^Aa^ muhimmaL 
Concerning, L^f^tMJ,^ mantub, ^ 

^an, ^ min, cJ /f, ^y^^^ 

min khmiU. 
Concert (compact), j^^ tadiir, 

j\iu\ ittifdk. 

CON 405 

GoneerC, #. (adjust), ^-^Jjl 

v.^ J raUai. [ihadn, 

ConoesBum, ijVir. ^iyat, ^Lm^-I 

Coociliatey #. (gain) Jk^i>> haisal, 
i^>^ms!S\ ikUuah\ (to reconcile), 
^Itf jdioA. To conciliate affec- 
tion, Jl«:;«if iHamdl. 

Conciliation, J^ 9u0^ dLk^Lo^ 
mmuJdhat^ 1}\aSi^\ utimdlai. 

CoodHatoTy #. ^La^ ffitwd/ii&. 

GoDOBe, jAzJs^ MuiMasar, ^ 

GondaelY, fUaOfiLlj hi tkhtUdr, 

CoDciflene88,^L3afiLt ikhUs&r. 

GoDcIaye (priTateapartment) 
maiAda^; (a cabinet conndl), 

Gondnde, «. (terminate), ^^1 atmam, 
khaiam. To conclude an 
», if JUhU^ Jn^ ^amo/ nHf^d- 
AidStf/. To reason, form an opinion, 
f^\ atUqf, To conclude, adv. 
iypjjij walnatljai, 
Coiicln8ion(cloee,end),S^1 alhirat, 
4UJU. IsAdimat, a\:s^\ ikktUam ; 
(remit), i[^ iia^f;a^ (pL ^l:J 
natdyif). A conclusion from the 
premiaeiy dL^JL&iH^jqjj natljat 
al wmkafUamaf. An evident con- 


Mfihai, True conclusions, <f^^ 
JLiji>^ natdyij hakikiyai ; (deci- 
sion), ^ Atf2;'(«^i Jlk»lx« mosia^a. 

Conclusive, ^li £d6'^, ^LSa «Ad/l. 

Condusiyely, UI^lS ^^»^an. 

Concoction, ^»«aJb Aoilm, J>«ia^ ^oAA/. 

The first concoction, JjlH^ .rTfH 

a/ Aoififi a/ awwal. 
Concomitance, ii\^\ tddfai. 

Concomitant, t. JUi^ rafik* See 

Concomitantly, U^ ma^n. 

Concord, conoordance, iLLJl^.^ 

ffttMTd/aib^, JJJ\ ittifdi, oLart 

iUihdd, idJb\fL^ mu^hadat., \^j 

ridd, J^. Concord in grammar, 

\ajj raht. 
Concordant, ^^ muldyim, (Ji^y^ 

muwdfik, 4Jh^Usa^ mutdhik. 
Concourse, «. ^4Jb^ mqfma^, 

jam^f fUs^\ ijUmd^ 

jam^yatf f^^]}^ toidhum, A 

great concourse, j^^^^ jam^ 

Concrete^ X«Lf»- jdmtd, Sao^^ 

munjamidf J^k^^ muiafammtd. 

Concretion, jUarf mjmdd, j\aju\ 

Concubine, t. X^ iurrijfat (plur. 

1^1^ MTdff .) 




ConoapiBoenoe, ijf& thahwat, \^ 
(JLuaJJ AawA nafidni, ;^^^ 

ConoapiBcent^ «Jlj | A shahwdii, 
cJUmaJ iki/«dnfy ^^pJ*^ muMxhl, 

Goiicar, v. JLiJl t^^/oi^ J^t 
iUoAad, ^Ji]^ iffdfai. 

Concurrence, ^\Ju\ iUifdk, jla^ 
Utihdd; (help), JJu« madad ; 
(consent), J^ kahnl. 

Concurrent, (ji^y muwdfik, fjic^ 
mutiafik, ^^J^ makrun, ^^sjbT* 

Concussion, iSj>- harakat, i^Xfij 
ra^t. See Tremor, shaking. 

Condemn, v, (sentence), CL^yil^\jS>- 
hdkam hil mawt. To condemn to 
an infamous punishment, ijMf^ 

Condemnation, J^ hukm, Lai kadd. 

Condensable, t— OjlCail^j^Lib^ fft«in- 

kin al takslf. 
Condensate, conden8e,i7.ujilS kassaf, 

^ji^ 9akhkhan. 
Condensation, condensity, condense- 

ness, L-BgiCj ttJ^lf. 
Condense, w^Aml^ i«^. 

Condescend, v. w^f^ tawddac. 

JjLj iandnaL [tandsid, 

OondeeoeDdingly, ^fLjJ^ itiol 

Condescendence, (K>nd 
JjU; ^aikisMiL 

Condign, v.**^!^ wdjibf 
muatahak. Condign pu 
^^^M^Jp^ jwd mtutdi 

Condition, b, (state), Jl>- 
hdlatf iJiS ka^yat ; (r 
9hdn, f\Ju% makdm, <L. 
tahat; (stipulation), 1: 
Juf^ ^hd ; (attribute 
was/f ASL^ iifai, ^LJbL* 
(temperament), J \ Jox 
^\yt tnizdj. 

Condition, v, (stipulate), !? 

Conditional (on terms), ^ 
(uncertain), ^^jJls^j^ 
hakkak, a^^jl^j^ ghay, 

Conditionally, conditioi 
terms), ^^mJ hi thiri 

Conditioned (endowed w 
ties), uJU>jlL,,'^rwl.g 9d 

Condole, v. ^j ra8a\ -! 

Condolement, condolence, 
A letter of condolence, A 
kitdh ta^ziyat. The 
mourning or condolence 
ayydm al ^zd. . 

Conduce, v. j\il afdd, w. 

Conducible, conducive, ^^ 




fPMy ^\j nd^ CondnoiYenetf , 

Oondiiot (guidance), f^fjUh ktddfat; 
(adminirtntion), -*j JlJ tadHr. 
A safe oondncty ^Ul «aidi». 

Oonduct, 9. (lead), jli la<^. To 
eondact an army, iLjiIljU ihle^ 
td^Mtkar. To conduct business 
well, Uy ^I Vr^Lo^H^^^AS kada'al 
wuudliA tttyyib, 

Oondnctor^ 4^jU Adift, JL^yt mtir- 

Md. The conductor of an army 
(a general), j^^-js?<,XjL5 hayid 

aljayth, A conductor (director), 

u..J^ mwrattih. 
Condnctress, «. ZJllj dalldlai. 
Condnity t . tt j;j^ fori j& md,(^\j^ 

Cone, f. ^ r^ makhrdt (plnr. 

Coofect, V'^j^iJi ^malmurahh»\ 
Coofect, oonfectioD, «. ^<-^ mu- 

rabba% ^j-?*^ ma^Hn (plur. 

^^^*5j-l*^ mii^(q/!it). 
Confectioner, «. vi^^^ Ai</trdii{, 

y^/^ 9haJcarfi. 
Confederacy, confederation, ijJbU^ 


Confedesaie, 9, A^U ^i^A^ j^a^I j 


Confederate, «. fj^j rafik, 
muUffik, [mutUMd, 

Confederate, confederated, «X^L« 

Confer, r. (upon any stated subject), 

J^ljJ taddwal, i^ljJ tcaOkary 

nuudkarah; (to grant), a-a-jY 
ff»^m, ^LjlJ^J.^, ^ojfui/'tii^dm, 
^jMb»^l ahsan. To confer an office, 
t_ ->-»•—' ^ft^ a^fo* mansah 

Conference, 8. ijyJL^ moBhwarat, 
i^\s^ mM&karat. 

Confess, r. uJ/^\ i^raf. 

Confessed, uJpi^ mti^^on/, jJS/t 
mukarrir. [Idthak, J^S Id&iM^. 

Confessedly, Ulai kat^an, dCSiS 

Confession, ^5^-5' »fo*dr, uJ]/x^ 
t^^ird/, ^^r-AJ? toirlr, J-Aar 

Confessor, t. (of his own faults), 
i^jiM^mu^tarif; (one who hears 
the confessions of others), ^^cum.^ 
uJ^t muatam^ ali^iraf, Ax^ 

Confest (open, known), /» j L«»^ 

Confide, r. ^ J^mI i^tamad ^\ 
jfsS i^tahar, J-f^ tawakkal, 
tiJLfi\ i^iakad. 
Con&dence (trust), o\mx\ i^tAAA, 




J^y iawakkul; (boldness), i;L*^ 
Confident (trosting to, assured be- 

yond donbt), J$y^ mtUawakktl, 
Ckmfidentlj (with finn trast), 
fjL«4bJLftl i^imddan; (without 

doubt), C^tf bUdshak. 
Ckmfiguration, ijya HLrat [^hudud. 
ConfinOi confines, Jl». hadd, Jj«x^ 
Confine, v. (imprison), C/«*f>^ ^^^ i 

(to restrain), jM hmBar^ ^J^ 

Confined, ^^^^^ nuMut, ^y;?***^ 

fna^'Hn, To be confined, ^ mmo^I 

Confinement (imprisonment), 
hobs; (restraint),^^;MaAj tahlr. 

Confirm, v.j^ karrar, J^ hakkak, 
KZ^ idbhat, J^t ahkad. [uhat. 

donfirmable, Cl^lJ^t JjIj UhU al 

Confirmation, j|^&u.»1 isHkrdr, j\Ji\ 

ihrdr, izAJj\ Mdt,jJ^ tahklk, 

Ju^y tawhld. 
Confirmatory, confirmative, ij^^ 

mmAmtI, i^y mawakkid. 
Confirmed, CL>^fi^ moibat, jjj^ 

wmkarrar, J^y mmcakkad. To 


be confirmed, Jk^ iaakkad, 
Caadsoate, p. ]euJ dakU, 

Confiscable, hu>^;) fum 

ffudbat, [mad 

Confiscate, confiscated, (^ 
Confiscation, i^ji^ J \yt 

al amwdl lilmiri. 
Conflagration, i, i,, ^»^ k 
Conflict, i. (battle), c. 

(a duel), (J^^t^ duel 

collision), ajLjJ tatdt 

Confluence, conflux (junc 

streams), ^^\j-4^ 

al nahrin ; (a crow 

jam^. See Concourse, 
Conform, v. (make coi 

j;ij waffak; (to com] 

JjU? tdbak. 
Conform, conformable, ^ 
'todjik, J^Ua^ tntUdbikf 

Idyim ; (obsequious), 

Conformably, ^l^J^ 
Conformation (formation! 

iarkib, ^Jly^ takwln. 
Conformity, ^LJ\y t 

JUjUx« mtUdbakat, i^ 

Confound, r. laj^ kha§ 
Confounded (confused), 

makhlut, ^js:r* mukka 

testable), 9^J^ makr^ 

c»ir 409 

CoBfroQi^ 9. ^cmJI JjU kdhal Oify, 
jt>A3 \j^^\iip^\j wdjah Madan 

Goofiiaedy ^yJL^^ muiktwufoth, 

UcLsr* mukhtalit, jl^ htfyar, 

Confdaed in mind, ^\;t>- hayrdn, 
Confiifledljy ^Ucu^^j^ min ghayr 

wkdm aIoj^ JCj UM kharhata. 
Confiisiony conAuedness (iiregalar 

mixture), JU. khaial, )oL6A 

UMil&t, Jis^\ ikktUal 
Gaifixtation^ JL^Liw^ mun&kadat^ 

JlLif tbua, |*K1\J; radalkaldm. 
Confatable, «3^t JjLJ kdhd arrad, 

^^oaJ^^^^C*^ mumkin al nakd. 
Canfate, v, ^^\j ndkad, ^ulx J; rod 

^aJM, di^JL)\ ahtal kawlaho. 
CSonfiated, ^^^^ manHd, (^«3^ 

Gong^, i. (bow, salute), a)L saldm. 

To return a cong^ or salute, A^ 
iaUam; (leave), La£>-j rukhsat, 
ij^^ ijdtat. To cong^ (take 
leave). To give a cong^, ^Jj 


Congeal, v.a. ^x^jammad, v.n, 
jumid, [^altq^id, 

Gongealable, Ju^i^f^^^Li^ ntumkin 

Congealed, Jui^scu wnm^amid. 

Congealment, congelation^ 

iafmld. [fairdjim* 

Congenial, congenerous, ^jtti>^Ct^ 
Conglomerate, v. ^4^jama^ 
Conglutinate, v. A. laham, ^ 

kuak. [hamta*. 

Congratulate, v. (JJ^U hdrak, ^Ijb 
Congratulation, d^j^ tahniai (plur. 

(Jlf> tahdni). Congratulatory 

letter, Ju:>ijf(» >> ,r. (^ maJUiLh 

Congregate, r. w^^jamtf^. 
Congregation, «• IcXa^ jamd^, 

Lju^ jam^yat. 
Congress, ». \jtX^ fnajlit, Jiar* 

mahJU, ^^^^ <^t£^dn. 
Congruence, oongruitj, ^A-i|^ 

mtt«74/aila^, jUi^ ittif&k, ^Ux« 

Congruent, congraous, ^J Idyik, 
fj}\ymuwdfiky c-^^l:^ mtfna«»&. 

Congruously, ^li^ J^ ^Mmtind- 
«a&a^, Zftil^ J^ hikol muwdfakat 

Conic, ^^jii^ makhrHiti. 

Conjecture, (jimLS ibyd«, ^j^J^e^ 

Conjecture, r. ^^;'«^ A^^ofiimam, 

^iji tawahham, ^ %ann, 
CoDJecturable, ^j-j ■>» *^ 1 ^^/^^^^ 

mtfiftibii attakhmln, jAwiu.^ Ji 




Conjectural, ^Ui. 
Conjectarally, \;j4fi^ ^aifcA«iiiMn, 

Conjectureri «. ^^^ast^ mMummin, 
Conjoin, r. ^^ ibmit, ^^^ waaal, 

Conjoint, J^^Lt i»M^^a««2^ 4^aL« 
mmttafikf C^j\Mum muihiarik, 

Conjointly, U^ ma^n. 
Conjugal, ^.fifoji tefr!;t. 
Oonjngally, ila^t <-r^^ ^^ *"^ 

Conjugate, v. uJ^ wrraf. 
Conjugation (of a verb), 

Coi^unotion, oW"! itithdd, 
jam^ cUti^t y/tmS^, JQu^t^ 
rnmcdiolat, J«0^ tPM/, JUj tc^itd/. 
A oonjunction (part of speech), 
ujilnr ^o(/l A copulative con- 
An explicative conjunction (con- 
necting explanatory or synony- 
mous words), .j^o^irJlv-aVir. ^aff 
Mafilir. A conjunction of the 
planets, ^j\^^ Mirdn, The con- 
junction of two beneficent planets 
(aa Jupiter and Venus), ^;|/^1 

^JLM^I Mtrdm Mid^Aii. The 

conjunotioii of two 
planets (as Mars ant 
^j^jm^\^\j:j\ iktirdn 

Conjunctive, ^J^j mta 
junctively, conjunctl 
%iHhadan,^\i\iQ\ Utifal 

Conjuncture (occasion), 
ittifdk, Ltfji JursaL 

Conjuration (conspiracy] 
mu^hadai, ^j\!u\ Ut 
chanting, etc.)i ysf^ 9 
^Imaty (plur. ^Uc 

Conjure, v. (intreat wil 
ness), 9j^ tadarra^ 
manna f i^J^ tarajlfa^ 
spire), ^jJlJ\ ittafak. 

Conjure, v. (practice end 

j^r» $ahar. 
Conjurer, «.^L» sdhirX 

Connatural (participating 

nature), <U^ J^ fard 

Connect, v. connex, ^ 

Connected, ,^>^ muttoi 

muia^aUik, ^^J^ wal 
Connection, JLaJf\ ti^t 

nishat, u,crr> ^aff. 
Connivance, ^j,^-<iH^li 

al ^ayn, Jj^lsf^ tajdh 

Conuive> «. jh \ \^yj^ 




UMiUaU To conquer one's pas- 
dons, ia^iuji^:j\^^ t\H%io dahat 
ikahwdt nmfiiko. Aocustomed to 
oonqoer^^^ilM muafir. 
Gonqnered, k^i^k^ magKM^ jylfi^ 

Cooqnexor, «. <^U ghdlib, jUa^ 

CoDqoeit, ^ faihy yie sa/r, ij>aj 

ConnngaineooSy u^y karlh. 
Consangoinity, ij\^ kar&hat. 
OoDBcieiioey ,*<4m^ damlr. X/« J zimmai. 

Bemorse of oonscience, 'f^y 
]\ tawhlkh addamlr. 

CoDscientions (scrapnlooB)^ v^.>^fwLg 

iXi .aha ^mat. [.mmat. 

Omacientioaalyy XJ«jJ^ bikol 

OooacientioQsnesSy <^U«> digdnat, 

Conscionabley J^a«/« ma^^il/. 

Conscions, t^^lj wdhf^j^^^sS^ khahir, 
^JJLu« «ntf^^a/t^. To be conscionsi 
^U?! iUtala^, Conscious of a 
secret^yuJl J^l J dakhd assir. 

Consecrate, v. ^Si iuddM, \jt^ 

Consecrate, consecrated, {jm^sa^ 

tnukaddoi. [tahU, 

Consecration, ^^tXAJ iakdia, ^j^S^ 
Consecutive (successiye), i}^¥^ 

fnutwdll, ^l:w« mutatdht^ 
Consecutivelj, iJ|j^V ^*^ tawdh. 
Consent, J^ kubill,\^j ridd, ^lf>-t 

ijdhat, ^^Ux« matdtoa^t. 
Consent, v. J^aJ 1 ittafak, ^j radi, 

^\j wdfak, JjU? tdhak 
Consentaneous, (ji^y muwdfik^ 

Consequence (effect of a cause), 
^CfCljJ nailjat ; (consequences), 
w^liJ natdyij; (tendency), ^jOj£, 
gharad, Xai kasd. Certain con- 
sequences, ^ uLJ ^ ^^\sj natdyij 
haklkiyat. An affair of conse- 
quence, ^^\ amr muhimm. 

Consequent, ^Jcjl^ mutatdUif Jlj 
tdll. The antecedent and con- 
sequent, JU!,^l5J\ al ^ukad- 
dam waUdli. 

Consequently, \d^ lihtad, J^^ 

(J^ J falaajl zalik. 
Conservation, kA»^ hafa, AlaiLs^ 

tnuhd/azat, ^\^ iiydnat. 
Conservative, laiW hdfigj lailc^ 





GonBervator^ «. iail^ hdju. 

Conserve, v, )aA>^ hafit, ^Lp 9dn; 
(fruits, etc.), LJ^-^J^ ^amal 
tnurahhd. [tafakkar. 

Consider, v. JJ«l7 taammal, ^^Ju 

Considerable (worthy of oonsidera- 

tion),jLMLctc, >.fwLg 9dhth i^tihdr, 

Considerably, i^^Ji hi%iydd(U. 
Considerate (pradent)y^ Jj K^^r^ L^ 

8dh%b tadhlr, JiU ^dJbV. 
Considerately, ^^-^ Jlju b% tadhir, 

J^lij &i taamtnul, [^^M. 

Considerateness, ij^i^ iatHrat, Ji^ 
Consideration (mature thought), 

^ fihr^ ^Ju tafakkur; (com- 
pensation),^^ ^tpod; (motiye), 
\_ ^ «*i*A/^ Without considera- 
tion, ij^jJo highayr ruyat. 
Consign, v, (give in charge), aLi 

Consignation, consignment, ^/&^^ 
iafwldy aJumJ toftm. 

Consist r. (or be composed of)| 

V foii- 

• \ 

(firm, solidy not fluid). 

Consistently, I ■■■■■A v><J^ ^*M 
Consolablei ^JumsII^^^Ci^ w mw Ii ii 

Consolation, ^JumJ Uuattl, aJLmJ 

ConsoUtory, ^^ iMK^aal. JL. 

Console, r. Jui lotti', ^5jf ^mm*. 
Consolidate, r. (make firm), Jb>M^ 
jammadf ^^Jj kawwa\ 

Consolidated, *Cc^ muk aU wmm 
Consolidation, ^ lahm,j^jair. 
Consonance (of sound), J?4bJLJ 

naghmatf (LjM h&fyat. 
Consonant, «. .^jt^i^uJ^ hmrfmMu 
Consort, i, ^^J tau?j\ ^J^j rm/lL 
Conspicuous, yibU? sdAir, /*ji-A-<« 

ifki^rt2/l Conspicuous for power 
and honour, «X:^^ mafld. To bi 

or become conspicuous, jfujt 

Conspicuousness, conspicuity,jlfMSit 

uUihdr. [mu^dhad^* 

Conspiracy, i^laT ^oAd/ii/, SoJhU^ 
Gonspirant, conspiracy, Jf' b ,^.^ 

Conspirator, conspirer, «. J^ rfl/U, 
<^UL« mutahdUf. 




CmgtutByf j\jaS^\ iiUmrdr, Ci^Ij 
iMLt [iakar. 

Constant, cs^ti idhii,jSs>Mi^ mut' 

Oonstanily, ^I^Jklt^Jie ^M adda- 
wdm, \aj\j dd^man, 

CoDsteUation, «. -j^ iiffy, The pre- 
dominant oonstellation or star at 
any person's nativity, ^It tdU^. 
Bom under a happy constellation 
(ftrtnnate), ^IMIj^ium^^U? 
idU^wuu^ahnaidK^, Theoon- 
stellation Aries, Ji^t^y iurf 

MtMPT. Gemini, \jys\^ji hmj 

MffawMd. Cancer, (^^j^^^^rji 
Imrj oitmidn. Leo, JuJi^^ Imij 
dl Mad. Yirgo, JlLmJI^^ iurf 

Mii uml ulat libra, i^]}s^^'rji 
hurj id mtadn. Soorpio, ^jj 
immJjLMl\ hmj id ^akrab. Sagit- 
tarius, ^y^\^j» imj al koios, 

Capricorn, ^^«xJl^^ iurf t^jM. 
Aqnarins, ^^Jt^^ Imrj addaln. 
Places, tJL>y%.\^j» iurf al hut. 
The aboTO are need either simply 
or compounded with ^jf imj ; 
as we say Aries, or the constella- 
tion Aries. 
Ccnstoniatioii, f^^ k^frai. 

Constipated, ^j^ moMaif, To be 
oonstipated, ^jcJu\ Mkabad. 

Constipation, ^\fij\ Mkibdd. 

Constituent (elementary), vi^«^ id^i 
1^\ atli, Lgj^^ jawkarl. 

Constituent, t. (person or thing 
which constitutes somewhat), 
lZj\j %dt, ^}^\ oBlf ^y^j um^'Udi 

(one that deputes another), J^y 
Constitute, v. i^^ntfi tuuab, ^^^ 

Constituted, v^^^ «n > ^ mitniikh, 
^jM^ muta^aifffm. One consti- 
tuted or appoint^ to an officoi 
(» 9j,a\,f9 tnamnb. 

Constitution (establishment), i^^*a) 

^^^9 cT^ to^yfn ; (law, insti- 
tution), (ji^Vi tdnUn, ijUjJ^ 
ihari^t (plur. m]/^ tiUirdyi^) ; 
(system of government), ji{*^ 
UMUr (plur. ci^];;^ JJ tadiir&t) ; 
(natural qualities), i^u^ toH^ 
(plur. iZj\M^ tabl^dt). Th^ 

constitution of the body, ^]j^ 

Constitutional (inherent in constitu- 
tion), J\j sdA, ^JlJ\ offt; 
(legal), ^jJ^ %har^. 

Constitutive (essential), vi^v3 sd^f, 
^XA ash, ^^jibj^- jmffhari. 

CON *14 <»^ 

/. i\ ^ .v.iUr I iMinMhar. To ocmnlt togiitei 

GoDitnint r. (to oompel) j-sr jaMr> 

^fc««J; (to restrain), W-ifcMM _, ^^^^Uyoroa 

inable, j-iJ^^;^.^ «i«ntm 

a» wwmt, >s?: SW**^- 

Conrtraint, j^rf^ ^'^^' C^ 
m%Uaum. To be conBtrained, 

Conatraint (compulaion), C;---*^ 
^Aa«& ; (confinement), - -•->- ^»- 

After conBultatian, 5j[j-u»-^iiM} 

• consulted, jla^a*-^ •w««*«**'' 
CooBume, 1^. (spend, waste, dflBtMT)! 

^ ttar-f , H/^ ••^' '-•^ 
^, ^^ a^o-. C--'^' 

Consumed, Jfti^ «M«<*dM 

Construct, v. (bufld)^ ^anmar, Q^^jnaUe, uJbw tf«i«»Kf- 
^ 6ana' ; (to form, arrange), Q^^g^n^er, t. U^ •w*^ 
2aj funam. I muirif* 

•Construction (building), j^?-*^*-^ Consummate, v. ^ tammam. 
ta^lr\ (arrangement), ^-^^ Consummate, jJLC* iiMifcMWSiA 
to»lr. The construction of one j j^^ j^^^ \UbaL 

Consummation, (%Uj^ iimam, J-^ 
Consumption, ^!L3^ ♦««/; uJ/^ 
ma^na' (pi. Jl«^«wt^»»^>-c;r*^ I ,^/, uJ^*^ «ra/. The oon- 
modlfnan ; (explanation), ^^ sumption (disease), J- tflL 
,»ar», ^^- to/«lr ; a«dgnient), p^j^g^ptiye, c^d^ «•!«♦/; (hanng 
J4c ^oH. I a consumption), J^ji---^ wiosW. 

Construe, c (to explain), ^j^ Contact, JUaJ\ ♦^^*»*^* U-* *^ 

tAoroA ; (to suppose), ^J^J Mad. ^^ i^j,^^ 
Consubstantial, iL*-^ ^ ^^'^ Contagion, ibU^ iMut, m1/- 
^l^a^. torJya^, ^i^ t^«^. ^ft^ tf**^' 

Consul, ». (cHef magistrate of a Contagious, w^-Aju^ mu^, ^j^ 

place), J***i5 «w«»^» (^/-MiS. «arf. 

Consult, r. (to ask advice)^U^^ I Contain, .. ^j^\ M^'* J^ 


MiamaL To oontam &r restrain 
ome's-self, <lU><J,di- meiek hdlo. 

Containable, c/y^ ffMaw^. 

Contained, Jj^A^ moihmiU, i/y^«^ 

Contaminate, p. fji^ mjjat. 
Contaminate, contaminated, \j»^ 

nsfM, (^^bt mmlawuHU. 
Contamination, JLlflprfi0f'dM^, cU^jJlj 

Gontemn, v. jSs^\ ihtakar, ^Ut 

Contemned, ^;lf« mnAdii, ^i J dani, 
Contemner, «• ..t^i^ mtfAln. 

Contemplation, if jJbluM^ mnuhdhadat^ 

^^•*\j taammul. 
Contemplative, J^'l:^^ mutaammil, 

wmUfakkir. Contemplative 
■cienoeb u^fyrff.UJig ^t&i attasaw' 
wmf. The contemplative soienoes, 

Conkemporarj,yi0U^ mt«^<Utir. 
Contempt (scofd), JLjUbt ihdnat, 

j\Ss,^\ Mitdr. 
Contemptible, j{3jL^i\fJ^^^M*^ 

muttahik al (kUkdr, jJi^- haklr, 

Contemptibleneas, ij\S»^ hakdrat, 


Contemptibly, ij\5^JlCj bikolhaid" 

Contemptaons (proud), ^Z^ muUh 

tahhir. [ufofhin muhln. 

Contemptaooaly, ^;:!>f«^^jj ^ 
Contend, v. i^o^U- khdsam, Jj^- 

jddal, Qj\j ndM^ ftjL^ adra^ 

Content (satiflfiEustion), \^j ridd, 
JlcLS kand^. Contents (what- 
ever is contained), ^y%md^ mad- 
mUn. The contents of a book, 
^L^\iil\^j,y^^ madmUn al kUdh. 
A table of contents, <U^ fahraaat. 
The substance of the contents of 

ih^leii^T,^^yA^^\iJi:>- khiuldaat 
al madn^Un, 

Content, contented, i^]j rdH. To 
be content, ^j radU To con- 
tent, ^j radd^. 

Contention (strife), i^y,a:>^ kkuau- 
mat, icj\:^ mandta^at ; (emula- 
tion), ij^ ghlrat or ghayrat. 

Contentious, cjL«mt«»dsi^, f^\s^ 
makhd9%m. [mandza^t, 

Contentiously, JLcjL^^J^ bikol 

Contest, ,«. i£>jL^ manduL^. To 
contest, e jU ndsa^. [%a^t. 

Contestable, iejL^l^ flhi mand- 

Context, ^ji^ fnatn. 

Contexture, i— ^X,3 tarklh. 

Contiguity, contiguousness, ikJL% 




JOtditt, <_^ kuri, Jlai^ 

• ^ 


ContiguoiiBy (J^t^ mulditk, i^^,^ 
Contiiieinoey <^U 

Contineiity JJb\j idhid, 9jjs^ wmta- 

Ooatinently, fj[^ J^ MiM irara^. 
ContingeQoe» oontingencyy jLi-j>t 

Contmgeiit, v/;^ J^H, iLjjl.»^ 
Oontingentlj, liUJt Utifdhtm, 
Crontinnal, wt J ifdytm. 
Oolitiniially, UjIj ifdymciii, )Ld^ 

CrOiitinaancey continiiationy JUjItV* 

Gontinae, v. j>4> ,:»>■»! istmar, ajU 

Mmmh, u^I; irdsa^. 
Continaedy /«j^«^ muddufam. Con- 

tinnedly (without interraption). 

Contortion, Lo^lf^^^jLJl in^tcdj 
id a^dd, ^j^ Udawwi, 

Contraband, 9^"^^^ mamnn^ See 
Prohibition, illegal, illicit. 

Contract, v, (to draw together), 

^.j^..^ ja$na^ ^^^ damm; (to 

betrothe), ^.^^^ kkaiah. To 

enter into a contract, ^jj^(^ 

^fmud ikurHt. To ooi 

vitage (frown), (^/m^ ^ 

contract acquaintance < 

ship, v.:..o-U«dM. T 

a habit, Jyv ^a^atoiraji. 

tract debt, ^ JJ tada^i 

Contract, «. (bargain), j\^ 

IsT^ «Aar^ (plur. ^^^ 

A contract of peace, , 

^akd atsulh. [ 

Con tractable, jm^akW^jLi,^ 

Contraction (abridging). 

tkhtutdr, JiaJLj\ ikHid 
traction (of the eye-brc 

Contracted (drawn togethe 

mundam; (agreed upon) 

Contractor, i. J^fC^ tnuta^ 

Contradict, v. ^^\j ndkcu 

Contradictor, ^^oiU^ nhm 

Contradiction, ^^aJL^J 

LaS\u^ mandkadat. 
Contradictory, c^Ur^ i 

^^oiu^ mundkid,fjo^k»^ 

Contraposition, <djlLt mul 

Contrariety, contrariness, 

mukhdiafat, Lj!i:^\ ikh 

Contrarily, contrarioualy, 

wise, uJ)U^ hkO&f, ^\^ 




Coatrny, ujLlljr« wnMaKf, uJ)U^ 
lUdf, ^jAj\i^ whmdkidy J^^ 
wmfkdfir. Contrary to justicey 
^^\Ua^ aOdf al hak. Con- 
tnxy to nature, Zju-JUtuJlLfi^ 
aOdf atUM^. Contrary to 
emtom, j\&AjfuJlU;* hkU&f al 

Oootazy, %. uJlU. JthUaf, ^ dtdd. 
Contraries do not meet (a proTerb), 

Contrarene, v, li^Uw ihalaf, ^Jss. 
Oootribntey v. (pay tribute, etc.)> 

kiJUcil^J dafa^ attakdhf. 
GoBitribntion (tribute), j^y^j rusHm. 

Extraordinary oontributions, /Mmh 

Coatributor, 8. (^^J^^^*^ ^fit 

Contrite (mucb "wom, bruiBed), 
Jy^^**^ nuuhnk; (worn with 
nrrow), c^'lx^ muiaoinf. 

Gmtrition, contriteness, ujis'lj 
tMuuf, d^tjj naddmat, jUmC^ 

ContriTanoe, ^j::^^ MHrd^, jlssH 

Midd^, ^Jj\ Odd^. 
Cofntrive, r. Aq^ W'^y tJ^^^ 

Contriver, «. cJLTy^ mu h iMii^ , 

Control, iLli« mukdhdlat. 


Control, V, (accounts), JjIj kdhal\ 
(to goTem), S»- hakam. 

Controllable, la^f^^^d^ fmmkin 

Controller, «. (of accounts), Jjli« 
mukdhU. Superintendent, ^j^\ 
amln\ (a ruler), ^\j ndaim, 
jij^ mudahhir, ^\j wdll. 

Controllership, DLjU^<c,.>i>n v ^ 
moMoh al mukdhUat, 

Controversial, ^^a^^hdhA. 

Controversy, XJjLr^ mujddaUUf 
h^\^ mubdhasat. [jddal. 

Controvert, v, (J^<%>-U hdhat, J jl>* 

Controvertible,^!^- L« i^/ikdmuhd- 
hasat. [^^anld. 

Contumacious, JjU^ mu^nid, Ju«£ 

Contumaciouslj, ifjliofrj^ Hkol 

Contumaciousness, contumacy, jUx 

^ndd, Jja3 tamarud. 
Contumeliously, ]jf^V hi utthad, 

L^s^JCj hikolmmammai^JS^ 

Contumeliousness, contumely, &U1 

ihdnat^ \jf^\ iiiikMd. 
Contusion, {j^Jb harif ^joj rad^ 



Conyalesoence, U^ thafif ^yJt 
Jlc:^! Jl altawqifuhila* aaahhat. 

Conyalescenti ^jd^\^^U ioffim 
min al marad. [jama^. 

Conyene, r. (bring together)^ ^'^ 

Gonyenienoe (fitness^ propriety), 
Si\Ji laydkatf k^A:,^ mundsabat, 
^1^ muwdfakat. 

Conyenient, ^-^|^ wdjib, ^J 

Conyemenily,^!^ J^ btM muwd' 
fakat, i^\:^JlCj bikolmundaahat, 

Conyent, ^ J daifr. See Abbey, 

Conyention, 8. ^jAs^ mqflti ; (con^ 

tract), jUJl ittifni. 

Gonyersable^^Uijf yuta^dshar. 

Gonyersant, ^c>^i\^ wdkif ^ala\ 

^ilo/* muttali^ 
Conyersation, X^JIC* mukdiamat, 
ijJ^\jL^ mu^8harat,ij^[s:^ muhd' 
waraU GheerM conyersation, 
ijtM^. ^hrat, A man agreeable 
in conyersation, iyiiCK^^r^^X^ 
8dhib ^uhrai. After meat con- 
yersation (Arabian proyerb), 
aKIIaUUIjju ba^ attaint 
al kaldtn* 

Convene, p. JJu taiaUam, 

418 CON 


Gonyejrsion, Cqi^jlB" takhb, %^ Ai7 
takallub, i^iij\ inkOdb. CoDr 
yersion (in a religious senw), 
hp tawbat, ^.j^^^^^^fyrj^ 
arrufu^ %U aUah bH tawboL 

Gonyert, v, (change), J JJ bo/M^Jii 
ghayyar\ (to appropriate to any 
use), ^jo!^ khauoi; (to ba 
changed), jJu taghttyyar. 

Gonyert, «. J^J ddUM. Set 

Gonyerter, 8. i^^Ji^ nmkaOib. Hit 

oonyerter ofheart8,<^>^lcy \i ^ 
mukaUib al kulnb. 
Gonyerted, c,^ S-:>-^ tmrnkM, 
c-j> j ii.^ maklab, uJj^itd^ wuurl/p 
uJjLff^ ma^tnf, 

Gonyex, c,.>^ffl^ mukabbai, Cy>A^ 

Gonyey, v, ^^ ndkal. 

Gonyeyance (carrying), Jii mU; 
(passage), j^ ^w5flr; (aangn- , 
ing), j^JdyyJ to/fm, ^^j^ Uifj/^ \ 

Gonyict r. (of guilt), cs^t mM; 

(to confute), ^Kllj^riM^ a/ Mas, ! 

^jai\j ndkad. [nuuibikt apqm, 
Gonyict, conyicted, A^tcJvS;^ 
Oonxiction, ci^Ut ubdL Coiiyio- 


000 419 

tkm of guilt, |ys!fcL>lJ1 Mdt 

Cflnrinoe,*. i£^\ oibai, ^3 kana^. 

CoaTincibley ^JLj yuniani^, 

OoiiTmcixigy ^^ mulm*^. Aeon- 
Tincing proof, isf^\ji^ huj^'at 
^9ddikat. [ifiMibff^. 

Gonyuicmglj, ^^^^y Hwafhin 

Oonfivial, ajJJ nadim. 

Cmnvial entertainment, 8, oon- 
nrialitj, ^U^ diydfat, A con- 
Tifial companion, a£«x3 nadlm. 

OooTocate, v. oonyoke, Uj da^. 
Tocanvoke an assembly or oonnoil, 

Goarocation, ^•xAsfM^i^ ducwat 
V^m^at. A convocation, 
ijJ^ majlu, LxAsi^ Jam^at, 
jUi^l ijtma^ ^^*i dlwdn. 

O»voy,«.(road-gnide), Jj!\j ddM; 
(a tzayelling guard),^^ ffhafar. 

GonToj, V. kiW Ao/os. To convoy 
by sea, y U yAd/or, laiW Ad/us, 

Oonvnlse, v. Ji3 im;^. The con- 
volaionB of a mad dog or of a 
pemm bit, 5^ Idkwat, 
OoiiTiilsive, kjj^ mtdoMwl, 
Coo^ V. (as a dove), iubjb hataf, 
CSook, 9. ^UL MdJU. A oook-room. 


Oook, V. >l9 eoioU. 

Oooked, ^jrJa^ mattnltk. 

Cookery, ^L MJU. 

Cool, Oj\} bdrid. Constitationally 
cool, ^j^\Oj\i hdrid al m*%dj\ 

Cool, V. or make cool, jj; harrad; 
(to become cool), i3;j ioroi. To 
become cool or indifferent in any- 
thing,^ /a^,yli;U idrfSUir. 

Cooled (grown cold), Jj[f hdrid. 

Cooler, i. (a vessel in which any- 
thing is cooled), S^ muiarrid. 

Coolly (without heat), ^'^jjlJ^ 
hikol huradat. 

Coolness, ijjjf hurUdat 

Coop, i. (for fowls), fjoii ia/at. 
Coop, V. ^^faiji\»^a^ wada^hil kafai. 
Co-operate, v. ^J^i^i 'j^lj^L 

ato^M ihy. 
Co-operation, S«XcLuu« mmd^adat. 
Co-operative, J^Lu^ miud^. 
Co-operator, 8. \}^j raflh, CJ^j^ 

Corordinate, iJij/^^^faird marUbai, 

J^lj JU- hal wdkid. 
Copartner, %. CSiji» 8k»r\k* 
Copartnership, cJi^-s^f iMtrdl^ 

tS\jJ^ 8hardkai. [mamuHi* 
Copied, fjjk^ mmlM^ tY"^^ 




Copier, copyist, «. JiU ndkil, u^\^ 

kdtih, ^U ndiOh, 
Coping (of a wall), i^ ^aldtoat. 
Copious, jifi^ hoAr, Jj^ jaM, 

Copiously, \j^ ioHran, etc. 
Copiousness, ij^ koirat, etc. 
Copper, (jM W* nahds. 
Copper, 8, (caldron), ^U! koMdn. 
Coppersmith, 8. (jmiIoT nahhd8. 

Copper mines, (jMilar^ Juc« tnacdan 

Copperas, j0a£^\^\j %&j akhdar. 

Coppery, i<-»W nahd8l. 

Copulate, V. (unite), cJlaf. ^aftif 

J«0j wa8al. 

Copulation, Im^V^jb^ mufdma^t, 

Copnlatiye, ^Juoj k^m/^. A copu- 
lative conjunction, t^iilafiuJ^ 

Copy, «• (not an original), ^Ls^^ 
. fuuihat^ Ijyo 8ikrat; (foul draft), 

Copy, V. JaJ Maia/. 
Coquet, V. jJCaS taghandar* 
Coquetry, ^Ji:«i ghandarat. 
Coquette, 8,j^x>s. ghandar. 
Coral, ^^^j^ matydn. A coral 
^eo^ 4)(j>y^ marfdnat. 

Cord, «. Ji«»- Aii/. 
Cord-maker, «. JU>- AaMd/. 
Cordial (sincere, hearty), ^.Ji-i 

iaZ&l, ^^^^J^ 8§im\m\ ; (invigcr- 

ating, exhilarating), 

mufrxkf ^^ muihif. 
Cordially (heartily), Ly^l^^^y 

^ofi 8mnlm al kaJb, 

Cordwain, Corduban or Koroooo 
leather, ^\fiJsf^ 8akhiijfdm. 

Coriander, ^j^ kiahara, Coriuider 
seed, 1jyJfL»* hdUat a§§m p id . 

Cormorant, «. (bird), JjjL»\ arfar^ 

Com, c-,>ji>:»- Atfifli. A angle ooni 
or grain, ^U^ AoiM. A oom^ 
merchant or chandler, ^J J y»■ ftlij 

Cornelian, 8. /IM c.aMt 
Corneous (resembling hom), 4jl<« 

Comer, t. iL^|^ sdtc^o^. The 
exterior comer of the eye, Ci^J 

Comet, s, (trumpet), jjj hikk^jM 

naflr\ (a standard-bearer), jfl^ 
j\^ layrdJi ddr, 
Comice, 8. ips. ^Jdtoat. 

Comigerous (homed), ^ji!JjAi\^J tft 

al kamayin, [ttmdm. 

Corollary, 8. ^:^^ natijai, i%U3l 

Coronation, t. (jmi^ jtdiU, JJisJ 

takhl^ ^fi tatwij. 




Oofponl (idatiiig to the body), 
^J^ hmiaiiHf i^JuMfl^ joioil; 
(laateikiaOf ^JS^t^^^ jkmdnl. 

Coiporallyy ^*i^*»^^9y^ binaw^n 

Cocporate, AM>yv# miiU^'atim. 
Coiporation, «. iA^ks^ jamd^i, 

Corporealy ^J\a>m^ jumdnh 
Coipie, «. ii^ jlfat. [juidmai, 
CQcpiilenoe, corpulency, ^Lam^ 
Cocpoleiit, ^»:MM0»- /Mim. 
Gnreet, v. (panish), i^^U ^dia&, 

^jo^Xi kdiot; (to amend), J^ 

Correct (finished with care), J*^^ 
mmtaUahf J^^^^^ muicMah, 

Oorrection (punishment), 
^jidb, ii^ ^Hbai; (emenda- 
tion), ^^^^^ tcuMh, v.^j\j 

Correctly, iii^JCj bikol tahhat, 

4jjJCj bfkol dikkat. 
Correctness, i^sr^ taKhatt <Li J ddkkat. 
Corrector, «. (punisher), i^^iU^ 

M«^<Ii(ti&; (an amender), ^r^^ 

CorrelatiTe, < .yjuiv^ mofMaft, t^b 
rdji^. CorrelatiTcly, 4,^jmx ,» 

Correspond, 9. (suit)i Jj|^ tc^/nA, 
^Ib tdbak. To correspond by 
letter, c^l^ id^. 

Correspondence (suitableness), 

Lftitj^ muwdfatait 
mutdbaiat; (intercourse), 
^aldiaifJJjjtaraddud. Alitenury 
correspondence, Lj\L^ fmiidiabat, 
il^\j^ nmrdMlai. 

Correspondent, corresponsiTe (suit- 
able), j;j) Idfikf (ji^y nmwdfiky 
j;jIL^ mutdbik. 

Correspondent, t. t,^>jlC># m/uk&Ub, 

Corrigible (amendable), JL^f^^^Li^ 

mimkin al iildh; (punishable), 

c^Uxllc-.^c^^fj wdfib al ^iidb. 

Corroborate, v. jJw sha^ad, ^^y 

Corroborated, «-^>^ ^okawwa^ 
Jjy9 muayyad. 

Corroboration, L^ takmyat, Ju^JLJ 

toihyid, JujU taofftd, [muiawwi. 

Corroborative, corroborant, t^j^ 

Corrode, v. J^\ akal, ^jm^ lahcu. 

Corroded, J^'lL* muUakiL 

Corrosive, Jj^^ ak&l. 

Corrupt, t^. JuuyJl afiad. To corrupt 

(bribe), Lij ra$hd, Jt^ dor^. 

Corrupt, xAi fdiid, JytJu9 mafrild. 

Corrupter, t. Juui^ mufnd. 

Corruptible; jUil^Jj'Vd fcdbilolJatoA 



Corruption, jLJ fa^ad ; (matter in 
a 8ore)y ^ ibytA; (bribery), 
JJ?^ ^r/l/y i^^ rashwai. 

Corruptive, jLJ!! JtJ^U mdyU 
Ha* al/iudd. 

Corruptly, jLuiJ^ htkolfatdd. 

Corruptness, jlM*iI \ iyi kuwai alfudd 

Cosmetio, ^j^^s:^ muhoiain, vc^ 

Cosmical (relating to the world), 

v^^ J dunifatol. 
Cosmographer, t. LjoJIw^uJ^U 

^&rif hi riutn aidunyd, 

Cosmographical, IJjJ^M^^jyAw* 

maiMikh larasm ad^hmyd. 
Cosmography, LjjJlJLjb hayyat 

Cost (charge), ^^ khaty; (price), 

X4JI Mmat ; (loss), ijJt^ mu- 


Cost, p. k^ kaOaf. 
Costiveness, ^Ua;! inkibdd, 
Cotemporary, vj:^^ J^ fard wakt. 
Cottage, t. cote or cot, ^^ inkh. 
Cotton, ^j In 5i io^. A cotton 

dresser, Ji^ haUdj, The art of 

dressing cotton, ^1>- MUdjat. 

Made of cotton, ^5^ kotnh 
Couch, «. ^|^/ra«A. A travelling 

couch, j^lj^uu^fl^ ^oAA^ ruwdn. 

Covenant, », J^ ^t^kd, )ojJ^ ahart, 
Jy kawL 

Covenant, v. )ojL iharoL 

Cover, t. Ike ghatd. A cover (pre- 
text), j«Xfr ^mr, aJl& ^tZMy JJliu 
to^a^ltf/; (defence), lj\^9ifdmUf 

Cover, 9. _ki ghatta\ To cover 
(as a hen her eggs), ^^y^t>^ haiatL 
To cover (as a horse does amaie), 

CoverH «• <-i^ ^«W- 
Covet, t'. L^f^^ uhUM. 
Coveted, i^^ytia^ matm^^fik. 
Covetous, w^U? tdmi^. 
Covetously, ^^ J^ hiM U w ui^ 
Covetousness, ^^ tima^ 
Cough, ^Jjim* WL^lai, 
Cough, V. Jju« 9a^l. The 

made when coughing, 
Council, t. 4,/Jur^ mqfl%$f iA^a^ 
jamd^, ^\^«^ i^it^dn, 4j..Ajr^ 
mahfal, A general ooundli ^)^«3 
aU ifttrAn ^dm. A privy connoQy 

Counsel (advice), ijjJil*^ maahicantif 
d^^ naslhat, CK)od oounsdi 
c-^^Uv/Mj ray tdkib. Bad 
counsel, Jurfliv/*lj rayfdM. 

Counsellor of state, s. jij^ waaklr 




Cbimaellon of aiate,^;tjj[ jJlc^U;) 
OomiaellofBhip, jij^^^ 

v-"****^ AomS. To count (es- 
teem), jf:i^t t^Mor. 

Coont, c^U». Ma». 

Goontenanoe, jli^^ maniar, ijy^ 
tiirat, Is^-j wt^'h. A beantiftil 
eoonteDaiioe, J«%«4^JL^j tM[f% 
jntU; (favour, protection), h^^^^ 
kiwtd^ai. . lhdma\ 

Coontenance, v. «XcL» $d^, l<«1>- 
. Coontenancer, «. ^\sr^ muhdmi, 
JlcLmc musd^. [^^rad. 

Counteract, 9. cJSlsL khdlaf, yJi)\£- 

Counterbalance, t. ilci\x^mu^dddlat. 

Counterbalance, v, JjU ^ddal, 

Counterfeit, t. (counterfeit, im- 

•MUdr,jY Jlc ghadddr. Counter- 
feit (imposture), ^lL^ Af Ja^. 

Counterfeit, counterfeited, j5/« 

Counterfeit, «. jJi JcaUad^J^ wawwor, 
Connterfeitly, |^iXc ghadran^ ]jii/ 

C ounten nand, «. uJllc^^t omr^ 



Countermand, 9. ^^aS3 naiad* 

Countermarch, «. <— ^)lSc2;^LuilLy»< 
fjLclUjjj^tU M^ at ^atdUr 
hi JsUdfmd asharUh Ula^. 

Countermarch, v. (^Lkr^Ljiil^jLy 
WlUiT^lU aayyar dl ^dUr 
Jnkkldffnd aahdraho lila^. 

Countermark, t. JL#t]Uj> ■■na^.^lr 
^aldmat didd ^aldmat 

Countermine, t. A«ItX.0*ffS lighm didd 
lighm. [lighm didd lighm. 

Countermine, v, Jij^jijf ^amal 

Countermotion, ^ ^'^if -r^ ^ r- 
harahai didd harakat. 

Countermure, ». (wall behind wall), 
2r^ jLJt^^:w«i3j U- haget miuhfu^ 
U imdd ghagroh. [taM^. 

Countematural, ^^juJ?^ ghagr 

Counterpane, t. ^! JjUti^lL lihdf 

thughul ibrat. 
Counterplea, t. i^\^jaiadb. 
Counterplot, $. <— d la^^li't— d W* 

Counterpoise, #. i^j\y mmod%anat. 
Counterpoison, amJI Ju0 didd auam. 
Counter-security, iSj:JLf%^ .ILi-^ 

hafdlai mushtarakat. 
Counting-house, s. >0^Uli 

maUah ai tdjir. 




CountleUy ^^L*^lb hild hitdb. 

Countxy, t. (region), jL halad (pi. 
SL Mdd) ; (natiTe)> ^^ wtUan ; 
(people), Jjb\ ahl. A native 
country, ^^,JLe^^JlffJ waian 

Country (rustic), ^ji harri. 

Countryman, t. ^li falUah. 
Couple, B, ^%\ tawj. 
Couple, V, (marry), ^"^j tawwaj. 
Coupled, {}y^y mawml. Coupled 

in matrimony, ^^J^ tmataunffqf. 
Couplet, ic^^ haift. [jaraat. 

Courage, ^uLje^ thajd^ai, i*\j^ 
Courageous, ^If** ihq/&^, i^jS^jari' 
Courier, ^^ 9d^, <daus^ potta. 

Course, «. (race), (.J^ iharaf; 
(race-ground), ^ljw« mft^n; 
(way), Jjjf tank, J---i m^I/; 
(succession), LilLfL khUdfat ; 
(custom), ifjU ^<2(^^; (method), 
c^jLsf M/fi3. A water-course, 
*\^^Jb tarikma. 

Court, t. (palace), j^ai ktur. A 
courtof justice, ^4il«r« moMama^. 
A court before a house, X>-L» 
sdhat, ^j^^ sahn, A court or 
quadrangle, i^ L» sdhat. A court 
in inns where they load caravans, 
etc., ^Ul khdn. The court or 

retinoe of a prince^ ^JS^^JL^ 

Court, 9. (flatter), j;U flMflkt; T6 
court a woman, Jh^^ ^adUi^ 
^U^l^l aahar al wndMUL 
To court or solidt, t^>^lV> foU, 
^^^Mi^l Utanuu, 

Courteous, cJJaS 7a^f/. SeeAffidde. 

Courteously, (.jiLL Mutf. 

Courtesan, courtezan, 8. iJL»^\i 

Courtesy, courteousness, courtlinasi, 
ii\Ja nardfat, ^lia! latdfai. 

Cousin, t. (uncle's son), ^1^^;;^ A» 
^am; (aunt's son), ^l^^t Hn 
khdli ; (relation), w^y ibirli. 

Cow, t. J[^ bakara. 

Coward, «. ^L>-jabdn, JjJ mmB. 

Cowardice, cowardliness, ^U:>- 
jabdnat, iSL balddat, Jm*^ koiol. 

Coxcomb, s. (a vain boaster), ^j^Lu* 
tnutahdhl ; (the comb of a cock); 
cl^jJl^lj ^y addlk. 

Coxcombical, ^\ifdjir. 

Coy, AAMr.jy^ muhtashim. To be coy, 

^j tpakkar. 
Coyness, L^ ^oyfi, ^Uj wakar. 
Crab, j^U?/-* Mt'tdn. 
Crack, «. (chink, j;^ jAA (plur. 

jjA^ «^m£^). Cracks in moan-.- 




m/kor ; (s flaw, de- 

it), J^ Mk, \>jJ^ 

« (fraud), J^ makr, 
jjLfi ^hadr. Graft 
*i^ Atr/a^, ^ fan. 

\^ khddi^. 

>- hashi^, [muhihl, 

» mashkal. 

nfine), jJL^ dayyak, 

d), ^^ ibritf (plur. 
JH) ; (a machine for 
It weights), J-:ca:u 

i karka^t. 

} idlah, ^jt*AS^\ iltamas. 

jjy karka^ ^yij 

O dff3, ^j^^ Bara\ 

bedlity), JiuJ^iil^- 
^M, JsP- ^j(a\ (of 
,£^ kharaf, 

c da^f, y^r^ tH/«; 
itted), uJJ^ mun-] 

nu^anf ^\i/^ 



Cream, Jh*:?^ kafftnak, 

ijjj tubdoL 
Creaie, «. (fold), v/jia-^ imIimi' 

(plnr. i/^Ux« maidwi). 
Crease, i^. i^jb iawa\ 
Create, v. jU- iUa/<iib, ^ii^ 

(to invest or appoint). 

Created, J^lc^ moiU/flil. 

Creation, i^ftL^. khdkai. 

Creative (having the power of crea- 
tion), JhJI^ kMlik, jAi^ 

Creator, t. Jh-1^ iA<l/i^ v/'V* 
miiM. The Creator of the nni- 

verse, ci^bl^ljlU. khalldk al 
kdyndt. The Creator of demons 
and men, ^LUlj^^^^tjlic^ 
khaUdk ajjin wdl nds. The 
Creator of the wonders of the 
world, |JUI1w^^U^j]U. kkaUdk 
^jdyih al ^lam. 
Creature, 9, Jjl^-^ makhllLkf Zijl^ 
tnakhlnkai (plur. CL:li^lc^ makh- 
lukdt), IaAs^ ihallkat (plur. 
(jSiS^ khaldyk). Creatures (all 
things which Qod has created), 
lOJl j;L!;-U ma khalak aOah. A 
rational creature, (J-^N^^y^ 




kajffffdm ndUi. An imtional 
creatoie^ j^^U^^tj^^ hojftpdn 
ghayr ndiik. 
Credenoe (belief)^ C^JsA\ t^ikdd, 

Credential, c^jliiLfif i^UkdH. 

Credibility, crediUeness, j\ >»»*;■ A 

Credible, jCj^ mu^tabaTi 
mu^tamad, oU^ilV 
mustawfib dl t^tmdd. 

Credibly, !j\..4> *. r\ i^imddan, 
\Liis^ taUcakan. 

Credit (bonor, reputation), j\fS^\ 
i^ih&ry uJ^ iharaf. Of no 
credit, jLiJLct)Lj htUi i^ibdr; 
(testimony), ij\ ( A thahAdat ; 
(autbority), ^Jj kudrat; (con- 
fidence, belief), ^l-^«^^ Imdn, 
jUofil i^tmdd, J[£sS'\ i^Ukdd. 
To sell upon credit, ^jJUcIj 
hd^ hU dayn. Credit (promise), 

Credit, v, (believe), *yhs\ i^takad; 
(to tmst, confide in), Jla.jl-c\ 
i^mad\ (to give credit, or lend), 
^^ karad; (to give credit or 
do bonor to any person or tbing), 
j^\ i^tabor. 

Creditable,^^;i:u^ mu^tabar^ ^^-r^l^ 

^ LsxH) wdfib oil i^tibdr. 

CreditaUenesB, jlofrt t^Mdr. 

Creditably, jUc\J6 biMifMdr. 

Creditor, «. ^JjS^ mudofym, sPji 


Credulity, crednlonsneea, jl&eStjjj 
Mowd al i^Uidd. 

Crednlons, jlJ— *>r^\^yrf mri^d 

i^ihdd, [lMd«. 

Creed, b, ^Libjltl^yli k&nM d 

Creek, a. (of tbe sea, etc.) ^.Lcfti. 

Creep, v. 4— Qfwj saAo/l [of^i). 

Crepnsde, J^ tihafak^ (pL jUmiI 

Crescent (new moon), Ju AaW 

(plnr. ^1 ahiUat). 
Crescent, crescive (growing), (<«^ 

nSmf, ^<ll3 iid«Af, cu>oU MdML ' 
Cress, cresses (berb), jL& i rMJUuL : 

Water-cresses, i^ karrai, jUi; 

U11 raskad al md, L«Jt^^i.»»j^ 

Crest, i. ijfiJ kumharat. 

Crested, ig^dl laho kumbarai. 

Crevice, t. fj^fidk, ^JJU shak. 

Crew, ». IsXaip^ jamd^. The orew 
of a sbip, iljS^\ olbahriyaL 

Crib, t. (ox-stall), c»fli,it^ ma^fipL 
cJjU^ ma^<S/«/); (a cottage), 
^^ kakh. [wada^ bU kafu. 

Crib, r. (put in a cage), ^^MAftJU^itfj 

Cricket, t. (insect). 




(tfr /"^ (pi^- fil/r 

^yj lOMfti). To oom- 
czim^ ^j.;-,»- Janna', 
Jj\ irtakab al urn, 
\j^ fnujrim^ w^ a#fm, 
iif/»M^. [mu;rm. 

, flJ£s^^^^^^ htwqfhin 

Ill Z^lCl ihdkdyat, 
rimoem, i^y^Ji hirmhi. 
.jcS a^qf (plur. ^l>-^ 

listemper),^!^^ 3«Ard»| 
A^ yaiTfn a/ ^ti^dn. 

iJyi^ka^ak; (to twist), 

Ml. [^^aldmat. 

^luJ niihdn, ^w«lc 

judge accurately), J^jj 
(J^^fii^ hahoi; (to cor- 
«^J^ addab; (to comment 
p>^ lAoraA; (to censure), 
9 |J tem, ^ wabbaih. 

■> • 

Crooeous, ij^/^j *a^ar&n. 

Cxookery (earthenware), 

Crocodile, %. m\^*^ timidJL 

Croisade, 8. (holy war), jl|sf- jMdi^ 
if JUblcr* nmfahadat, i^*^f^j>* 
harb dlnl. {^^asdt arrd^. 

Crook (shepherd's staff), _c|^\ii W 

Crook, r. ,«:^fi^t inhana\ JU «id7. 

Crook-backed, ^<2i^C^ mttiiAaiif, 

Crooked, '^^^ mu^wwqf, ^\j^^ 

Crookedness, ^^ ^wj. 
Crop, t. (of oom, etc.), J«<ai /<m^, 

J^nofi^ ma^^ii/. The crop of a 

bird, iX^^ haufiokU. 
Crop, p, Jud». hoitad. 
Cropped, crept, Jyam^ tnahHUi. 
Crore,«.(ten millions) (j:j\jy^iJLe' 

^hrat malyondt. 
Cross, 9, c^*!*^ iollb. To nail on 

a cross, ^X^ salab. Cross, $. 

(Taxation), ^Ju^ toiil^, U^^ 

Cross (adverse), uJllc^ mukh&Uf; 
(perverse), f^y^t^ maijf%k9m ; 
(contradictory), ^^lii^ mw%i iiii^ 




Cross, r. (mark with a cross), 1^ 
•Mob \ (to cancel), ^^f maha* ; 
(to pass over),^^ ^ar,j^ mar ; 
(to counteract), (^jUl^ khdlaf, 
ij^\j ndtad; (to obstruct), Ju» 
tad. [ikahal. 

Cross-examine, v. ^joa^ faha%^ Jj\j 
Crossly (athwart), ^^ ^abr (oppo- 
sitely), ^^^^aJLkJU hU^ati, tju0 
diddan. [wat 

Crossness (peryerseness), ^t J; radd- 
Cross-way, t. (a place where cross 
ways meet), ^^^ tnafrak^ ? J^ 

Cross wind, t. i^jULsr^,^ rlA 
mnkhdhf, Xa\^ hawd didd. 

Crow, #. (bird) iU sJ^A, w^]^ 
ghirdh, jli &iit. 

Crow, t^. (as a cock), -.L^ «dA. 

Crowd, t. ^^«^ y^'m^y 
/0ir»^ ^a«ir, |*L>-«3j\ isulihdm, 
<U^ saAma^. 

Crowd, t'. ^|j7 iazdham. 

Crown, «. ^U ^d;, J-iil t^i/. 
Crowns richly adorned with 
jewels, ^^j^^\j tdj muroisa^, 
Acrownofglory,jlaa53ll— Ij tdjul 

iftikhdr. A golden crown, -.1; 
i.^ J tqf tahab. 
Crown, V. (a king) ^yj taumaj, 

ji^ kaUal^ (to dignify), f^/i 
ahram; (to admn), ^^^3 wamfm; 
(to complete), ^^J ia m m & m ; (to 
reward), ^l^ kdfa\ 

Crowned, ^j::^^ mtc^aifftmy, JJX« 

muJsallal. To be crowned, -JpJ 

tatawioaj. \maMk 

Crucifix, «. Cy^Ji,^ tafti, t^^^a^ 
Crucifixion, c^Ju^ sM. 
Crucify, 9. c^^Ju^ talab. 
Crucified, c^jLa^ tfuuZfti. 
Crude (raw), |*\^ Mdm. 
Cruel, JU9 %dUm, ^IS te«l. 
Cruelness, cruelty, Ji3 sufai. 
Cruet, «. (for vinegar, etc.) ^ - ^- - 

Cruise, «. (at sea), ^jj Mite. 
Cruise, r. ^y J^ coma/ ftoftSs. 
Crumb, crumbs of bread, cl^IaJ 

j^\ fttdi dl huh. 
Crumble, v, (break into small pieoes) 

«j:^ci fattat ; to Ml into small 

pieces), ^:l^sju tafaUat. 
Crumbled, iZJyJU9 maftikt 
Crupper (of a horse), Ji^ btfoL 
Crush, V, (bruise, squeeze), 

Bahdky J J dakk^ J»> hal. 
Crushed, Jj*^***^ wuuhik. 
Crust, ^^ kUhtf ijJ^ iMnU. 
Crust, v.j^ kashshar. 




Cnatedy j^mX^ wmbkilr. 

Cntdi, «. ijMs ^MOMMi. 

Ciy, V. (aloud), ^U ttf^ ^U ndh, 
^^ Aalff', Jj)j waJwal; (to 
Veep, shed tears), ^ J damma^; 
(to proclaim), 4^jU iidd^, j^\ 
ukar. To ay down (de&me), 
Jt/i\i^SsJb hatak al^M; (to 
prohibit), ^1^ matia^. To cry 
Dp (applaud), «Xr Aamoi. 

fty, f . ^Lrf» «f|f£A ; (lamentation), 
lij Mtf, ^[T^ /ofitriA; (weep- 
mg)f ^r^J^ ^oi^I^; (a squall). 

Hie cry of a pack of dogs, ^ 

&7stal,j|^ ^^'^* 
Crystal, crystalline, v^jb battori. 
Cabe, «. u^^ ia^^. 
Cnbeb (drag), ijli kubaM. 

Cubical, cubic, c»i .^ii.C^ muia^^, 
^^^ kafM. [iowd^). 

Cubit, «. iXfrLi ^fi^fic/ (plur. J^el^ 

Coekdd, «. ^/m^«3 daffjfUs. 

Cucumber, jL^ Miy^. 

Cue (bint), ^U! uAdra^, iA:^ 
hmayai, ^U\ i^m. Cue (tail). 

Caff, t. (box), duU iii^ma^; (a 

aleeve), jS iumm (plur. |*U^\ 
Afandsi). I 

Cuirass, ». ij^j aaraHfai, f;J 

Cuirassier, *. 9;t>jj«j3l Mis dir^ 
Cun, 9. k^..Jdi}! ifUaUab, j\sJ^\ 

Culler. B. t , ->«nT\%-t ffiim/flirJtA 
Cully, V. JLi, ghiUL \m^m. 
Culpable, v^iX« mmmh^ f^yp^ 
Culpableness,oulpability,Ua£&- khata. 
Culpably, ^t^oJL hOol nanUn, 

^j£B^^i^y) hkoajMn tnwfrm. 
Cultivate i;. (the earth), ^ fdlM, 

ftjj tara^, (^jj^ hartu; (to 

meliorate anything), J^ iaUah. 
Cultivated, f^jy« masril^, jy^x^ 

Cultivation, culture (of a country), 

isSjj zird^tf JLg>>Lj faldhat, 

j^AJu ta^lr ; (improvement 

in general), \ijj\ irtikd, ^Ji 

tarakkif i^Ji iarUyat. 

Cultivator, t. Cj^U- AdrM, -li 

Cummin, y^yil^ hanmUin. 
Cunning, crafty, fljf»>v,,.<^c».ltf t&htb 

hllat,j\L9 makkdr i (intelligent), 
JLc ^d/im, L^^ijH labib. 
Cunning, cunningness (artifice), 
iL^ hilatfjS&gkadr, Ju^ kayd, 


Gomuogly, ilm>-jCf i^M hUat, 
J^JCj hOa hayd. [iMah. 

Cap, «. ^JJ kadah (plur. ^fjJf 

Cap, V. (bleed with the capping- 
glaases), M^hyam. 

Cup-bearer, S\^ idti* 

d^Kda, t. <Uj iuhhai, ^ui iiidk. 

Cupper, 8. (bleeder by eupping- 
ghunes) as^U* hdjim. A cop- 

. ping-glaflB, X«U:^\(jmI^ hds ai 

Curable, \iJLl\^jjLk^ mumkm aih- 
thafd, ije\x^\^jL^^ mumkin al 
mu^dlqfat,\sLu^\^JJ\J kdhUoihsha/d 

Corableness, ^U^ILLU kdhdiyat 

at mu^hfai, liuJ\^lC«l imidn 

Corate, «. i^jy>^ khnri. 
Curator, 8. J^^ waML 
Curb, 9. (a horse) *jp h^^am; (to 

reetrain), )a^ dabat. 
Curdy, curdled, Jyi^^U mmfamid, 

Cure, «. -JU ^pdj, \j J ikttffd. 
Cure, 9« 4/^^*> cldfc^,^^^ ^Ailof. 

To cure with salt, ^^ fnaUah. 
Curiosity (inquisitiyeness), 

tafahhut, A curiosity, 

^Mi^, ijj\j nddirai. 

iDuriouB (inquisitive). 

430 . CUB 

(elegant), v-Wjb lorl/; (r 

Curl, I. idJ^ja^datf iA>^ halt 
Curl, r. (the hair, ei;c,)yfJ^\* 

CuiTant8(Corinthian grapes);^ 

Currency (of money, etc), 
rawdj, ff.JiP taruHj. 

Current, ^jjj^ J^ri, ^}jf 
Current (common), j^fuuMi % 
kur, /•U ^m, y^y^^ ^mn 
To be current, 4^^- /art. 

Current, 8. (stream), Jj^i* 8affL 

Currently (generally), \^y^ ^ 

man, A^^^^j^J^ ^0^ 
ol^fiiiLmf Ij\S JUlfi ^clM 
kdfatan. {ri 

Currentness (general reception)^ 

Currier, «. (leather dresser) 

ddbhdgk. A currier's shop, i 

Curry, v. (leather), ^J dm 

To curry a horse, ^j»»^ Am, ^ 

Curse, t. (malediction), h^j^ la 
Curse, V. ^ la^ ; (to afflict] 

Cursed (detestable), ^;-«-kJ < 
^^lL* fMl^n (plur. 




Mlf^ifi); (impiaos), cHAJJ 
wmm^sJ^mOUd. May he be 
canedy may the eune of Qod be 
upon him, < jlf.AjJlJ^uJ la^nai 
ifiSiil^#Mi (spealdiig of the devil). 

Cnncmly (hastily), \sxj^ iura^n, 

Ganorinefla, llii ghaftat, 

Cawwy (hasty), ic^-rfJCj hikol 
mr^ ; (careless), Jili ghdfil.' 

Curtail, p.jfioS huiar. 

Coimkdf jbocjL^ mvktasar. 

lariAfiJL The keeper of the cur- 
tains (a chamberlain), c-.^c^-l^- 
Conratedy curve, curved, ^Si^^ 
snmAtffii, i^\* mdyH. 

Corvatnre, carve, J^ mayl. A 

curved line, ^^:N^uk>. iE^a^ 

Curve, V. JU md( ^^^:i^ hantf. 
Curvilinear, ^j^^L^^aaT^ hi khatt 

a/ iAa^ al mumhanl. 
Cnahion, «• >.\v>t*^ matruid (plor. 

J^Um^ ifuudniliQ. A cushion on 

which they pray, 5 jUr* nffdde. 
Custody, care, )ak^ hijk^ Jul 

UrdMoi ; (confinement). 


Custom, |»*rf^ rotsi (pL ^yfj fUiQm\ 
ijLfili ia^tdat, ^y^ Mnilii, 
iljU ^diW. Ancient custom, 
ffl^f^j rasm iadim; (impost)* 
^Ir^ ^^rfif, ij:r yos^. A 
custom-house, jJL^a^ Jtmnrui. 

Customable, customary, customed, 
^^f^ riMmi, <^^ft« sM^Afii', 
(^jIU md/a/, jliA^ mu^tdd^ 

Customably, customarily, l<^ 
Ci\:ijuii\ ^aU al mu^d. 

Customer, «. (purchaser), ^jJm^ 
wiuhtait\y y^^j sniilii. 

Cut, V. vJaS hiia^^ (to overpower), 
c^Jii ghalab. To cut in pieces, 
^ai^ai^ai kata^hiia^hUa^ 
To cut off (separate), jy /oroA ; 
(kill), J::jtatal; (intercept), ^Laj 
j;^^! kaia^altarik; (put an end 
to), A^ ^amjiMm ; (interrupt or 
silenoe), JKl \ ^-^ kata^al haJdm ; 
(abbreviate),^;.i£^t OUoMT. To 
cut out (shape, form), jj.^ wmoa/r ; 
(contrive), ^Jcj\ (btada^, 9J^^ 
ikhtara^; (excel) Jicjli/dit jails'. 
To cut up (as abutcher) ^J soioA; 
(to overcome in argument), ^^j{ 


barhan. To cut across, )ai katt. 
To cut (carve or engrave), ^JS*ij 
nakoih ; (drcnmcise), ^.j-jl^ 




Cat| part. pa$i, ^e£x/9 mutdaii^f 
ftjVi S ^ maUn^; (wounded, 
mangledX r A/^ majrah. 

Cat (piece, part), ij^ hit^i. Cut 
(&Bhion), JC& iAtU. 

Cutlass, $. u-ijMt «<i5/. 

Gatler,#.^^:i^lLrf«Afcd£f»f A sword- 
cutler, (-JlL. foyyS/. 
Cutter, t. ^U id^t^. [attar\k. 

Cut-thioat, B. ^}i)^\^\i hati^ 

Cyde, t. (periodical space of time), 

jjj Aawr (plur. jlj*)^ adwdr). 

The cyde of the sun, ^j]^jfc> 

^;mAmJ\ dawrdn oihshami. The 

cyde of the moon, y^^(^|;j«^ 

Cypress (tree), if^ $arwai. 

Bagger, B.jsis^ khanfar. 
Daily, ocj^'. i<«^ ifaunnl, adv. U^ 

U^ yauman fayawman. 
Daintiness (dislike), it^ harah. 
Dainty (delicate), cQjU \ lattf, 

Dainty, #. ^/mjUj nafBiyii. 

Dale, ^. 4^«^\^ t0^. 

Dalliance, jJl^J; (procrastination), 

^^l3 tdkhlr^ (^y tawakkuf. 

Dally, r. (fondle) j;U f9ki2{ajfc; (to 
delay), jfjk ^mptcai. 

Dam (mother), /•I umm^ itXitj 
wdUdai ; (a mole to confine 
water), JLi dodd. 

Dam, 9. Jurf Bodd. 

Damage (detriment), i;Lȣw IM- 
sdrat,jj^ dturoT^ Sjto^ vmdttmA ; 
(retribution, fine, reparation of 
damage), i\j<JS^ mufdaat, ililC* 
mukdfitt, 2r^\^jaiyu ta^mUd 


Damage, v. jmsS^ kkoBBaryji datr; 

(to receive damage),^^1 tmdmr. 
Damageable, 2;0aJ\^^^,A^ m mti im 

Damascene, b. (damson, damaso 

plum), jjfilsj-l ofdB or {j*i\>^\. 

Damascus, ^Jm^J JkunMk, ^l&II 

Damask (silk), lof^ kamikd. 

Dame (lady), (jf^ VsU ihdi^ {jm 
Baydatf ,^Si lddy,\^^j\^mdddwidf 
ijy^^ Btnlara. 

Damn, v. ^ la^. 

Damnation, iiji la^fuU. 

Damned, ^jy^ nud^n, ^^Mfflf* 

jahannami. The damned, Jj^l 

ft^^^f tMjahannam. [rOMw 

Damp (moist), ^^j raUb, v__ '^|t 

Damp, B. (vapour), jIoeT &t<£klr(pL 
ijar\ ab kMtrat). [ JL MM. 

Damp, V. (moisten), l^j rmiM, 

DAR 4S3 

TliiiijiiiiliiiiiMj dampnaM, i^XJ 

Bnoey «. (^^di; roif • 
Sttoe, «. (^^di; roiM. 
Dnoer, «. (jo^j rMdi. 
Sftodng-iiiastery «. ^^jAm^ mu- 

^limn rah. 
Bnciiig-aohoQl, i. ^^dj^l^^JjOj^cr*. 
OfeDdelion (herb), c^]yill J^^^. 
Jkagjett Jla:>- ikaiar, ijb\i!^ mu- 

DtageroQSy Js^^ mmkUir, j.»lnfw 
iibAr. A dangerous affidr, ^1 
jlaaL amr UmUr. Dangerous 
plaoeSi CSi\^ mahdUk. 

Ougerooaly, Ja:>^JCj hihol khaiar. 

Dare, v. (have courage), j^J^^ssT 
tafdsar ; (to defy), ^Ju:i.mi1 
^f Ju^ iitad^' Idmlddn. 

Baring, dazefnl, jy^ ja^^r. 

Daringly, i.Ly^J^ btkoljaidrat, 

Daringness, i*]j>' jaraai, ieXjer' 

Dark (not light), ^ tmrnlim, ^lU? 

waldM; (not perspicuous), ^LjJL« 
wmuhiahah ; (ignorant), J^J^l^ 
jdAH. A dark night, <ulia^<3LJ 

Dark, «. darken (make dark), Ji^l 


Darkly (without li^t), 4«Aal( Jk^ 
^a2a'fl^f(Ma; (blindly) LmJ( Jl& 

Darkness, dJA? stflmo^, fHio wldm. 
Darling, ^y^ss^ mahbiJLbf ^y»*^^ 

ma^thuk (fern. ^^ySf^ mahMat, 

diyMjL^ ma^hakai). 
Dart, 8. l)j>- harhat, Jf|^ muMrdk 
Darter, #. ^\j rdml, JUj noiid/. 
Dash, V. (together), a jtdjf tatddam. 

To dash (as the waves), ^^ 

Dash, s. (colHsion), X^ jl^^ miMd- 
iitfmo^ ; (a line in writing), kcL 


khatt, A strait dash, j^fJr^y^^)ae> 
hhatt muBtaklm^ i^|yL^k>. hhatt 
fwiUawdgl. A curved or oiroular 
dash, jj JCuMu^ks^ Mo^^ miM^a<ftr. 

i^^^ munhanl. The 

dashing of the waves, ^y^ 

tamaww^'f ^\y9i\Jhij tatdtum 


Date (account of time), f(J^ tdrikh 

(plur. fCjV ^<>^^^^)» (dura- 
tion), /%L3 kHfdm, A^^J iktic^dm, 
j\^.«:Lrf\ M^tmrdr; (end), i^JlLf 
^dktbai; (the fruit of the palm 
tree),^^' temr. 
Date, r. ^j\s\\^jwada^ oMfikh. 

Dated, ^J^ nmomrrakk^ ]jlj°^ 




Daughter, 9. u:^ MM (phir. CjLj 
hmdi). A danghter-in-kw (son's 
wife), ii^ kannat. A king's 
daughter, uXJuJtuuc^ Mi^ 
ol malik, A marriageable 

danghter, £JljViS.>^ hint h&lighaL 
The Arabic cu.cj hint, and the 
plural c:l'1:j &emd^, are frequently 
used with much elegance in a 
yariety of compound epithets ; as, 
The daughter of the sea (a syren, 
mermaid, or dolphin),^^aql \ c: ^ij 
Vnt albahr. The daughter of the 
mountain (echo), J-^<^,a^-i,j 
bmt offobal. The daughter of the 
lip (speech), iiti Hcuoj hint 
ashshiffat. The daughter of re- 
flection (prudence), ^^\ij:^ 
hint Afihr. The daughter of the 
grape (wine), ^^tcu^ij hint 
al harm. The daughters of the 
earth (riyulets), ^J\{Zj\:j hanat 
ulard. The daughters of the 
eyes (tears), ^^^^Icl^Lj handt 
W ^oyn* The daughters of pas- 
time (strings of a musical instru- 
ment), ^Ici^Lj handt al lahu. 
The daughters of the night 
(dreams), JJJid^lij handt id hi. 
The daughters of the deep (fish), 
'UIIlz^Lj dandt ul md. The 

daughters of the breast (earBs)^ 

Dawn {BXvroTa),jaf/qfirf ^.^ mtt; 
(the beginning of anything), ( jcjI 
ihtidd. To rise or do anything 

at dawn,^ hakkar. 
Dawn, 9. .^u^ ic^hah, ^.^^t «iML 
Day, A^ yoiewi, (plur. |%b\ <iy3fd«i), 
jl^ nahdr. Night and day, 
jlf>j JJ HI wanhdr. By night 
and day, l^lfJj IJ AJItmtMuiJklriii. 
One day, on a certain day, Lvai 
#%l[!tl^ Ifowman min al ayydm, 
Uij^ yawman. A festival day, 
Jufii*^ yof^m ^f<^. Sunday, 
.«X^llli%jj y<if9i9t alahhad. Men- • 
day, (^/s^U^ yawm al am^, 
Tuesday, liHlU^ yaum a ti o ld t d . 
Wednesday, U^JilU^ yawm 
alarha^. Thursday, ^^«Mi<4^t^j|} 
f/atom al khanas, Friday, i%jj 
ijuks:f\ f/atom ajfum^, Saturday, 
c:^wJt|*jj f/aum assabt. The 
day of judgment, ^LjJUji 
yoicm 0^ kiydmat. Good day! 
(a salutation), j^\A^ takdh 
a/ khyr; (answer), j^AJuAj^ 
yd sabdh al khyr. Every day, 

(♦^ J^ ^^ y^w'w*- To-day, (•^l 
a2 yaumy ^j^WiJb kaad al yawm. 




Dqr M- moniiig BtVi «. i^^\ 
mfmni al nHh. 

Snde or dase, v. j>aJi\j^ jakar 

Jkmmi, $. {jJaJL Bhammds. 

Dad (depiiyed of life), ^f^ 
wmiawaffi, cs.>oL>< rnn^f^; (in- 
udmate), J^lsf* jdmtd, j^-*»-w 
Kb Am; (motionless), ^-^^ 
Ms ibniia^; (languid), j>-^ 

^; (frigid), ^)>J<«i;V ^^'^ 
Mhrndj, A dead market, jL^ 
htudd. Pretending to be dead, 
CJ^UJ tiondtcat, ^j:^y^^\^Jf 
^mud halaho mayyH. The dead 
(dead men), cu^^l amwdt, ijy^\ 
dwutwta\ Dead or stagnant water, 
j^W't« mafdmid. In the dead 
of winter, liUtk^^^i Jl wasai 
mUMtd, In the dead of night. 

Deadly, adj. lJ^ muMik, JsU 

\!_^^^ hi naw^n imMik. 
Deadly, adv., ILjU idtilan; (im- 

placaUyXij) J^J^ bikol^addwat 
BetdncsB (frigidity), 5Jjj} burHdat ; 

(want of ardour), i^^jyt^^J^ 

yfkm immyai ; (weakoMB) 

fff^f ^ ^^ " ^ "•^ 
Deadness of trade, jU*^ ifcofdi. 

Dea^ cA^^ a^ofA, l^f aMmm. To 

be or become deaf, (^^^ iarish. 

To pretend to be deaf, i^Jiaj 

JMdko atroih. 

Deafen, v. ^^^t^ tarroih. 

DeaMi, Jiij9\ aU-oih. 

Deafly, ^(^J>J^ hi iarashin. 

Deafiiess, ^J^ taroih^ iJ^Jo tarshat 
Feigned deafness, ^^iLi^ mukh 
idriak, ^^^UUJ^U ^dm*l 
hdlaho atrath. 

Deal (fir-tree), ^^:Mtf Banohar, Deal 
(quantity), jJlJ iadar, iL-*^ 
ibimmf^a^. A great deal,^;;»i^ JJ 
ladar hoAr, K^^ri^A^ hammiyai 

Deal, V. (to distribute), ^ja^i>^ 

(to traffic), ^l3 %<ir. To deal 
by or with (to treat well), cJl^S 
lata/, ^^b itora', ^5; ra^a'. 
To treat or contend with, a^Is^^ 
kkdsam. To deal in (practice or 
be engaged in anything), 4^^ 

ealer, «. (trader), J^jj^i hdMorgdn, 
f-U %«r (plot. j\aC HjirV, 




(oMfhathas to do with anything), 
J^U ^mO. A dealer at oardsy 
i^^\^^f^\i kdiim warak 

Dealing (trade)i ^LccT iifdrat; 
(biisineB8)i Ji^^fi ^amal. Plain 
dealing, dj]x^ taddkat. Doable 
dealing, b^ riyd. 

Dear (preQions), JiJp ^asff, ^U 
ghdH, iUjJijJ sil klmat; (be- 
loved), (mfj^^^sr^ ffuMnb, Jf^MA^ 

Dearly (at a high price), ^2^4i2j 
^U M fomow yAdft; (fondly), 

Deamess (fondness), ^jaLa ^hk, 
^Us:^ mtc^&a^. \_ghalAwat, 

Deamess, dearth (scarcity), i^ 

Death, i\i^ wafdt, ^^y tnawt. To 
be worthy of death, J::iJl c^.^'^lj 
wdjihalkaU. The place (^ cause) 
of death, Jr»,A^ maktal (plor. 
^^L&^ mo^M). Predestined 
death, J^^ljj>-3I1 a/a;a/ oZ 
mott^^tli. Inheritance in conse- 
quence of death, ^l:J. To 
cause death, Jsi katal. To con- 
demn to death, JaaSU aC>. hakam 
hU kail. After death, CJy]\ Jjy 
ha^ al mawt. [rod. 

Debar, p. ^j^ haram, Ju) saUf J^ 

Debarred, 4>^JuMi« mtf tft ^ ^^J"^ 

Debase, v. y»^ hakar. Debased, 

Debate, i^L/« mmidsara^, <i»iU< 

iJ.^^ &iA«, il jLsr« nmfdialai. 

Debate, v. (dispute), 1^0^ baha$i 
(to deliberate), ijy^Ji ^md j 

Debauch, v. (corrupt), JumjI qfimi. 

To debauch a woman, i^JciM 

^j>ii\ haiak al^d. [sJtdtia rt * 

Debauch, «. cJU^\ tMiMdii ijfl 

Debauchee, «. ^Li /4fir, J^^ 

Debaucher, J»^ ihimM. 
Debauchery, j^fl fAa^Mi^. 
Debilitate, f^. «— flt.^ ^^f* 
DebiHtated, UufU> da^f. 
Debility, (^lur <^^af or i{ii^. 
Debonair, ^jWl Ja^f/. 

Debt, ,jO^ ^<Z, ^^ J 4Ig^ (plor. 
^jj[ J <^y6n). Involved in debt, 

Debtor, «. (jf^«V« modyftii (fbm. 
Decade, «. i^A^ ^a$karai. 




bUmdt, jiilWAa^ wmtd^d tUkth. 
Deoampy r. J»y rakal. 
SManpment, i)L»^^ rMat, 
JkcMj, Jt^J Mowdl; (&11 from a 

pncperous state), )ffyL» 9uktU, 
Dmy, r. laLii mIoI. 
Diedty deceitfti]ii688, ^JjS ghUh^ 

^C« Moir, ^«X£ ghadr. [makhikr. 


Dewitftil, ^ILi ghathihdih, j\L9 
r,j ski highadr%n,dL^JlCj 


DeodTe, v. i «xi gkadar, ^^ ghath ; 
(to caoae to err), f^yi gKawa\ 
J^ idl. To deceive the eyes (as 
s juggler, etc.)iysr* Bohar, 

DeoeiTcr, «. J\^ mdkir, /^LLe 

December, JJ!I1 ^y l^ ifcdntln a/ awwal 
Decencj, £ilJ lagdkat, (^jl euM, 

iL^l:^ mundiohat, iA3\y^ muwd- 
Decent, JjI feyO:, L-.-:r»j wdjih, 

Decently, c-ijtj^ ^'io/ aM, 
U««L^ mundsiban. 


Deeeptibilitj, jJkiilt^UUl tmidn 

Deoeptible, (jlicj gimghath. 
Deoeption, ^j troAm, JLrw khagdL 
I^edde, V. ^X>- hahrm. To decide j 

a law-suit, ifjUl^^Li kata^ al 

mddii, ^^^^i\\^J^ fatal alda^a* 

Decided, Q«kA^ makin^. 

Decider, «. fS\^ hdkim, ^li kdti^. 

Decimal, t^j\j^ ^ahdrl, ^ j JL m :^ 


dmate, v.jLx. ^hihar, / 

nmatioD,yux ^hfjJUju ta^hlr, J 
dpher, f^. (explain ciphers), j^ / 

Decimate, v.jJL& ^hihar. 


Decipher, f^. ^explain cipbers;, j^*^ 

fastar, /^\j <)1(.lXi fak al arkdm. 
Decision, «. ^J^ fa$l, ^jL>^ kukm, 

Uti kadd, i^ hujjat. 
Decisive, ^U kdti^, 4^ *W^' 

Decisiveness, ^\is^i^y watf 


Deck (of a ship), isuju* sak^faf, 
L^-'O^lyf^ dahr al tnarkab. 

Declaim, v. ujbjh hataf, u,-^^^ 
khatab. Ikhatlb. 

Declaimer, «. declamator, c^iih<> 

Declamation, i*K!1Ju& ^iltn al kaldm, 

— r ^ 

Declaration, tf.jlf;^! uMxhdr^ ^j^\ 

i^Hf ^Lj bagdn, ^jL tharh^ 

j^ ta^bir,j^uJu tafilr. 

Declare, f^. j^\ oMiar \ (affirm), 
J i karrar. 

Declension (of noons), uJ^ mw/, 

l^l(i.jbyidj toiflful ismd. 

Declinable, i^j,a:^ muiaiorrif. 

Dedin&iioTi (deacent), ^&%Jb huikat, 





Jjj^ maul; (bending), J-^ may/, 
L^\jss^\ inkirdf. 

Decline, v. (bend or lean downward), 
JU mdl\ (to shun), i-,,>^v;'>"\ 
ijianab, jji>^\ thtaran. To de- 
cline (a noun), ujk^ sarraf; (to 
decay), J|j *dl. 

Decline (diminntion), Jl^J tawdl. 

Dedivity, 9.j^S»^ hadur. A slip- 
pery declivity (down which boys 
slide), Si^j taUikkat. 

Declivous (sloping), (Jjt* 'mdylj 

Decorate, v. ^J zayyan. 
Decorated, ^\/% muzayyan. 
Decoration, decorement, <CjJ %lnat. 
Decorticate, v. (peel),^^Mj kashshar. 

Decorum, ^LmiL^ mundsabaL ^U 

Decoy, s. im^*^ jazb, ^,^>-ja%bat 
(plur. d^bJ^yos^dO. 

Decoy, v. ^^^ jatab. 

Decrease!^, (make less), ^jo^ nahka9, 

Decrease, (j^fji^ tankls. The de- 
crease of a river, rain, etc.,^i^ 

Decree, s. ^S^ hUkm (plur. mM^ 

ahkdm), j^\ amr (plur. j>^\^\ 

awdmir, Lai kadat >!>- hatm, 

«<< >« « J itsmattji^ takdir. The 

decrees of God, dUlL^ k» 
A j udicial decree, ^jduJ ! A^ 

Decree, v. J^ hakam. [m 

Decreed, jy^ mdmajt^ 

Decrepit, v»gjit«^ ^^f' ^ 

old man, jl.»»r> ■^liJg' 

akhtiydr. A decrepit old 

Decrepitude, Ls^ ^o/os. 

Decretal, ,c<«>s^>- Aa^ml. A 
(book of decrees), .^l^ 
kitdb ul ahkdm. 

Decry, v. k^Sc ^yab, j^ 

Decuple (tenfold), uJLa. 
^a8?Mrat ad^f. 

Decurion s. (serjeant or c« 
^J^\^^\ anbdshi. 

Dedicate v, (consecrate), 
khassas, (.-fii^ tcakaf, 
ahda\ Dedicated, u/"^ 
^M JJU tnukaddas, i^yyt 

Dedication, ^^.J^ ^<»^ 
wfl^/; (ofabook),t^l:;^V 
kitdb. Dedications (of t 
iljL^^Jj takrisdt 

Deduce, v. ,,^<:,2^\ utanU 
antaj, Deducement, d 
(consequence), ^^^f^ na{ 

Deduct, V, ^jb tarah, Li. 




Dmif s. (action), J; ^atmd, Jju 
jifl (plur. JUil of^^ ; (written 
efidenee of a legal act), tXibi^i «afiaJ| 
^MMOMtfi ; (reality), 

Words and deeds, J^^ Jy i^otr^ 
wfi^. Illnstrions deeds, JU3\ 

Deem, «. ^zi\ ifiakar, ^Ja tan, 

fcep, J-* ^amlit ; (gloomy), j^ifc^ 
•a^^fiii, Ay^jkJu^ maghmUm ; 
(not obvioiu), ^j^lx ghdmid, 
^^JlJL^ mughlakf Ji-JLA.^ 

(ngadons), LJiji\^^'>^\^ idhdb 

Deep (the ocean), «. l3,,«jc^ 

^oAr fil muhU. 
Deepen, r. ^Jh4£ ^ammak ; (to make 

g^my or sad), ax y^m. 
Deeply, U^ ^mlkan ; (with great 

itody or sagacity), ^»Ja£ JliCLlb 

^' iihtufhdl ^osTni. 
Deepness, ^^ ^vmifc. See Depth. 

Diefiux, V. (spoil, disfigure), S-^^ 

l^^p«ilc ^ai(M; (to erase), ^^^mr* 
Defacement^ i^^jS^MArfi. \ 

Befkmation, \jii\ tftird, ^Ifff itkAm, 

iL&Jb hatlkat. 

BefSunatory, ^^^^ mufdih. 

Defamer, «. s^J^^ muftarf, ^l^ 

Defame, v.^ fadah, ilJcJbkaiak, 

,^^^ faddah. 

De£Einlt, Ik^;^ hhaUl, jyd ih»flr, 
j0faS3 taisir, Li^J tanb; (de- 
fect), (^^^ naki. 

Defeasance (annulling), JUa^^ »&M/, 
^s^ mahn, [<iJ f&^. 

Defeasible, JUrJt^jCi^ mtfmibn 

Defeat, «. /^^j^^ inhi%dm,jJi hur. 

Defeat, v. fi\tb haazam,j^ husar; 
(to fhistrate), aj^ haram, v,,.^jlfv 

Defeated, /^Jf^ munhazim, /Mjf« 
mahzHm, To be defeated, ^J^\ 
inha%am,jjjJsj\ inkasar. 

Defect (deficiency), ^/a^ nah, 
^LaD tiaksdn; (fsiult), ^..^jC 

Without defect, i..^.wJ^1j StZil 
Defection (apoetacy), jl JJji irtidddf 
^\Aji\j\ij\inkdr al imdn; (revolt) 

Defectire, ^^LJ ndM, ^y^M^ 
Defence (protection),^l4»- kimdyat^ 




(apology), jA-xs ^ittr; (prohi- 
bition), ^^ man^; (resistance), 

^jU^. mu^radat, 1^^\a^ mu- 

Defend, v. <<«l>^ hdma' ; (to fortify), 

^^f^^ hauan; (to prohibit), ^^ 

mana^. To defend one's-self, 

AmJU^^^W hdma* ^m nafso. 

To defend a oause (legally), 

Defendant, «. (in a law-suit or 
oriminal prosecution), ^J^^ J^ 

Defender, «. (of another), ^^^ 
h&ml, iiiU.^ muha/k, ^Ij^ 
muddfi^, j^\i^ munajid. The 
defender of the faith, ^^frJji^^ytl^ 

|>efended, i^^is^ «mi^t2s, (jmj^'^ 

maAril«, i<«^«^ mw^mt* 
Defensible, ^^^^^ ytiffAomL 
Defensive (affording defence), 

^^4btf^ muAmf. [tnudafi^t. 

Defensive, «. ^IjiJt JU- Ad/ m/ 
Defensively, ^lx« muddfa^atan. 
Pefer, t;. Jf«l 0mAa/. 
Deference (respect), jtcLcl i^ibdr, 
. jU&^l tJwi^fygg, &fv^,^ muldhasLat ; 

(complaisance), JUtL^ muldtafat. 
Defiance (to %ht, etc.), u. 


iaM hUarb. 

Deficiency, jyoi km 

Deficient, fjai\j ndkii 

Defier, «. (contemner) 

Defile, V, (contamii 

dannat, ^jtSf najft 

Defile, «. (narrow i 

%anka, (Jj\:>- khdm 

Defilement, ^\jJ dat 

Define, t^. (circumscril 

limits), ^*^ joMfi 

^Lil kata^. To de 

the boundaries, JJu 

explain a thing by 

w-jL^j woBaf, 

Defineable, t.^ jcil 

Defined (limited), Jj 
ft^W ft ^ maktU^ ; 
i^ycy^^ maw%uf\ 
^%jL^ mafrud. 

Definite (certain), « 
^jAs^ muhakkak, 
a definite time, c:^ 

Defiuiteness, ^jJb j 

Definition, ^g «r^ « 

Definitive, ^xLj iUi^c 
Str ' 

. «J:7li kdti^y JjJ^s^ 
give a definitive \ 




SefinitiTelj, ULi ikat^. 
Deflection. See Deviation. 
Beflower, «. (ynlg. LS^^i faiah 
VM\ ij\U\J\j\ Mdlidbakdrat 

Beform, 9. ^Ji» ihanna^, ^^tSx. 
Deformed, ^Ji kahihf w^vJ* 9hani^. 

Deformed in countenance, ijS 
jlax^ll AorfA W mansar. 
Defi>rmedly, ^^x^&^cyj dtfUH^^tn 

BeformedneeSy deformity, ^ i^&A, 

Defraud, v. ^jLs. ghashyj^ ghadar. 
Defray, v. (pay the expense), ^ J 

(iijhi^ii^l dafa^al moiruf. 
Defrmct, (*^f tnarhUm, 
Defunct (person deceased), &^j^ 

Defy, «. (to battle), ^fju^u^Ji? 

taJUh Ul middn; (to affront), 

sJi^^^\ ifiara* ^atlhi. [asL 
Degenerate, JU^Stjyui^ mafs^d ul 
Degenerate, v. i,Jlsj>-\ ikhtalaf; 

(grow wild as plants), ^^u^^ 

Degradation, Jlc ^os/. 
Degrade, v. Jj& ^oso/. 
Degraded, Jj^ja^ ma^%iU, 

Degree (quality, rank, station), 
<(s»-jj darafatf ^U^^ mamaiai, 
^^ r»^a^. A high degree of 
dignity, JLLcJLj; ruthat ^aUgat. 
Degree (order of lineage), ^^uj 
noM^ (plur. c-^Uwl aiMd&). The 
ascending and descending d^irees 
of kindred, 9jj^^{]^\ «#«? wa 
fiirH^. Degree (proportiom), 
^LmiUi^ mundtahat. An astro- 


nomical degree, ^jJ darajat, 
4Lj J daklkat. [^i yAom. 

Deject, f^. (make sad) ^oj>^ ^msoii, 
Dejected, (^y^^ tnaghmUm. 
Dejectedly, j^JiCj hiiol gham, 

Dejectedness, dejection (lowness of 
spirits), 1 J^ sawdd, ^i gham. 

Deign, v, (condescend) Jjl:J tandnal. 
Deism, t^^ya3 toiawwuf. 
Deist, i^jlas^y mutasawtpif. 

Deity, s. dSI alilah, d^\ allak. 
Delay, \^^yj tawakkuf^ <J|^ 
taw&nl,j^\i tdkhlr. 

Delay, t;. yiA akhary J^l omAo/. 
To ask a delay, ^Qi^wJJ? ^ai^5 
fiMldai, fjfic^l iitamhal. 

Delegate, v. J^ J««»;f ar«a/ troAi/. 
Delegate, «. ^^^ wakll (plur. Si^^ 
wakald. [nigdhaL 

Delegation, iLllij wokdlat, lA^ 




Deliberate, v. JjljJ Uiawal,J\Si 

Deliberate (oirctimspect), i,,,^>.l.g 

tL^JLfr-l adhih Miydt, i^^rh.[^ 

s\fSj\ idhib intihdhf jiS/% mudah- 

hir; (alow), i^jL\^^ bail al 

Deliberately (cautiously), iS^^sJ^, 
hihol taammul, l^Li^^lJ^ btkol 
ihtiyat; (with design), Ijl^ 
^amdan, ^J^^j-^ ^ kaadin. 

Deliberation, j^^^ tadhir, J^^Lj 
taammul, Xai katd; (caution), 
!9Li>.\ ihtiy&L 

Deliberative, t^y-^*^3 tadblrt. 

Delicacy (in eating, etc.), J^ J %aw1c, 
5jJ lazzat; (beauty), ^^\A>P^jamdl, 
^j4n^>-hu8n; (tendemess,8oftne8s of 
manner), Lj\Ja zardfatf (^jLLJ 
luif; (neatness), ij\^ taMrat, 

Delicacies, delicates (exquisite 
viands), ^jm^IaJ nafayis. 

Delicate (to the palate, etc.), jj jJ 
/azis, ^jts^ nafu ; (soft, amiable), 
msSj na^m. Of a delicate temper, 
^^^Mbi:J\^»JL>- hallm annafs. 

Delicately, Ia^JCj hikol latdfat. 

Delicious, {j**^ na/U, Jj«a1 la%U. 

Delight, delightfulness, delicious- 
ness, m Imat, i^^Jiai luif, ^Us) 

Delight, V. (give pleasure) 
sharah, ii bn, ^A abktff. 

Delighted, jji^AM^ maarikr, 

DelighiM, delight8ome,^^MM« 
«3j«xi 2dafSy t/^ mufarrih 

Delightfiilly, j^j^^i b% iurur. 

Delineate, v, (design) ^^j 

Delineated, /^y^j^ marttUn, jjom^ 


Delineation, f^j ratn^ ks^ tkM. 
Delinquency, ILsw khatd, Mjf^jmmu 
Delinquent, «. (^j^ mujrim^ c^ Jm 

Delirious, (j^^ majnUn^ ULju JUfr 

^mmdl yighalUty ifjut flM^ML 
Delirium, ^l[«Xi^ htmydn. 
Deliver, v, (give in charge), Ju.i 

Bollum ; (give), ^JosS a^ ; (to 

save, set at liberty), ^jcl^ 
khallas; (to relate),^ khaUmr, 

Deliverance (from captivity, etc.), 
ifUsT najdt, ^)Lw khalds, ^y 
faraj ; (utterance, 8pea]dng)i 
jiyj tahrir ; (giving or con- 
signing to another, aJu*J tadifii ; 
(surrender), <ulLl itd^t. 

Delivered (freed), cS/ju. nafML 
Delivered (consignedy givenX 

Deliverer, «• (rescuer), 




iUts, jJL^ munkk ; (a relator), 

Misery (aiin«.der),^^<«,ftm; 
(chiH-birth), iJij wOadat 

Beluder, «. ^iXlki, ghaiktilUUh. See 

Deodver, impostor. 
Ddve, r. See, To dig. 

Moge, 9. uJU? M/. 

Odnaion (deceit), <LL>- Af^^, jAi 

Demand, «. (claim, requiBitioii) 

uyiJJflr /ioM, S^^^ <^t^a'. 
Demand, 9. i— JVt toibi. 
Demandable, l^>^1 h Hj^Hi^ ^y*^ 

Demandant, demander, «. ^^J 
itS^f, ^JU? MZt^; (plaintiff), 

Demanded, (-jr^Ua^ motfll^. 
Deoientate, f^. ^^ jann. 
Demerit, IJiL^ hakdrat, Lli^ 

Demerit, r. (deserre blame or pnn- 

iahment), ^\:Liil uidhal, ^j.^^\ 
Demi, ^jLoJ no^/l 

Demise. See Decease, death. 
Democracy, «. j^^^^ jamhUr. 

Demolish, t^. ^j^ kharah, ^JUb 

hadam, *x^ hadd, [mukhrtb. 

Demolisher, «. i« jU hddim, ^jSf^ 
Demolished, ^^jJs^ makhrub, 

i%j«Xf« mahdum. To be demolished, 

L^,ss^\ inkharah. 
Demolition, ^-^|^ ihardh, /^JJb 

hadm, a\s^^ inhiddm. 
Demon, «. ^Ua^ •haytdn (plor. 

^^^^L^ «^»yd^lii). A sylvan 

demon, J^ ^Aii/. 
Demoniac, b, ^^JLuw« ma«^iln, 

^^^^xsr^ majnUn, 
Demonstrable, (J^;fI^ J^^ kahU al 

hurhdn, JjIj^I^^^ma^W^ mus- 

tahsan al madlnl. 

Demonstrably, \yb^ zdhiran. 

Demonstrate, v. j^\ (nhar^ ^ji 

Demonstrated, ^jf^ muharhan. 

Demonstration, JJj daJuly ^J^ji 

hurhdn (plur. ^^\ji hardhin), 

(JL^[^\ Mdt An evident demon- 

stration, <^,v.j.j hayyinat (plur. 

LL^U^ hayyindt). Evident de-> 

monstrations, ^^;-J^)/J'j^^*^^^*^^ 
^L* ht^'dt wddihat wa hardMn 
Demonatrati ve,demonftttatoty iv^^/ 




burhdnl, A demonBtrative caosei 
J^jJl^U^U;...^ 8ahah ndhtr 
addaltl. [wajhin hwhdnh 

Demonstrativelyy <J^^^^^ ^* 
Demonstratory «. ^jf^ tnubarhin. 
Demur, 9. ^^j\ irtdh, clCii shak. 
Demure, ^. vlv_ -ip-Iy* idhtb adah, 
Demureness, jlij wdk&r. 
Den, «. (cave of a wild beast, «U 
ghdr ; (a valley), «^«^|^ w&ii ; (a 
woody place), ^U gh&hat. 

Deniable, jlOl^^^C*^ mumhin al 

Denial, j\Sj\ tnkdr, ^Ju tM/i, 

c^^Ju.1 salb. To give a flat denial 

(to give the lie), l^j^ kagsah. 
DemedfjjL^ mankur. 
Denier, 8.jis»^ munkir. 
Denigrate, v. JJLj sawtvad. 
Denizen. See Citizen. 
Denominate, v. ^<4^ 8amtna\ 
Denominated, ,<'4mu« musamma*. 
Denomination, j^\ inn, i..^ lakab, 

Denominator, «. ,«««m**« muttmml. 

Denote, v. a, Jlc ^Uam. 

Denoted, A^i/« markum. 

Denounce, f^.^;^ khahhar,j^\ aahar. 

Denouncement, aI&I i^m, j\^\ 

I'sAcir, jU^\ uh^r. 
Dense, t-g\,l< i»#{/: 

Density, jUa^^ inftwUid, 
Deny, v.^f aiiibrf wJl.* mM. 
Depart, f^. (go away), ^j rdh,^\^ 
hajar ; (to apoetatise), Jj^\ orldL 
Department (office), ^«Xfiw IMAmi^ 
Departure, JlaT^t ir^fAd/, s-^^UJ ) 

Depauperate, v.jAifaUar* 

Depend, 9. (have a relation to)^ 
jjju ta^aUak ; (to be in a state 
of expectation), JiLSJ\ itUmmr. 
To depend upon (trust to), tX^ss] 
i^ianMd, jSsx\ i^tdkad. 

Dependance, dependancy, depei* 
dence, dependency (relation of 
one thing to another), ^jJLjS 
ta^lluk (pi. liMju ta^aOuiai), 
L»Jc>^ mundtahat ; (trust), jli&fil 
i^ikdd, jLcxl i^im&d. 

Dependant, dependent (reIatiTe)| 
^jdx-iw^ muta^allik, 

mansnh; (subject), 
tdhi^, wyk^ mutl^. 
Dependant, dependent, depeoder, #• 
(upon another), «^l7 tdhtc. 

Deplorable, ^^^^^ muhakii; (con- 
temptible), (^y^ maaun^m. 

Deplorableness, ,<C-^ JU- kdl mw 

Deplore, r.^Jx4..jL»*l3 iaoititf ^aim\ 





Deplored, ^Jl&^C^ mubta* ^aiihi. 
BffJnine, r. (pall off feathers), 

^/uJj)twJCJ naiafarrUh, 
BepoDent^tf. (witness), «XftlJi thdkid. 
Dspc^ahted, tmf^^jS^ makhri^. 
Sspopnlatioa, s-')/^ ihardi. 
Depepolator, $. tmJfjif^ mukkarrib. 
Bepose, v. (firom a throne), ^Lc 

kkaJa^; (firom an office), ^^ 

^f^f (to giro testimony), «Xfl 

Depositary, «. (person with whom 
anything is lodged), ^Jyx^^ 

Deposit, 8. LiU^ amdnat, i^^Jj 

wmk^ (plor. ^^«^j tt^<Mteyf^). 

By way of deposit, ij\^'i\^Jiv 

Htmrik ul amdnai. 
Deposit, r. ^^^ wada^, ^J^ toada^. 
Deposited, 9)^y mawdik^ 
Deposition (evidence), ijl ( A 

Depravation, depravedness, deprave- 

ment, depravity, jL^ i ftudd. 

Deprave, v. Ju«J /omm^. [mafi^. 
Depraved, t):^^ mukhiaJ, J^mX« 
Depraver, «. Ju«i^ muf$id, ^^i^ 

Deprecate, v. yiJL:%^\ iiiagkfar, 

Deprecation (imploring forgiveness), 
j\iis^\ utigkfdr, \mz^\ uti^ ; 
(intercession), <£cU^ 9kafd%§t. 

Deprecator, «. Jijc^^^ muitagl^ ; 

(a mediator), ^iJ^ Aafl^. 
B^reciate, v. J J^f utanai,ji^ 

hakar, ^Ul akdn. 
Depredate, v. i^U J^ ^anuU ghdra, 

Jo yaghgham, v«^ nahah. 
Depredation, L«^ gaghmd, ^Li 

Depredator, «. JlJ^JDl^lLi kattd^ 
Depress, v. ^^ watta* ; (humble), 

J J zaU,jA»^ hakar, ^Ul oAdn. 
Depressed, ji^>- hakir, JpjL^ 

matlul, jf^A^^ iitnAJtar^ ^-r^^ 

khdgib, ^lf»^ mtm^Sn. 
Depression (abasement), ^ «3J tiuUil, 

f^A^ tahkir, i}\A>- hakdrat. 

Depressor, «. JiX^ must/. 

Deprivation, ^Js\ i^ddm. 

Deprive, v. ^^^^9^ nam^ ^tmaho, 
^JLfi ^adam, AjC^ karam. To de- 
prive of an office or dignity, Jj^ 

Deprived, i»-£*Xx codim, (^^j^^ 
mahrik'm. To be deprived, ^jbi^\ 

Depth, Jhj* ^umk. In the depth of 
winter, l:kMj\k.tjvi /^ ^hmX -mV 

$kUd, or \::jSJ\«^4 /' ^^^ 

Depatatbn (Ticegerenoy), XJL^j 

Depute, 1^, J^j\ artal; (appoint), 
i__ V' naaah ; (to send a depu- 
tation), Kj J«^\ ar«a/ umkala. 

Ifeputed, 8. ^2;Ijc^ mata^yiih 
i^j^ mursal. 

I>eput7, 8, c-^U n5-li, J-f^ 

wakll (plur. 1L(^ K^u^oto), Ji^ 
muwaUtalf jy^ mdmUr, i^\^ 
JUHi?dla9jJ^\f^mtihd8hir. A deputy 
Tested with full powers, J-^^ 
^^\sL^ wakll mutlah. The deputy 
of a judge, ^^lallc-^U nd-lh al 


Deracinate, r. (tear up by the roots), 

Dea^otion (abandoning), 

Unrai, jS^ kajar. 
Deride, v.ji^**^ tanmihar, ^jfJi 

Derided, Hsf^ madhaiat. To be 
derided, %ja^^*^J^ 8€r nuukhara. 
Derider, 8. (JJ^U ddhik, 

Derision, i^is***^ nuukharat, \jAJi 

Ut%h8d,ji^ UmaMm. 
DerifiTe, derisory, CS^g^^^^ «% 

446 DBS 

Deriyable, J^^ J^lj MUti 
Derivation, f^ fwr^ j^^y^ 
^yi^ Mraf, j\JbJ^\ mM 

Deriyative, ^^ fi'T^- A< 
tiye noun, J;j;ma^ m\ MM ii» 
Derivatives, CL>l&^is^ m 
ra^t. DerivatiTely, 
hinaw^ far^, ISU-i-l^ 

Derive, v. ^j^j*^ 8adar mini 
^ a8htak min. To deri 
vantage, JfjujLiJ ^m ^ 

Derived, ^jU 8ddir,JJ:J^ m 
c ya^ mtdafarra^. To 
rived, jsJ^\ adUak, 

Deriver, 8.jXa^ musdir. 

Derogate, v. (act contrary i 
former law or custom), 
abtal, iJU. khalaf,jAc j 
(to disparage), ^;A^ hakar. 

Derogation (breaking or 
void a law), jUaJ^ ibM 
paraging), UiJUacLsi uM 

Derogative, derogatory, ^l 
yhdyir, (^Is^ muihdiif, 

Dervis, 8. (eastern monk), 

Descend, t^. Jj) nasuU, To 
descend, ^}JJ fiaual, ^JjJ 

Descendant^ descendants, 

< 1 




Mt/(plar. JLj\ amdi), 
m§ak (plnr. c^Lj\ amdil). 
SeKendmly deioeiidingy JjU ndsM; 

firom), j4>ltf sddir. 

'OmfmiXMe, Jd\^^\^jL^ mum- 

Jknutt, deoendoD, J|/-^ nmnl. 
Aioent and dasoent of kindred, 

ijjhiiy^^ M9ft/ wafru^; (line- 
age), Jm^I oi/; JmJ fk»^ v,y^MJ 
MM^y ^/>»^ jini. The steps 
<tf deeoent (in consanguinity), 

To make a hostile descent, 

Describe, p, t^jL^^ woiaf. 
Described, uJyay$ mmotHf. 

Oeseriber, «. wlj rdnmj l^aAj 

Bsseription, ^Lj hayan, ^}*,aiuj 

Description of a country, injVinr 
jUt takhiU ai hOdd. 


Descry, v. i^imi kashaf; (to an- 
noonce), .Afi^ hhahhar. 

Desert, s. ^^ harriffat, j> barr, 

Ji hafr. The desert of the 

children of Israd, ^SjJi^i^ 

tmyk hma Jbrdti. The wildbeasts 

sf the desert, iQ^ \ ^^j vmkiUh 
id haniffoi. 

Desert (wild, solitary), c^V 

Desert (merit), J«a5 /<m^, jU^Lit 
Desert, v. (abandon), jS^ hqfar, 
CJ, 3 ^oi. To desert one's 
country, »Si jC^ ^oi &i^(29. 
To desert the world (retire to 
solitude), LjjJtd^ ^aifc oi^ 
dunifd. To desert one another, 

Deserted, jy^ mahjUr, cS^ji^ 
Deserter, «. /Mjf^ maAsilm, S-^^ 

Desertion,^^*:^ hajr^ uIhF^ A|firfi», 

Deserve, t?. (good ^ ill), j;^m»1 
itiahak^ c^^i-^j .r. .,.4 tstawfah, 
Jjb\s,^\ iat&hal. To deserve re- 
ward, ^yJ 1 i«_^^yMM.^ miMtot^iS 
oZ ^wad. To deserve honour or 
respect, JLj[Li^lv..;^c»*\^ tr^/f^ 
arri^yat. To deserve death, 
J&a!) j;£cul utahakal kaU, 

Deserved, fj^^m^ mustahak. 

Deservedly, ^^JCj biM JM. 

Deserver, «• Jj^Iimmi mustdkH. 

Design, s. (intention), Ji^ koid, 

With design, JudAJb hHkatd, 

\x4jC ta^amfMidam. Without 

design, i^y^i^jti^ nvK jha^r 




maki^d. According to the design* 

design (of an artist), f^^ raim. 
Design, v. (purpose), Ju^S koiod; 
(to plot), Jli»-i thtal; (to de- 
lineate), ^Hii; rasam. 
Designable, ^^ji yarttrnm^ JjU 
i^J\ kdhU arrasm. 

Designation (marking out), ij\j^\ 
(shdrat, 4;«lc ^aldtnat, m^j rann. 

Designed (proposed) J^«aL« tnaktUd; 

(delineated), f^y^y manikm. 
Designedly, ^J>»diftj hi kasdin, IjudJ 

hudan,AffxsL\j hiikhtiy&rin. 
Designer, «. m^\j rdtim ; (a plotter), 
^U mcZihIr, jlC« makkdr, JL**^ 

Designing, at^\ Jli^:*^ ffiuA^d/. 

Desire (passion, wish), jl^lsw khdiify 
(jMySb hawas, ^ylL shawk, ^Ui^ 
rughbat; (request), l^AV talahf 
Jl^ su-dl, A humble desire, 
^^»AJ tamanni, 9j^ tadarru^, 
A. longing desire to see any per- 
son or thing, ^U:^^ iMaydk, 
To excite desire, c^j raghghdb, 
Jm ikawvHik. To have a strong 
desire, jli^^ Uhtdk, Agreeable 
to desire (or wish)| /♦^^li-y^wv 
>iM^^ 41/ mardm. According to 


ha9db td UM. 
DetiraUe, ^y^f marglM* 
Desire (wish for), ^^f^f 

J\sJ^\ ukidk, t^j myM, JU 

md/; (to request), u^JJb teW, 


Dedred (asked for), Cpj^Ua^ Mutffii; 
(wished for), ^^^4/* *fM»yM, 

Desirer, «. v^lW ^/t^. 

Desirous, jf\iM*^ mushUlk, k-^l; 

rdghib. Desirous of war, i-.'^j 
^Jr^\ rdghib al harb. Desirous 
of peace, ^r^\^,^\j rdglA 
assulh. To be desirous, JfJ^J 
tas?utmcak, jli^l uhidk. 

Desist, tl5/ ^oroife, ^i^^ iM^ 
^an, ^ji/aragh. 

Desolate (laid waste),<^|y£>- IhdMkt 
L^jJe^ makhrHh. [kharrwk 

Desolate, r. ^-^;^ kharah, «*--v^ 

Desolately, Vl;^ i^Wdfton. 

Desolater, «. ^-^/^ mtcJlAri^. 

Desolation, u.^^.rw JUordft. 

Despair, U^^^^Jsi iU/c arrtfd^ 

Despair, r. \p^J\^ai kaia^ aruifd. 

Despairer, 9.\>')\ iJ^U kdtm^mr^. 

Despairingly, Wjj^cT^ mmgkayr 





Bvpente (li<^)el6n)9(jMjj[U md^iu ; 
(ixretrierable}, IjjJt^iJ^ ^at^m 
MddMw d (raah), j|^fL< muMawwir. 

Da yua tflly (furiously ), Ijj C " "^ 
■ w rf dtai w y ir ^ii ; (in a great de- 
giee), X>liu kigk&foi, 

Besperateneas, j^ to^tMmr. 
Desperation. See Despair. 
Despicable, despisable, JJj so/IJ^ 

Deipicableness, ij\^L^ hakdrat, 
i'\jj danaat ; despicably, J^ 
Ij\a>^ htkol h(^drat, [utahkar. 

Despise, r. yAi^- Aoibr, 

Despised, jyJbe^ mahiur, 

haiir, ^V* ^<^^* [mtfAfn. 

Despiser, s. yi^^ mtfAJUir, ^^;::^ 
De^ite, despitefolness (spite, ma- 
lice), ifjf Jl£ ^addwat, JA^ hakd, 
^joki Jmghd, 

Despite, v,^\^ jdkar. 
Despiteful, J^a>^ hakad. 
DespitefuUy, djlC nakdyat. 
Despoil, V. CyJ..i soZo^, Uju J,,«^ 
^ama/ yaghmd. 

Despondency, ^ gham. 

Despot, «. (tyrant), ^Ll? lalim, 

Despotic, ^}JBajm^ mutfakiU, LLbJw« 

mutauMi. Despotic power^ 

despotism, LLj UuaUut, Jjiis^] 
Dessert^ s. (last oourse), Jij mcife/. 

Destination (appointment), ^-JLi 
myo^, 4>|^ murdd, J^oS jbtcf, 
^^;0^ yharad; (appointed place), 
^Tj^ fMfy(*^tj^ fnakarr. 

Destine, v. ^jjx. ^ayyan, 

Destined, jjL^ mukarrar, ji 
mukaddar, ^,jLju^ mu^ayyan^ 
^jSjc^ muia^yyan. 

Destiny, t>,,,..».<a3 tutsib, s^^^ hakht, 

• — 

Destitute (in want of), 

khdyib, J^/akid, J^aL^ mafkud ; 
(abandoned, left), cl^ -jl.^ 
tnatrukf J^Jlst^ makhMul. Des- 
titute of strength, >-U ^ji%. 

Destroy, v. ^j^fana\ ^y>- kharab, 
uji]J tola/; (to lay waste), ^J^£^ 
kharrah. To destroy buildings, 
aJU^ hadam. To destroy (kill). 

Destroyed, /•^^^m^ tna^Hm, u^Ks^ 
khardh, (.^•^•^ mailArili, (•j*^ 

l)estroyer, «. s-f/^ mMiArt}, a jU 
hddm, XmJLt mufiid. 

Destruction, i.*^ ,0^ <aUr\i« 

DET 450 

Destruotive, Ju«*a^. mufiid, 

mudirr, cI,C(^ mMih 
DeBtraotivelyy ICLf^ mMikan, 
Deaultory, ^y^)/}^ mugh&yir 

alkdnUn, ijL^U\uJ)U- khildf al 

Detach, v. ^^ farak. 
Detachment; «. (a body of troops), 

j^yfauy\^j3jirkat, Ui^ btdnk. 
Detail, a, (minate account), Jg.diJ 

tafiU. In detail, J^Moi^lt^lc^ 

^la' attafsll, X^diJ tafsJlan. To 

detail, fj^faual, ^jJL sharah. 
Detain, v. (withhold), ujiSjl atc^. 

To detain in custody, ^jt^^^- hahas. 
Detained, i ^mClst* muhtahis, De- 

tained in prison, (jn^^^s:^ mahbiU, 
Detect, V y^JJ^ h(uhaf,j^\ azhar. 
Detected, uJj ,*. ( ^ mahhaf, 

^■*M.(v>^ munkashif. [kdshif. 
Detector, «. uJU^ i^MAd/, i^ji^l^ 

Detection, jl^l «zAdr, cjLu»^ ^A/, 

Detention, u-fit^iys iawlAf^jo^ haw. 
Detei, r. uJ^ khawwaf, <— a-<-j 

Determinable, J.^^^^^^*^ mionXtii 

Determinate, determined (limited), 
Oj«Xcr« MoAJflif; (established), 

JjSL^ wmkarrar, (■■ij.rtVx «iafi«fi& ; 


Determinatelyi m^^^u JCi MM te»* 

Determination (iniention), t\ ^ } 
ioid, aJc. ^mm, it}\j\ irdiai 
(resolution), Jl 5 \»a\ MiUiU 
(decision), Ajp^jmm, JL^ huim 
(limitation), «\[tXa^ tahild. 

Determine, p. (fix limits), JJ^ 

haddad ; (to conclude finally)^ 

^;:^ khat4imi (to decide), fS^ 

hakam; (to adjust), ^ imbunh; 

(to resolve), fije- ^asuim. 

Detest, f^. fjofo haffkad, sjC ", J 

Detestable, jTj^^L* moibraA, ijStmA 

Detestably, h\jLJj bi uiOsrdh. 

Detestation, ]f\Jc>^\ iitikrdh, La\S 

hardhiyaty hb\^ hardhat, 

Detester, «. h^z^**^ muxtahnk. 

Dethrone, r. ^^ ^azal, ^^ kJMi^ 

Dethroned, Jji^ tna^Hl^ f^^ 

kursi al mulk. 
Detract, v. Af7 taham, 
Detracter, a. ^\j idhim. 

Detraction, ^\ji^ tuhmat hdUkL 

Detriment, jj~^ darar, ij 

Detrimental, yid^ mudirr. 

DeyasUtion, woyaT tnJUrU. 

Derelope, v. s^mS kaakaf. 




Derwt (dmst), v. ^ ihattah. 
Deflate, «. (stray from the right 

voad), cP ^f (^ ^^9 ^X 
y}2^\ Mda'. To deviate from 
a pozpoee), jU- Ad<?, Jfl7 Uh. 

Beriation, wandering, JIU (Zo^/. 

Derioe (contrivance), ^Jj iadblr, 
A device (on a shield, etc.)> ^^ 

Beril, ^^Ua-J* # A«y^ii (plur.^j^L^ 
9ktydfln)\ a wicked man or 
woman, jj^ «Aarfr (plur. jj^l 

DBTiliah, JILJi fAoy^Ml; (hor- 
rihleX 4.^5^ mukhmowify ^^/^ 

Sfeviliahly, ^^IkJtJl^ kdshihajfidn. 
BeriooB, JU idh {tbtada^ 

Devise, «. ^>^^ Mtara^, ^dsj\ 
Devise (last wiU), a. i^j watiyat. 
Devised,^ JCL« mn^odtf^dar. 
Deviser, «. J^^ mft/k^, f/!^^ 

mukhtmri^ A deviser by last 

will, ^y mtMffOMf . 
Devoid, ^^ khoilf mI^Xc ^adlm. 
Devoir. See Civility, compliment, 

Devolve, v, ^^ waka^ 

Devote, p.j'sj ntnar. 

Devoted (appropriated), ^^-jLn.^ 

BMi^«|f|fMi; (addicted) JjU wULyU; 

(to God), jj«x:^ mansfir ; (affec- 
tionate), ^ \ tv^ mmkhtMf 
yj^yas^ maihaHs. [tkhttada. 
Devotedly, ^\<n % ^^J^ hikol 
Devotee, «. (devout persox^), JU^tj 
sSAh^, JjU ^S^tii; (superstitious 
person), (jyg>^ ij^ .^ muwatuxu^ 

Devotion (piety), >oLfi ^t^efo^; 
(submissive obedience, attach- 
ment), A J .r»j.rirv it^flMyo^, 
oLaJI ifikiyddf ^j^y^ ^ubndiyat 

Devour, v. ^ hala^, ^Jcj^ ibtala^. 

Devoured, 9 j)^ ma^/a^. 

Devourer, «. ^i^^ mubtali^. 

Devout, JJblj sdAu^, 9 jijs^ muia- 

Devoutly, if jLe J^ ^tM ^ddat, 

i^^JiCj hikol tahwa\ 
Dew, i^JJ fKK^'. 
Dew, V. (moisten with dew, etc.)> 

Dexter, ^^^ yamfn. See Eight. 
Dexterity, hc>^ aan^, ^JjU ka^ 
hHiyat. [toBarruf. 

Dexterous, uJj.^i_^^»-U t&hih 
Dexterously, iuc^ J^ ^)^/ foii^a^. 

Diabetes, ^L^lipi^ fawra< 
Diabolioal. See Devilish. 


Diadem, ^\j idj. See Crown. 
Diagonal, ^j^'j Mwarh, i^^-^^^r^ 

i^\ J Jl min tdwyat M tawyat. 

Diagonally. See ObUqnely. 
Dial, «..4MM^^Li 9d^ ahamiieh. 

The pin or style of a dial, *^jSs> 

AcUJt ^akrab oMd^oA. 
Dialect, ^U liidn. 
Dialectical, ^alasi.^^ maniakl. Dia- 
lectic, J^aL^\fXc' ^m al matUik. 

See Logic. 
Dialogue, i^\j^ mmdkanU, ^IC« 

mukdlamat, ^^l-^^ mMAdtrar0^ 

See Conversation. 
Diameter, jLi katr. See Axis. 
Diamond, a, (jM»U!t a/md«. 
Diaphanous (transparent), uJlLSi 

Diaphragm (midriff), u^^JJiS1v-^l^ 

hijah al kM. 
Diarrhea, JL^— »1 uhdl, Jlf^-J^ 

Diary, «. ^U ;^j rwmmah. 
Dice (game at), aIjILHi..^ /ln^^ 

Dictate, v. (prescribe), S^ hakam, 

j^\ i9mar. 
Dictate, #. A-lt^^ nM^allhi, j^\ 

amr. The dictates of the heart, 

S^^lr^V ^*^^^^ alkalh. 
I^ctioD, A^ kalnmU (plur. cl-^UK 

453 DIF 

kalimdt), JLkil ^>i^ (plar. \M 
alfdt), L-i>. ibr/. [Migh^. 
Dictionary, b. ii^\i^\j:>S kUdb 
Did, pret. of do, J^ ^omal. 

Didactic, Jji^ iii«^00tffi, S-^«^j^ 
muwaddfb, ^^4Am3 ta^mh 

Die, p. d^'U md^, 4^ '•M^iV. 
To die a martyr, j>.j{A(DU iMi 
f^Af<^. To die suddenly, ci^U 
dliL^l& mat ^M gh^ I (ti 
perish), CS^ hatk; (to witber 
as a vegetable), JjO d%M. 

Die, V. (tinge), ^^^^ iohagh. 

Die, ^^ ^ttw. A die (cube), w«a( 
ib^^ (plur. (^U^ Ai^d^). 

Dier, «. ^w sahhdgh. 

Diet (food), ^UL to^djpi, J^\ dU; 
(an allowance of food by Hie 
rules of medicine or moderatioDX 

akl wushshirh. A diet or gesend 

assembly of nobles, \^\^4Jt* 
majma^ utnard. 

Diet, V, (to eat sparingly, or by 

hil akl washihirh. 
Differ, t;. (to be distinguished from), 

Jij3 farak ; (to be at variance), 

U^2j^\ ikhUdaf. 
Difference (distinction), ^ji fitrkf 

^ ikhUlafy j\p^\ imtiydn; 




(▼ariaaoe), i^i ". <\ ikhtOdf, 
jU^ tikik&k. To make a dif- 
ference (distinguish), ^^ fardk^ 
jS^ mojfyM. To caose a dif- 
ference (excite a quarrel), ^^j 
jcU^\ nMM* OihMkdk. 
Different (distinct), k.fl]cLs^ mukh- 
ialif. Of different qualities, 
jL^^li^ Q \ -, 'T^ mukhialif 



alawtdf. Different sorts, i«LuJl 
nibdjfi, 9\y^\ anwd^. In dif- 
ferent manners, ^olosr^ 
^* aiMffd^tii mMidUfat. 
Differently, Mj^farlan, & y 

Difficult (not easy), k^^%^ 

jiMȣ> ^Mfr. Conditions difficult 

to be observed, h\Aj\ij;^r\i)\jJ^ 

$kardyei ^aArat arri^yat. A 

difficult pass (through a country), 

ffNirfir. A distemper difficult to be 
CQTedt,Jijii\j^kMtA^j^ murad^oiir 
ml lildj. A difficult affair, j^\ 
JCjSU^ amf muihial. Difficulties, 
jzJIJm^ muthUldL A request 
difficult to be obtained, J^^^ 

Difficultly, liyupjij Uhol tu^llbat, 
Jij^AJ hi mmhkH, U^ karahan, 
^^^J^ ^M kmrakim. 

Difficulty, jm£- ^iwr, JUj ta^ul, 
O j ■ » mi^ 9U-^bat ; (opposition), 
^\j:^\ i^irdd, i-iJUr« mu- 

Diffidence, ^^ tawahhum, 4(^ 

J\x:^i\ ^adam ul i^ik&d. 

Diffident, ^f^ mutawdhhim ; (un- 
certain), M^^jt^j^ ghayr ma^Hm, 
To be diffident, ^Jby tawakham. 

Diffidentiy, i^J^ hiiol shuhhat. 

Diffuse, v,jmj fuuhar, q\J^\ tuhd^. 
To diffiise odours, -li foh, J^ 
nafah. To diffuse science, eU»1 

Diffuse, diffixsed, diffusiye, i^j^ 
noihri, jLz:^ muiUaahir, sy**^^ 

mufdd,^^^\i/d8hi. Tobe diffused, 
jjj>»3j\ inUuhar. 

Difftisedly, diffusely, diffusively, 
,JyflL,Jj^^^JCj biiol 9ha/rkin 

Diffhsedness, diffusion, diffusiyeness, 
j\mCj\ tntMar, iAj^\ iskd^ai, 
Diffusiyeness of speech, Jg»fla3 
ta/Hh Diffusion of odours, ^ 

Dig, 9.jk>- ha/ar. 

Digest, r. (in the stomach), ^ii^ 




haddam; (to reduce to order), 
fioj natuun, c--^ rattah. 
Digested (as meat, etc.), jtr^- -r 
munhadim, ^j>n{^ muhdutn; (ar- 
ranged), <k-^*^ mwrattdb, /mIo^^ 

Digester, «. ^^^f* muhaddtm ; (ar- 
ranger), Ji^U ndzim. 

Digestible, ft "^ ( ■.;»■> yanhadim; 

(capable of being arranged), Jjli 

i^Ua:^^! kabil al intizam. 
Digestion (of food), M^a:b hadm. 

Hedicine, or anything assisting 

digestion, aUiJ^ hadddm. 

Digestive, the digestive power, 
d^^\^\iyi\ al kuwat al hadimat. 

Dight, V, ^j zat/yan. See To 
deck, dress, adorn. 

Dignified, t^J^miuharraf, L-flJ^ 
8harff,ji\s^\^3 zu al kadr. To be 
dignified, uJ^ tasharraf. 

Dignify, V. ^^\ akram. 

Dignitary, s. J^J^jc-^^^-L^ ^ahih 

Dignity, <UJ^ marfabat, ^^Ui shan, 
jjj kadr, ijiii kudraf, v_ -n' t 
manaah, i^jJ^ sharaf, JL«yl^- 
hukumaty <^*j«3 darajai, ZJ^ 
mamalat The royal dignity, 
tuLLi MaltanaU Supreme dignity. 

^« 1 Juf ioddraL High in dignity, 

Digress, v. ^j:j^y^^\^j&^j6^ 
^jo\jks!i\ kharaj ^an aH wudmAM 
hinaw^fdi^irdd. 8eeEzpatial% 
wander, deviate. A digraHiOD, 
^Jb\j:s\ i^irdd. 

Dike. See Bank, mound, ditch. 
Dilate. See Extend, spread oat; 
relate difibsdy, widen, grow wide. 
Dilatoriness, (J^^ tuwSnl, 
Dilatory, 4^f ^ hail al kmrakoL 

Dilemma, «. ^jt^ hlrat, ie>^ law^ 
fJijL^ muihkil. See Peiplezitf. 

Diligence, tluJ nathdt, aIcaI 
ihtimdm, i^j^ tur^t, dJ J dikkai, 
S^jahdy ^jL^ sa^, ^UJb hm ta at n 

Diligent, jJ^^ mukayyad, i^mt^i^ 
S^^*iJ>' Bdhib jad wa jaU, 
^Lj «a^f, jJi:^ mutakayyUn 
To be diligent, jJi3 takayyai, 
Aji Idsam, JJbls»- /dAu^. Dili- 
gently, ti^p^-^SPrJC) hiioljti 
tea j'ahd. 

Dilucidate, v. ^^jj hayyan^ ^jJd 

sharah, ^^ tcaddah, 

BHuie, V. i^^M^ khaffaf. Todilnto 
wine with water, l^ljC^LuJl-pU 
mazaj aihshardh toal md. 

Diluter, 8. JE^ rnvrakkti^ 




.•^ MMftj. Diluted 1 Dint (impreBdon), j^\ oidr; (ecm- 

Of (J^^ ioM'a/A**!- 
bwure), ^iS*^ mu^im, ^^ 

ion, j^Jki* mukddr, <U-»j 

Bh, r. (make less), Jli *aft»/, 
ioghghar, ^j^ nakkas; (to 
• lees), J5 M J-ijj^ •«'• 

tusion), ^yb ^«; (^>^)' 

i-i (?arM; (force, power), 
j^j uawr, ip Hwai. 

Dip, ^j»^ 9^^f tr^ «i%*. 

Diploma, Jki«» «an«^. 
Dire, «-Jji^ tnukhawmf. 
Direct, u^^U »d«;l, ^.-Ai^ w"*^ 
kirn; (tot ambigaous), ^^j 

Direct, v. (instruct) ^3\addab; (to 

point out the way), J«3 daU, 4^»X* 

Aa(?a', Ju:,jV ar«*«l ; (to V^ 

died,j^l3nd*«. Diminished ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ Aalom ; 

Directed Oed), JjuJw* mtiiuW, 
4^jc^ mttA<a<??; (regulated), 
L^r^ muroHah. 

Direction, j\J^j\ irtUd ; (precept), 
f^j rasm; (command), ^^ amr 

rice or value, k^L* tnunhat. 
ation, j^^ »w*»> U^*"*^ 

ntive, ^^*-a-^ musaghghary 
^ mukalM, A diminutive 
Q, jJu£^\ft^\ ism al ta^ghlr, 

lutively, Jtji^V ^»^^a*^^^- 
iutiveness,^*-p wf^Ar. 
esB, h^ ztdmat. Dimness of 
dt, -aJ\iJA^ zulmat al hasar. 
AjU^ shamdta, aSjJj w<^(^' 
, 4^Juu taghadda\ 

Sec Dash, bluster, hnff. 
ig-room, i^UUlJjsr^ wa^B 

er-time, <Jil\ci^J^ ^<^^ 


1^ Awibt; (path), j;j»> <arf*; 
(aim), Ju<a5 hoid^ ^^ ^pam, ^^ 
gharad. A direction-word under 
the last line of a page, and re- 
peated at the top of the following 
page, cateh word, )aj\j rdhit 
Director, b. (guide), JjlW ddlnl; 
(instructor), *X^ mmrahtdfji^ 

Directty (in a straight line), ka^ 
hi khatt miutaU«^\ (^m- 

DIS 456 

mediately), JLi^'4 -^'^ *^^' 

( withoat ambigaity),i^fM& t^^^^^ 

mtM dun ihubhat. 
Direfd. See Dire. — ^DireQess. See 


'Ditk,8.j^:>^ khanjar. See Dagger. 

Dirt, ^^ woiokhf Z\ij vi^lat, 

Dirtmess, '^^ waaaJth, ^U^yaLaT 

Dirty, ^j tcasikh, w*^ nafia. 
Dirty, v. ^j waaakh, ^j*^ nqjjfas, 
Disy as a priTatiye, is expressed in 

composition by^^ ^'yAayr,^^Jk^ 

hi dUn, S ^, t« md, mJ^ ^adam, 

and aJiXc ^adlm, as : — 
Disability, ^^l-i-JL H i»>Xg ^adam 

al haf&yat. 
Disable, v. u-aa.^ da^^f. 
Disabuse, v. UjiII^^^je:^ idhha^ 

mm a/ ghtdat. 
Disaccustom, 9. See Disuse. 

Disadvantage, disadvantageousness, 

jj^ darar. 
Disadvantageous, JJjUlli^jJ^ ^adim 

al fiyidat, jio^ mudirr. 
Disadvantageously, ja^J^^ hi 

wajhm mudirr. [dislike. 

Disaffaot, v. See Discontent; to 
Disaffected,ji:JL« mutanaffiry ^/^ 

mu^rid. See Averse, discontented, 


Disaffection, ^^/^^ i^rdi 
tanajffur, Hfi n t huyhc 

Disagree, v, (to be at ' 
^Imj ^^f^lyJU- khdla 

hum ha^n^ ^^j^ 
\yi\^ takhdlafa. 

Disagreeable, J^ 
makbul, if^J^ makrHhf 
ghayrmurdi; (contrary) 
mukhdltf, ^^Ix/t mund} 

Disagreeableness (unpleai 
J^^i^J«£ ^dam al hi> 
suitableness) ^L^^J 

Disagreement, ^ji fork, 
tkhtHdf, iLcjU^ tnand%a^ 

Disallow, V. jij nakar^ i^ 
J; rod, \^gh 

Disallowable, il:j yunkarj 

Disallowance, j\^\ inhdr 

Disannul, v. See Annul, 
Disappear, v, s-'*^ yhdh^ 

idmahal, ^\j zdl, [ 

Disappoint, t;. J^ kJuaal 
Disappointed, y,,^ \!^— ^ 

^j^^ mahmm, J," j^ 
Disappointed (to be), c^U 
Disappointment, <U»gv. ihg 




Dhyyiubatiop, JjaSJ^aJ^ ^mUuh 

OutpproTe, v.^\ aniarf ^J warn. 
JKinrm, v. JLJU lam ainUih. 
IMnmyy v* 866 Disbandy strip. 
DfBaster. «. l*»^^ mwHh€ti. Jublo 

iaJ^ai, li laid. 
ffiMstrouSy ^M*£CV« mankdis, 
IHwitronnly, ^|^^^Mb.s^ JC^ Mv/ 

HflUfMi. [ Jls^ jahad. 

VmroWf v,^\ ankar, ^ natar, 
DiMTOwaly j\^\ tnkdr, ^Jj na/t, 

IKdMDid, V. ^ farrdk, f^\ atiak, 
^^0Cmmt ihattat. To disband an 
anny, ^Cw.nJlc:,^';^ shaftat al 

Diabanded, ^j:.^\Su,^ mttshattat. 

Dnibelief, ^^U^jYIaJlc ^adam al 

Bkbeliere, v. ^^U md Aman, 

dffiLclU md i^kad, j^ hafar, 

Jj\ ankar. 
BUdiever, «. j^^ mtmihiir, ^l^ 

m^^i \j^y*jt^ yAtfytir mHifitn. 
BUmrden, r. (ease of a load), 

J^^iarti^jLi.^ hhaffaf al haml; 

(to throw off a burden), J-iJ t Jjj 

Disbone, v. <^y^ kharaj, (.jy^ 

Disbursement, ^^^^/C^ i(^«iy» 

iorf, b^jiyia^ matfitf, 
Diaoem, v. (see), ^^ noMor; (to 
distinguish), JjL« mayyan, J^t 
0^M. To discern the true from 
the false, J-tL-Jl^j;J^^ 
farak al hak min al hdtd. 
Discerned, ji^la:^ tfkmsilr. 
Discemer, s. (observer), Jia\} ndtir ; 
(a distinguisher), jXf mtimayyts. 
Discernible, jlia:^^ yvnsar, j^lai^ 
ffumsar. [foffijrts. 

Discemibleness, jJa^j naMr, J^ 
Discemibly, J^ J^ htkol Umyit. 
DiKeming, adj. JiU ^dfo7, c,,^fwLg 
JiLc «dAti3 ^o^, J^i_^^»-L^ 
idhth tamyin. [_iakl tca/ardiat 
Discerningly, ZJiji^^jAPjCj hikol 
DiscemmentyJ^ tamyi%, Ja& ^kl, 

!L»\ji fardsat. 
Discharge, v. (dismiss, release), 
J^\ailak; (to perform,ezeoute), 
J^ ^amal, J-*^\ akmal. To dis- 
charge (or pay) a debt, (^*>l^,Vj 
wa/a* addayin. To discharge a 
soldier, ^jLuj^\jJiff\ atlak al 
^askari. To dischaige from an 
office, fjj£> ^fuxl. To discharge 
or acquit of a crime, ^^Ai gkafa/r. 
To discharge fire-arms, ^}^\ 
I atlak. To diflchaigd otic^'% ^utl< 




Disoharge, t, (dismission), J^iJ^I 
itldk, Ji^ ^aal; (leaye, license 
to depart), L^u^j rukhsat, ijW'^ 
ifdMot, ^ jt fsn ; (absolution from 
a crime), ^^^/^ ghnfiHn ; (an 
exception or privilege), i\ji hardi ; 
(performance), J^^a ^nuU ; (ran- 
som), \djjidd. The discharge of 
a gan, iJjj\^\(jM\y kuwdt al 
hdrHdat* He discharged the gun, 
ijjj\Ji\(jnj^yb hu kawwa$ al 

Discharged, fjA^s:^ mukhaUatf etc. 

Disciple, «. ^Jla sdm^^ JuJj 
talmin. A disciple of Christ, 
JuJi3 tahni% (pi. Ju^i; taldmlt). 

Discipline (education), LjJ tarhiyat, 
u^^olj tddlb, L^j\ adah; (re- 
gulation), kkJ (?a^^. Military 
discipline, ^ JL*»J lla^ da3^ a/ 
^kar ; (mortification), JlJUI 

Discipline, v, (educate), c-^31 A^i ; 

(to hold in subjection), \a^ dahat 

To discipline an army, ilujiStla^ 

dahat al ^kar. [madbat. 

Disciplined, ^<{/« murahha\ t^^M^ 

Disclaim, 9.^1 ankar. See Dis- 

«roir, disown, renounce. 

Disclose, V. cjLfii^ kaahaffj^\ aakr. 

To disclose a secret, ^^tuJ^^ 
huihaf al iirr. 

Disclosed, i^yn i ^ MdUh/, 

Discloser, %. UJ^^ idshif, JLm 
m¥^toi. [coveiy. 

Disclosure, j\^\ Mdr. See Dis* 
Discomfit, <^,Ji.r. gXaldb. 
Discomfit, discomfiture, aU,|J| 

Discomfort, *i yAom. 
Discommendable. See Blameable. , 
Discommendation. See Blaau^ 
censure. [mode. 

Discommode, v. etc. See Inoon- 
Discompose, v, (the mind), S^ 

^yy^f JM^i^^ shawwask al 

hdl ; (to put out of order), ^^ 

kharhat. [shawwuh al hdL 

Discomposed, JUt^jMj^ mmtO' 

Discomposure, JLl\(jAuyyJ toiktffiih 
al bdL l^akoi. 

Disconcert, v, (a design), ^jiSa 

Disconcerted, JUI^yLj:;^ Muto- 

shawwish al hdl,fj^skr^ makkaiaL 
Disconformity, ^LftjlL^l^jk^ ^adam 

al mutdhakal. 

Disconsolate, ^X^^^ Id yuUuaUa\ 
Disconsolately, <i. j .Uwj \ .» jLft^ig^ai 
hi toajMn ^oc^tm attasliyai. 




DkeonsolAteiieflSyiJuMslii^iXs ^adam 
ffinonteiity disoonteated, )oyu^j^ 

IKiooQtenii difloontentedness^ f^J^ 
Upl! ^adam arridd, jjjM^\jbtX£> 

IKiooiiteiit^ V. i^^,ar\ aghdah. 

MmmtiTinanee, i^Jiy tawakhif\ 
(diaraptare), JLaiJl inJUdl, 
^saij] mkUd^. [^faragh. 

Oaoontiiiiie, «. i^Jiy tawdtkaf^ i^i 

SiMGid, uJll:^) HMOaf, i&\i^ 
mmJtkalafai. [khoiaf. 

THaooxd, «. jiljU md wdfak, uJlU. 

BiaoQidancey isi Isr^ mtMdlafat, 
^L^ mundza^. 

^^'ucardantf ^\yj^ ghayir muwd- 
fit, (.^Is^ miMdlif. Discord- 
ant in music, ^UjLlli^j^ ^adam 

Knordantly, iJL5\y9j^^ min 
fiiytr muwdfi^t, ^.Jllsr^J^ 
NW mMdla/ai. 

% 9. (poblisb), j^\ Mhar, 

IKsooyerahle, u,ttJuL:«j yankishefy 
jl^^ll JjU kdM Ml nhdr. 

Ofaoorered (reyealod), uJ^LCt 
iMiiA«/ v-gi%(v^ munkasht/. 

DiscoTerer, «. uJUo hasluhdf, 
Diacoyery (revealing), ^l^t wAdr, 

Disoount, (abatement in a bargain), 
)o\a^\ iskdt, A*afw iUoMi; (sub- 
straction), tU-it UkdL 

Discount, V, ^»»aS> l^<»vi, ^iaS 

Discountenance, v. ^;k^ mama^ 
Discourage, v, (deter), i^ij.r^ 

khatpwaf. [mukMaumnf* 

Discouraged (deterred), uJjo^ 
Discourager, «• i^Ji^ mukhawwif. 
Discouragement (impediment), ^^^ 

man^; (deterring), tm^ya^ taik- 

wif, J^J^ tahdld. 
Discourse, c^lL^ khitdl, ijiM^ 

mukdlamat, i^\i^ mtadkarat; 

(a harangue), ^LksL khuthat; (a 

treatise), l}\^j rasdlat A short 

nervous discourse,J«p*^ f!i^ ialdm 


Discourse, v. (converse), ^ ,1 C 7 
takallamf^\Sj ia%dkar. 

Discourteous, c^jllb hUd adb. 

Discredit, jU^Uj^ ^adam t^itbdr. 

Discredit, v, (not to believe), t« 
jjutf md $addak; (to deprive of 
credibility), A.,4> »a\qIJ hoso^ 
umaho; (to disgrace), i^jSyM^ 

DI8 4 

' Discredited, ^LifitaJL^ taa laho 

Difloreet (prudent), ^Jot_t»~L) 

ttih& tadblr ; (modest), 

Discreetly, i,-a_jjj_^jw ^t**'^ 

edil uia bastrat, 
Ditcreetness, tj^^ btutnU, ^jie- 

Diacrepanoe, i_JlL^1 iihHlsf, ^ji 
fork, iJlJjUj ta/dwul. 

Disorepant, i.J_lL.i^ mvkh&Uf, 
jjIc* mUffhSyir, ,__^L-« mn/miid. 

Discrete. See Distinct, disjointed, 

Discretion (prudence), jt. ■;..-. -t! 
imlif/dt, J . .,*.." tamyit, ij^-iu 
battrat, WLsa-I Mit/dt, jiuji 
mJtidA ; (liberty of acting at 
ploasuro), ^L:;j^1 i&htii/ar, Aa-M 
*&lAat, ibj) iraddt. \haddad. 

Discretionary, JJkf^~c ghayir mu- 

Diacriminate, v. J^ maj/ym, ^jJ 

Discriminated, |Jjji-« Mi/rai. 

Dtsorimiitatioa, jL.^— <! Hn%ds, 
J-«J tonyiii, J^/«ri. 



Discussed, ^ys^ rnafknt. 
Discusser, f. j_,os^ MutafaUat, 

^,wj;&4 mttfettiih. 
DisoBBsion, ^^-as^ takkik, ^Jii.^ 

Uftlsh, ^^,as^ ta/ahitu, ^\^\ 

ijiihai, oU^jI ibtihdt, ^^\A*\ 

Disdain, iJ\Sti\ ihdnat. 
Disdain, v.Jia- hakar, ^^1 aAdx. 
Disdained, ^Lf.^ muhstt, yciMf ', 

mttktakar, [^mutaiatUr. 

Disdainful, Ji^iu^ muttahkir,jSs^ ' 
Disdainfully, j\ i - ■^\Xi Hi^ 

ihtik&r. See Contemptaooslj. 
DisdainfulnesB. See Disdain. 
Disease, i^j^ marad (plur. ^U*' 

amrad). A disease inherent is 

the constitution, , ^m^—a^^f* 


mvrnd jibillt (plni 
amrad jihUlit/at). A oorroding 
diseoBO, iL-Lit akilat. An epi- 
demical disease, ^^j^^ td^nw. 
Pestilential diseases, ij'\jtifi\fit\ 


amrad i 

a'iyat. Phle^jisfttia 
J^je\^\ amrid 
bal ghamiyat. Various diseaaea, 
■uk^r^^l^l amrid mukhUlifd. 
I cnais of a disease, i^j^, i 
To feign a diswa^j 




INwMiiJ, iio'r^ marid. 
DUmnlNirky v. (to come to land), 

jJ! Jp nmil lU harr. 
Knmbroil, «. See To disengage. 
JDMngage, v. (separate), J^ farah ; 

(to Hberate), ^^aU- hhdhu] (to 

extricate), JlCu*4>Hj.»- Ao/ oZ 


i^li fSLrigh, 

^Jls^ ihulus. 

Disentangle, disenthral, t;. 
/life, ,J>- Afl/. 

Disesteem. See Disregard, dis- 
respect [nance. 

Disfavour, r. Sec To Discounte- 

Disfigare, v. Sec To deform, de- 
&ce, disguise, destroy, mangle. — 
Disfiguration, disfigurement. See 
De&cement, deformity. 

Disfranchisement, j^i^'Lj^UoiLJ 
nuksdn hil hukuk, 

Disfiimish, v. See To unfurnish, 

depiriTe, strip. 
BinaiiAtahy v. (strip of ornaments), 

ddhiyat. Disgrace (remoTal from 
place or favour), ^Jjr ^il. 

Disgrace, v. c^^^ nahahy ^^ t^^ ^h 
ghadib ^a\ ^ fadah, JlJai-)\ 
fr^cT^ (M^^aAo min nazariho, 
\'_^''- ^ hatah ; (to put out of 
office or favour), J^ ^zal. 

Disgraced, L^jL^ mankuh, laJiL^ 

V ^ ' ^^ I- sdkit min antmzar, 

-oft:!^ jnunfadih ; (turned out of 

favour or office), Jf}*^ tna^ul, 

Disgraceful, (^^^jl^ tna^^Hb, 
Disguise, v. fJ^\ akhfa\ 


Disguise, ijya surat, Uswl ikhfd. 

Disguised, --^'***^*^*^ mutmaakhir, 
Jju^ mubaddal. 

Disgust, ^U^K^ kardhiyat, h^ karahj 

i\Jz^\ utikrdh, [karraf. 

Disgust, V, ^jStJ naffar min, <-J Ji 

Disgusted, ^^^;3 karfdn. 

Disgustful, disgusting, 6jJL~Zmj^^ 

mwtakraky *j i^ t?iakrfih, <Jj i^ 

karth, ifj^ mukarrik, \jiukun). 

Dish, 8, ^jsr^ sdhn (plur. ^y^^ 

Dishonest (fraudulent), ^^^^js^jLi 

muid^ihjl, Jlu:^ muhidl, j\L^ 

makkdr. [ydnat. 

LO ««^Ay/, <Lft U / i)isbonestly, «ijU>- jCi bikol Bi- 


\ ista/raffh. 





Dishonesty y ^Ufi>* Ihiydnat, ^^ 

Dishonor, uJ^ii%JLd ^adam ath' 

Dishonor, v, (disgrace), ^*^ 

fadah; (to violate chastity), 

^jSii\{Ji^sJb hatak al^d. 
Dishonorable, (^^^ ma^ynh. 
Dishonored, ^/^^^^ mun/adih. 
Disinclination (want of afiSaction), 

<U^1|*J^ ^adam al muhahhat; 

(disUke), i\JzJ\ istikrdh. See 

Disinclined (to be) v, (to be averse to), 

^J^Jt^ na/ar mm, xS::^] utakrah. 
Disingenuity, disingenuoosness, >% J^ 

^isv.)l ^adam al tkhldt, jLi-J 

tMfitkf \jj riyd. 
Disingenuous, ^j^y^ muwajhan. 
Disingenuously, jLLJ JJLj hikol 

naf&k, ^Lc^Jij hikol hllat. 

Disinherison, Ltj\j^\A\^ i^addm 

al mirds. 
Disinherit, v, lLj\ 

ahram min al mlrds. \jharad. 
Disinterested, u^'l^^ ^^^ ^^ 
Disinterestedness, ^^^^ khtdus. 
Disjoin, v. Jji/arak, J^ fasal. 
Disjoined (disjunct), J^;A^ mafrUk, 
^^n fl ■■,; .^ munfoiUf r ^ ° * t 
munkati^ iL^k\^ munfak. 

Disjunction, j|^^ ifttrdkf eUaiil 

Disjunctive, J^a^ mufarrik. 
Disjunctively, JlJ^b hHUfriL 
Disk or disc (Sbc% of the sun, mooOf 

other planet), ai>^ jimm. 
Diskindneas. See Unkindnesi, 

Dislike, zj karah, A/zJi utOrdL 
Dislike, v, i>Jz^\ uiakrak, 
Dislocate, v, CSj/ak, ^iSiifmUtik, 

jjj^ khala^. [mtJBU^. 

Dislocated, CJ^r^^ munfak^ t^^ 
Dislocation, clLirl itiJehtld^ 
Dislodge, v, (expel), '^j^^ aikr^, 

C^jb tarad. 
Disloyal, ^W khdytn, 
DisloyaUy, JuL^ JC) hikolkkifdnaL 
Disloyalty, ^l-;^ kMySmfi,jOi 

Dismal (horrible), uJ^ifle^ muUmh 

Moify J^f« muhav)VDiil\ (moomfiilX 

(^y^^ fnaghmUm, 
Dismally (horribly), J^f^^As^-^ 

hi wajhin tnuhul; sorrowfolly, 

^Xi biiol giam. 
Dismalness (horror), y 'j*^ kkanBf; 

(sorrow), ^ gham. 
Dismantle, v. (strip), ^ tulakk. To 

dismantle a town or castle, aJJI 





%,^Mai0^al kM. 
Kimay, J^ howl 
JXanxyeif %^^j^ mar^. 
Oimember, «. ^Ji huiom, ^yai 

ffiniflBy V. (gire liberty or leare of 
d^artme), ^}^\ Mak\ (send 
twayX^J tUuhthar. To dis- 

' mm ^om an office, Jjf ^aaai. 

IKnonBed (depriyed), J jjj^^ tiui^a/ 

Bumiflrion, i,as>^j rukhsat, cbj 

•**^t' b^^ if^^^> u^^ ifcAoto, 
^\ wn, ^}j& ^. 

IKMmoiint,«. JjJ tktual; (to descend 
ftom an elevation), fjjj natal. 

Boobedienoe, ^IDUj^ ^adam al 
td^, ikl\ir^ mukhdlafat, ^Uac 
^stydn. Imukhdlif. 

IKnbedient, ^Ic ^drt, t-illi^ 

K»bey, v. cJUU- Wflfe/, J^ 

Ksoblige, v. Jcj «a^^«/, <>U ^hdd. 

Oiaobliged. See Disgusted, dis- 

Disorder (irregularity), j^UaJl^j^c 
^adoM anmtdm, k_ -rj^M jn\:' 
^tdam aUartih, JU. khalal, 
JlisLf MiOdl', itumvlt), Ijj I 

JUnai; (perturbation), L^\Ja^\ 

idtirdh; (indisposition), {j^j--^ 

Disorder, v. (confuse), Jifl^-J^ 

^amal Jshahd, ia^^ kharhaU 
Disordered, disorderly, c^^w^ 

hUd tartth, ]a^,kr^ mukharhat ; 

(tumultuous), ^\^jl\j^ katUr td 

uhdm ; (lawless), c ^^1 uJL;. 

khildf ashahar^; (vicious, disor- 

dinate), ^^>^^^>^ ma^nh, Ju>\i 

fdiid. Disordered in his senses, 

^y*^ mqfnun. 
Disown, V. ^\ ankoTy jL} nakar, 

iikS^ jahad, [manknr. 

Disowned, ^s^ munkar, jf^^— :^ 
Disparage, v, a J tamm, ^jf^ ta^n, 

».ji kodak, c^^Xc' ^ayyah. 
Disparagement, ^L* maldmat, ^^aL 

ta^, ^J %amm. \^fark. 

Disparity, uJ]b^\ ikUildf, jy 

Dispassionate, < >WIL,jL.i »dtlm 
attah^, AjL'v. halltn. 

Dispatch or despatch, v. (send), J«.i^t 
artal; (accomplish, finish), ^^ 
tammam ; (to kill), Jiii katal. To 
dispatch an ambassador, fj*^j\ 
^^jsrdl araal elohl. 

Di^tch, JL«;i irsdl\ (expedition). 

Dispatched (sent), ^y^j^ iiump%^1\ 




(expedited), J-^?*^ mu^'al ; 

(finished), ^\j tarn ; (killed), 

JyJU maktul. 
Dispel, V, ojiff iarad, (ju-c^ shatiat. 
Dispelled, ^y)o^ tnatrUd. 
Dispensary, 9. ^If^h^l ajwakhdna. 
Dispensation (distribution), ^^f^mA) 

taksim, j-jjy iaumi^, Jij^ 

ta/rlk ; (exemption), jfLiLji^ 

Dispense, v. f^^ laaaam, q J j tcatM^ 

Dispeople, v. See Depopulate. 

Disperse, 1;. (j:,^cJL ahattat, ^JJb 


^l^Cmjx^ mutaahattit, 

tijic^^mutafarrad. To be dispersed, 

i^^z.J^ tashattat, 
Dispersedly, j^ ^^Jlcj hi taahtltin. 
Dispersion, dispersedness, \^^mrJLl 

tashtU, fli^Jo tafrik. 
Displace, v, (put out of place), ^Jj 

kala, c Jj fMTM^'y (to remove from 

office), ^jS, ^al. 
Displant, v. (trees, etc.)> ^^ kala^ 
Display, v. (spread wide), x« madd, 

IiamJ haaatf i^j3 fanmh ; (to 

exhibit), ^^\ aikar. 
Display, %, j^\ izhdr. 
Displayed, JjtX/ fnamdud, ij^^j^ 

mafriUh, )oyM^ mabsuk, 
Displeaae, t^, i^lc] aghd%^ 

Displeasing, adj. ^}J^ mahrikk. 
Displeasure, ^IsHUjJjIj tdkillr d 

Disposal (arrangement)^ l^^IjJ 

iartih, ^\iasj\ intiuLm; (distriba* 

^^^)> tijy ^»<^«t' ikj^ ^fi^ 

J^Mflij tafail; (power), jUae;.! 
ikhtiydr ; (government), j^JJ 
tadhir, i^Jij^ hirdsat, iaA». k^ 

Dispose, V. (arrange), Joj naum* 
To dispose of (bestow), m \ an^m. 
To dispose of by legacy, c^iij 
wakaf. To dispose of in the 
hands of another, ^Jj wada^ 

Disposer, «. (bestower), e..^ »lj 
tpahth; (a governor, r^;alator), 
^U- hdkim,jJS/9 tnttdabbiry lajU^ 
zdbit, l3il>. hdjiz, ^^\^ tcdh. 

Disposition (order), aUoiu^ mikdm^ 

isti^dd,j^Si tadhir, i^y^iufiff 

fj\y^manwdl; (temper of mind), 

^\yt mi%dj, <U^ tahi^f Jb\i^ 

Dispossess,9.^t«J^>.\^j^Oo^l akkast 
min ahhud md lahOf^ lo^ dahat. 

Dispossessed, <i>« i^ matrild* 

Dispraise. See Blame, censure. 

Disproportion, i^^>*im/»Ag ^adam 
attandauh. \_atiandiuh. 

Dispro^rtion, v. v-.^.^^^^cLiJ 1 Jdaj\ abUd 




K ipw patt ionable, disproportional, 
disproportioiiatey L,.>^,.i\;%H^Ag 

§kmfir mut9df^. 


disproportionatelj, j^^^d^y^ 

i^m^A.,\,.Tn^ hi ipqfhin ghayir 

BupioTe, V. ^jai\j ndkad, Jj rod. 

DiBpatanty «. (disputer), C^»-L/t 

Oiipatabley^li^ ^/!Aimtiiidia^0^ 

SiBpatationy C.<a^ hahi, di».L^ 

mtAdiasat, ^]jJ itisd^, JuijL^ 

mmdM^a^y u, ^1 •;'n,\ ikhtUafy 

lld\sB^ mufddalaL [hahcu. 

Kipate, 1^. Jjlsj- jddal, ij.>^ 

Bispate, 9.L4yA>- khusumat, 4x jl:*^ 

Biaqnalificatioii, JljlJi^J^ ^a<?am 
IKaqoiet, diaqnietnessy disquietude, 
JU\i>.U AtXe ^adamrdhatalhdl. 
ffiaquiet, aijr'. JUI^Ij^;^^ y%r 
murtdh vl hal. See Uneasy, rest- 
less. Vkhatirho. 
IKsquiet, v. iJo^^S^ aadda^ 
Disquisition, ^l^Vtl imtihdn 

tafahhus, ^jHf,i3 taftuh. 
Disregard (neglect), Jl^^ %h 
Disregard, v. Jilfc? taghafa 


DisregardM, J^lfL^ mutahdmUf 
jkx.^^ muhtakir. See Contemp- 
tuous, negligent. 

Disrelish, SJJJ\/«J^ ^am alia/mat. 

Disrelish, t;. iijz^\ iatakrah* 

Disrepute, ,/^ fadah. 

Disrespect, ^\^'i\AtXe> ^adam ul 
ihtirdm. [Despised. 

Disrespected,yA«^ muhakkar. See 

Disrespectful, <-^j\i-J hdd adh, 
j^JsXixLt md ^ndaho tawklr. 

Disiespectftilly, f^ij^^, ^^ takrim. 

Dissatisfaction, L.J^t/«J^ ^dam 
arridd. [murdi. 

Dissatisfactory, ^^j/^j^^ ghayir 

Dissatisfied, ^\jj^ ghayir rddl. 

Dissatisfy, v. ^^j^^ »*« arda,* 

Dissect, t;. (cut in pieces), '^j^ 
sharrah, ,-sC/^ J^ ^mal tashrlh ; 
(to examine minutely, J^^^jbls? 
fJ^Si fahas hikol tadklk. 

Dissected, wkL« mukatta^ 

Dissection, f^l/^ tashrih, ^JaAj 
taktl^, J.yg.fiJ tafstl. 

Disseize, i;. See Dispossess. 

Dissemble, v, 2f\jU2:>^^^i^ katam 

Dissembled, i^::^ tnuktatim. 

Dissembler, v, (hypocrite), j;ili^ 

mundjik, J^y* mtoMwmr^ ^2"^ 




DisBeminate, v.j^\ (uhhar. 
' Disseminated, JbU? tdAir, ^^ 
ihdffi^j^^M^ moMnr. 

Dissemination (publication), j\fJL\ 
ishtihdr, f^\ i^m. 

Dissension, L^^»n rC, khiuUnuU, 
U!h^\ ikUilaf, jlLl ihikah, 
^l*^ mundta^t. To cause dis- 
sension, hsjiS^j rama^ alJUnat 

Dissent, J^^\i% J^ ^dam cUkubul, 
J 101 inkdr. [rdyaho. 

Dissent, v. ^\jt^Slj:S^\ ikhtalaf 

Dissenter, b. ujLIIs:^ mukhdlif. 

Dissertation, a. ^d>.LM« mvhdhaaa. 
See Discourse. 

DIsseryice. See Injury, mischief. 

Dissever, v. See Break, divide, 

Dissimilar, <oluLu«^ ghayir mu- 
$hdhih,j)\k^ mugh&yir, <— ftlr^^ 
mukhtaUf. See Unlike. 

Dissimilarity, dissimilitude, ^d^ 
J^lu4\ ^dam al mushdhahat. 

Dissimulation, b^ riyd, jU3 nafdk. 

Dissipate, v. 4— aljl af^, J Jj haddad. 
jji farrakf Jjiu ba^k. To 
dissipate a fortune, ^L^uJ^ 
fora/ 0id2fiJlo. To dissipate or 
distract the attention, ^ *• - - -r 
JaaJI shattat id ^L 
DiBsdpation, uJ\j^\ itrdf^ (Ji/^ 

^}\\}i iUdf al mdl 
Dissipated (scattered), 
farrak, JJw* mtihadd 
Dissolvable, dissoluble, ^ 
fjA »n\M ji^ mumi 
^^'oa:^ ymkad. 
Dissolubility, ^jcki\^ 
Dissolve, V. Jii^l ahta 
^ja£j nakad, (^^t^ % 
dissolve a marriage, 
fasakh atSLljat, To ( 
c-^j|j %mowab» To 
agreement, J^l^^^ 
^hd. To dissolve x 
meni, jsr^\il^ fak 
dissolve or separate 

Dissolved, JyA^^ mutafi 

mahlal, ^ymi^ mafit 

muntakid, l^J J tdy 
Dissolvent, dissolver, a. 

Jiw« mubtU, ^j^U « 
Dissolvent, dissolving, JJ 
Dissolute, ^li faldtl, 

jLyjli /d«f<^. See Deb 
Dissolutely, jLui J^ h\ 
Dissoluteness, oLui /m< 




IliilulJuu (damoliiaon, braaiih), 

^Jiii mM, Ja. jb^ ^ fatkh; 

(dotmotioii), t_^>r UMrib, 

l» JJ^ hiim ; (death), \ZJy mawt. 

Hie dinolation of an aeaembly, 

^jJ^\Jl^\ inkOdl Ml mafl%$. 

A diasolation of marriage, ^LmAjI 

iaf^\ imfMkk atnljai. 

Binonaiicey dueonant See Dis- 
eord, etc. 

^1^ wuma^, ^js-t^j radian, 
Uaniaaion, ^l^ mumdna^, ^^ 
mtm^ DiasnasiYe, aij. wjL^ 

Bvtaff; 9. ^}JJL^ maghua. The 
ipindle of a diataff, a^ mahram. 

Biftain, v. See Stain, blot, tinge. 

Iwmoe, iSxMi^ mtudfatj dju hu^. 
The distance between the East 
nd Weet, ^jLaJSjju hu^d 
•Iwuuhrakin, Dbtance (of time), 
'Xt mudiat. Dbtance (respect), 
^j\ §dahj (^\^\ ihtirdm, /^\^\ 
tZrdjn; (reserve, cantion, want 
of affection), io^j^ hurndat 

Distance, v, (place at a distance), 
Juu ha^i^; (to excel another). 

Distant, Juy ha^d. [hiyat 

Distaste, i\J\ thr&K Lj^}/ Jeard- 1 

Distaste, v, (nanseate), }ij ( r. 

Distasteftil, ^^^f^ mahrilh. 
Distemper, {jo^ marad, ^-^^ 

waja^ [order, disturb. 

Distemper, v. See Disease, dis* 
Distemperate, Jjljl.a.«^ gha^ir 


Distemperature, J^bJtjk::Lfi)iAjLC 
j^^^ ^adam ol i^iddl hU hard 

Distempered, ^j^j^ ma/rid, Jj^ 

ma^al. To be distempered, 

{jOj^ mared. 
Distend, v. ^ji farMh, LmJ bauU, 

\J^j^ ^rrad. 
Distended, JjA/ mamdad. 
Distension, LmJ hast,jmj fuuhr. 

Distich, i. uu^ hayt (plor. ^^\ti^ 

Distil, V, (drop), La3 tktkkat; (to 

distil spirits, etc.),^^ kattar. 
Distillation, jlLfi^i utilt&r^ j^osu 

Distilled, JoIl^ mukattar. A dis- 

tiller, JaL« mukattir. 
Distinct, J^oa^^ munfatU, j\ r> ^ 

nturn^, ^l-^ &dy»ii ; (dear), 

^Ib sdAfir; (specified, marked 

out), JLtL^ mu^aggan. 
Distinction, j\^\ imtiyAt, 




tafiilly j^ fark. Without dis- 

tinction, ^S^, hildfarh ; (a mark 

of distmction), <U^ ^Idmat; 
(discernment), <U^ Jirdsat, Jif 
^l. To make a distinction (give 
the preference), _Lc Juki faddal 

BistinctivOiJ^ mumayyvtf t^ji^i^ 

iamylzi, ^ 

Distinctly, Lasr^ sarihan, J^ 
jLi^\ hikol 4mtiyd%, JLoi^ mu" 
. faualan. 
Distinctness, j\p^\ imtiyaz^ Jti^ 

tamyiz, jjifark. 
Distinguish, v. jJL* mayyaz, Juoi 

fasal, jj5 farak, jj3 fara%. 
Distinguishable (capable of being 

distinguished) J:«.4m^ mutamayya%\ 

(worthy of regard) |«lyi»>.ll\ ^..^^^ 1^ 

w&jib al ihtirdm 
Distinguished (eminent), jL::l^ 

munUdz; (separated), ^^jL^ 

mafrnJcyjys^ mahjur. 
Distinguisher, «• J-^ mumayyit, 
Distinguishingly,jL:;^U hiimtiydt. 
Distort, V. Aji haram. To distort 

the countenance, ^Jj^j talawwa\ 
Distorted, {^f^ multawl. 
Distract, ^J Uha\ JUlJ-i-1 

shayhul al hdl, fijfJit shawwctsh, 

Distracted, ^L«i «dAi, 
haiyrdn, ^-jL.<U nwi 
yLyL^ muihawtposh, ( 
tracted with love, ^^ 
^shik mqfnUn. To be dL 

Ifyd 8<ihd, idUJjuUl I 

hdlaho, [ 

Distractedly (franticly). 
Distraction, distractedness. 
Jiff!! shatdt al ^kl, 
Baho al half ^Jiijylu tosh 

Distrain, r. See Distre 

Distress (misery), ^a^ ill 

shiddatfj0^^^ hasr,j£jfc 
Distress, r. ^ yham, ^^j^ 

jls»^ hayyar,js:f' ^ajfm. 
Distressed, (^Jo^a^ mudta 

jj-lsr* mahzUn, (^y^^ »»< 
Distribute, v, mmjJ katsa 

farrak, ^jao^ hassas, & J 

Distributed, ^/^ mufarra 

Distribution, ^jy tatptl^ 
takslm, (JlJjAj tajrlk. 

Distributive, ^jA^*^ b-3 

Distributive justice, < 
^jl-.^s'l kismat al haky A 
<Uk«jU]\ al ^addlat al kdt 

Distributively (by disti 
Lvy^<i5 iak^imany ^[J 43 1 





mmJu9 muktusim, [tkHm. 

Uitriety M. ^iL* mukata^i, ^\ 
BktniBt (dialriutfulnesB), i ^ *t\ 

olLift Ajkc ^adam i^ikdd, 
' iitJ-vA shak/i, j^jj tawakham. 
Btttnistfiil, J^y>^ khawiodn, ^lib 

Bistrastfiillyy ^t^i^lj hiistikhwcLn, 

Disturb, ij^i^^%}\ at^ sirraho, 
^^Lc^diJ Jbj* ^amcU saklat ^la\ 

DisturbaQce, f^\^\ uUirdh, JL>. 
ikalal, Jbi Jitnaty liSJ MJ&^a^ 

BiBtarbed, >— ^.h ,rT >^ mudtarih^ 
j«xC« mtijb<2e^. Disturbed in 
the brain, ^jo^JlA-ac^Jx J^J 
Aut^ ^oZti' ^kliho ^arttd. To be 
disturbed, c-^^iaJ^ idtarah, ^j\^ 
iiju sdr laho saklat, 

Biiturbor, i.jsL^ mukaddir. 

Kiralue, v. See Undervalue. 

Ksyelop, v. See Uncover, unyeil. 

Bininion (separation), jl.,r>.3! 
iftirak; (breacb of concord), 
jUj1>»J^ ^adamittifak, t^AaS-l 

Disunite^ r. (separate), ^Jj3 farak; 
(to Ml asunder, become separate), 
jjAj\ infarak, J*^l in/asaJ. 

Disunited, ^^jJu^ mafruk. See 

Disuse, V, J^«jCMalL« m& tsta^fnal, 
iJji\cSp tarak dl ^dat, CSj 
if jUll tarrak al ^ddaL 

Ditch, «. ijJf^ haflrat, iyi^ hufrat. 
Aditch(round fortifLcations,oamps, 
etc.), J Jc^ khandak (pi. Jjl:^ 

Ditto, Ll^I ay(^ii, cl^ J^ kasalik. 

Ditty, «. Lc ghind. See Song* 

Divan, ,j^^^*>. See Council. 

Dive, V. ^jJ^ ghatas, ^U ghds, 
A place in the sea where they 
dive for pearls, ^U^ mughds. 

Diver, s, (jmUxc ghattds. 

Divers, ^jcjo ha^,^\ ak9ar% See 

Diverse, yjiji^i^ mutafarrik. 
Diversification, (Jd^ tabdil, 

tantoi^ ^ y naw^. 
Diversify, v, Jj^ ghayyar, J. 

haddal, Jj kaUam. 

Diversion (amusement), ^ lahn^ 
-p.^^ tafurrujj <Ubp nus^^. To 
take diversion, 2^*,--^ tanauah. 
Diversion (turning anything from 
its course), (^J^-^rl inhirdf, 
(Jlfu ta^ik. Diversion (in 
war), JLLIU^ mughdlatat 

Diversity, uJlbc>-\ ithtilaj, ^^ 




farh. A diversity of opinions, 
ci^UyicJLs;^^ ikktaaf arrayat. 

Diversely, ^(^^Ls^b hi ikhtildfin, 
J^ hawufol, j\j ddr. 

Divert, r. (turn off from any direc- 
tion), Li^iJ lafat \ (to please), 
j^ sorry ^jJ^ sharah, ^JbS laha\ 

Diverted (turned away), cJ^^Lt 
tnunhmf; (amu8ed),j^j^*wM«»kMrfir. 

Diverter, a. ^Jb5U muldhh 

Divertive, j-|Li mul^. 

Divest, V. J^ shallahy ^^f^ nm^ 

can. See Put off. 
Divide, v, j,mj kassam, c J^ waua^, 

Jj3 farak, Juai fasal ; (to part 

from, or be divided), Jy-i-J^ 

Divided, |» j .>*JL< tnakailm, ^j^jA^ 

ma/rnk. Divided into different 

kinds, ^Ji'^'S^ mutanawm^. 
Dividend, s, JLa». hiaaif K^-r-a} 

nasih. See Portion, share, lot. 
Divider, «. ^LS hduimy gfutsut 

muk(U8im, cj^ mtfu^ass*^. 

Divination^ c. "^j m.H ^.Lg et^ aZ 
^^5, JU /a/. 

Divine (partaking of the nature of 
God),^U7aAz. The divine in- 
spiration, ij\jj ,^\^\ ilhdmrabbani. 

Divine (most excellent), J^oit 

Divine^ «. (theologian), JiyJ^Lu 

Divine, i^. Jli^ faJMi fiO. jj^ 

Divinely, yJ^^J^^, hiwqfhmiUS, 

iLk^Myju hi kowat tkMyai, ^ 

AU\tXxe mm ^tmi aUak. See 
Excellently. [lenoti 

Divineness. See Divinity, excel* 

Diviner, $• J^^ rammdl. 

Divinity, Deity, Godhead, iiS iUk\ 

(theology), CUyJi^Jie ^A» ill 

lahat \ (a fedse God), ^^^ umtm. 

Divisible, ^mM^i yunkatim, muSsj 

Divisibility, divisiblenees, ^LiL«1 
A-MuibSf midn attaluUm, 

Division, m^ k(um, Xwl iufM^ 
^^jmmaJ takaimf ^\mCj\ tJWM&w, 
^J^ ^mmI^. Division in anth- 
metic ^" <«*««. The din- 
sion of an inheritance, ^\ 111.1 }\ 
K^\j^\ iktis&m al mfrd$. IKri- 
sion (disunion^, cJ^Ls^t ikMbtf, 
jLaJUj^ ^admn itttfdt; (dis- 
tinction), jLi^l mUydM* 

Divorce, divorcement, j)Lt MU, 
jJij to^ftib. A divorce at fha 
desire of the wife (in conaeqiiflBoe 
of which she renounces bar mar* 
riage settlements and retnma her 
presents), wL>> khal^. 




IMfaiee, «. awife, JUo\ aOai, ^^ 
Kforeed, a diroroed woman, 


Biforoer, s. j^ mutaOti. 

IHnnial (daily), ^^ ffowml. 

Biiitiirnitj. See Duration. 

Kmlge, V. jJUil af8ha',j^\ aahar, 
9L1I iuhd^. One who divulges 
ereiything, f^J^^ mushyd^, 

IMmlgedy^U? %ahir, j^sJL^ math- 
Air, |«^lx^ fna^Um, ^L& shdyi^, 

IKmlger, «. wj,Ab^ mtM^y^t^. 

IMxzineae, ^t^l^O datcdkhdn, 

Diay, -j^^J ddyekh. To become 
dizzy, ^1 J <2diU. To make dizzy, 
^JJ dawwaih. [/a^o/. 

I>o, f . ^i-« foiui^, J^ ^mal, Jjo 

Dodble, docile, ^LL ^yt^, J-^lJ 
i>jl tt-. \\ Mbil al ta^m. See 
Irictable. [ta^lm. 

OodHty, |JjiJ\JlJljIj itoM^iU al 

ft)ck, «. (for shipping), \i^ mind, 
ilL»\ atialai. 

Boek, 9. (to cat off the tail) ^JsJ 
k^ jl\ kata^al donah; (to make 
anything short),^.^! kauiir. 

Ooeked (having the tail docked), 
i^jJ^Q^LiA^ fnaHik^ addanah. 
jjb\ aifcaz. 

Docket, i. Inoj^'i fahramttf U^'j^ 
ft^rit, ^;|^ ^nwdn. 

Doctor, s, (learned man), JU ^dUm, 
ffS^- hakim. A doctor of physic, 
aJ1>. hakim, c,>^jjg tahib. An 
academical doctor, {jmjX^ mudoT" 
rii, A very learned doctor, j;Acr^ 
muhakkik. A doctor of laws, ^Uaj 
/oiHA (plor. l^Ai^ioAd). The first 
doctor of the Mohammadan law» 
the Mufti, ^AA^ mufU. Doctors, 
Ul^ ^amd. [physic. 

Doctor, V, i/^^J ddwa*. See Cure, 

Doctrinal, ^^^ ^f/mi. 

'^Doctrine, ^mIjO ta^m, Jx- ^tlm, 
4jyu^ ma^rifat (pi. CiJ^Lx.,^ 
ma^rif), ^ (plur. ^^/wnilfi.) 

Document, «. cuLJ! m^S^. To pro- 
duce documents or proofiB, jjj\ 
^j^\j^\ ahrat al hardhin. 

Dodder (plant), ^yk^\ aflimVLn. 

Doer, «. J^li fd^, J^U ^mU. 

Does, third person present of do. 

Dog, ^^ kalb (plur. ^1^ kaldb). 
A sea dog, Uild^^J^ i^^ olsid. 
The greater Dog-star (Sirius), 
i^jmJ^ M^ra% ^\^4mJ\i^jMJL 
shi^a' alyamdni, ^,^^.^\ alkaJb. 
The little Dog-star, jeiyui\^^ 
ihi^a* al ghumiU. ^^ iXi^ 




dog-stars, ^Lj ^juL Bhi^aydnm 

The dog-days, jj^Ul^M ayyam 

al hdhnr. Dog-cheap, AmS kasdd. 

Dogged. See Sour, sullen, morose, 

gloomy. [picable, mean. 

Doggerel. See Burlesque, des- 

Doggish, dog-hearted, ^^^ kalbl, 


See Brutal, cruel. 

Dogma, «. aJju taJim, ^j^ IS kdnHn. 

Dogmatical (authoritative), u^^^^-L^ 
I»JL»- sdhtb hukm ; (positive), 

. >.\„.>..;_f. ^nld. Dogmaticalness 
(magisterialness), L^^^ huku^ 
mat; (obstinacy), jLxc ^ndd. 
To dogmatize (teach magis- 
terially), S^ hakam; (to teach 
new opinions), 9 JcjI ibtada^. 

Doing (part, pres. of do), JitLi 
/d^i/, jJw^Lx ^mil. Doing, 
doings (action, actions, feats), 
Jjt3 Jl^ (plur. JL*i\ af^l). 
Saying and doing, \jl^^ It^ 
kawlan wafi^lan. It is not my 
doing, ^JjuybU md hafi^i. 

Dole, f;. See Deal, distribute. 

Dole. See Distribution, charity, 

Doleful (dolcsome), (^y^^ magh- 

mum, im^^jL^ makrub, ^fij=^ 

hazin. Doleful weeds, J^ 

Dolefullyi ^^ J^ hikd ghmmm. 

Dolefulness, ^ gham, A\ aiam. 

Doll, 9. (girl's baby), l^ lu^iai. 

Dolorous, fj/S^ muhzin. See Dole- 
ful, painful. 

Dolor. See Grief, pain, lamen- 
tation, [hint alhakr. 

Dolphin, i. ^^t^ d(dfin,j^\(,::^ 

Domain, i^J^mtdk, SeeDominioOy 

Dome, ^-I-S huhhatf See Capohy 

building, house. 
Domestic (familiar, tame, not wild), 

^^ laytly JyLj haytmtl, ^jt*^\^ 

mdniJLS'y (private), ^\s^ hhiU\ 

(not foreign, intestine), i^^ 

juwwi. A domestic animali 

v^^jj^^->- haytcdn juwuH, A 

domestic war, _Jl.s^\jc^ 

harab ddhUl, [i 

Domesticate, v, cJ!^ wdllaf, ^jjj\ 
Dominant, to dominate. See Pre- 
dominant, etc. 

Domination, Vi \ mJ tasaUtU. See 
Dominion, power, tyranny. 

Domineer, v. ^^J^ jdr ^M, 
j^ jahar. 

Dominion (sovereign authority), 
iUiaLj saltanat, ^^^ hukiimai, 
J^ hukm, )a^ daht, ijL^ 
siyodat, ^ kahr, ij\^\ imdrai, 




Z\A Mj f atat . Atnolate dominioii, 
DoDfttioii (donatiTe) /%U3l in^m^ 

Bone, pari. pass, of do, Jj^t^f^^ 
flM^mfi/, (jy^ fnaf^lj Jju:^ 
mmfa^ iJam^ mun^amiL See 

Donkey, s.j\a^ hmdr, ^JLaP^jdhth. 

DoDOTy B. ,Jm^ mu^l, ,«erU mcZnt A, 
v^^Jhl^ w&hih. 

Boom (judicial sentence), LiS Jbk^S, 
S^ hukm, ^j^(f ^ '^ hidm 
dar^ ; (end, state to which one 
18 destined), Li Is ^kibat, ^^t 

hmat ; (rain), CJhb haldh, 
BDom, 9, jX^ hakam. \hiy&mat. 
Doomsday, <t«Li!\^A^ ymom al 
IW, «. c^U &d&. The half of a 

folding door, ^|/^^ mmd^ The 

ring of a door, (^U^^aI^ halakat 

Bo(a>-keeper, 9, <--^|y hawdh. The 

place or office of a door-keeper, 

ii\ji hHodbai. 

Dormant (sleeping), ^U n&yim. 

Donnitorj, i. ^^aJ1c:-«%«^ &ay^ 

Dnwr, «. (pack saddle), <L^J^ 

harda^€Lt (pL f <^]^ har&di^). 

Dose, «• (of medicine^ etc.), 

Dost (2iulj?0rMm j^M. of do) m 
Dot, «. XJaAJ nuktat, ks^ fl»a^^. 
Dot, V. La} nakkai, kuJlla^. Aa^ a{ 

Dotage (from age), cJ/>- iAaro/i 
cJ|^flir\ inkhirdf. \j(ihd%l. 

Dotal (relating to a portion), v/j^FT 

Dotard, r. doter, ^U^ kharfdn. 
A doter (one distractedly in love), 
^y^^ JhIU ^d«Aiib mq^Hn. 

Dotation, j[^jahd%. 

Dote, r. cJ^ JEiA^^/l To dote 
upon (to lore with extreme fond- 
ness), ^y^,(jJ^ ^hek hijunUn 

Double(two-fold),i*jbLi« mudd^f, 
i^'^ muianna\ 


Double dealer, a. ^jtii>^j^fi sA wqfhin, 
j;iL« mundjik, jLC« makkdr. 
Double dealing, \jj riyd, i\i\j^ 
murdydh. Double - tongued, 
^^LJc,^f»-lig idhib lisdnln. 

Double, V. i^jA^ dd^f. To double 
or become double, t^jlcLdi} tadd^f 

Double, 9. u,i»r-L^.g^ nwidd^fi 

Doubled, ,V^ muianna\ To be 

doubled, l^IJJ iadd^f. 
Doubly, ^uJU^U ^t ad^dfin^ 
Bouht, i^^ ihubhai ^p\ut, cA^ 




ahuhh&t), CSJ^ ikak (pi. CS/J» 
ihuknk), L-^j rayh, jfU *; .Al 
uhtibdhf jSy tawahhuM» No 
doubt, i^i) hOa 8huhhat. To 
remove a doubt^ << | youH^J 
d!ti/2i^ a«A«At^Aa^. The solution 
of a doubt, uXuJt JljiJ %aw&l 

Doubt, V. klCrt «^ib, cl^C^ ihakkdky 
jtJby tatvahham, ^^j\ tridb. 

Doubted, ^<JJj^C*u^ nuwAibiib &tA«. 
Doubter, «. a^iA^ mushtahih. 

DoubtAil, <ULuyu> mushtaAah, ^^fj 
wahmf, <^-^j^ muri^. 

Doubtfully, doubtingly, clX^J^ 

Doubtftilness. Bee Doubt. 
Doubtless, ij^J^lj hUd shuhhat, 

C^Jiij^^^^ min ghayr shak, 

^^Jl Id rayb, ^\jj\j^^ 

min ghayr trtiydh. 
Dove, 9. ^Uk»- hamdmat. A turtle 

dove or wood-pigeon, JL^U^.^ 

yamdnuU. [^^ Aitmclfn. 

Dove-oot, dove-house, «. Az'^jf 
Dough, ^^;-i«^ ififin- [noble. 

Doughty. See Brave, illustrious, 
Douse, V. (to plunge the head into 

water), lLl-j^\^kc ghai rdsaho 

Dowager, «. IhjLi^J^ mrmtUt 
aharifai. See Widow. Olds. 
Dower, dowery, b^J doid, j\^ 
Dowered, ij^^ mujahhaai. 

Dowerless, ij^sr^j^ ghayr imffA 

Down (soft feathers on the wings, 

etc., of birds), ^^{J»iij fit* 

nd^m. The down or pile of 

velvet, jU- hhdio. The down 

upon the £ruit and leaves of tiees^ 

ji^ wahr, 

Down, B, i^«i>\^ wd^. See Dale, 

Down (downward), v:l-<o^ iaiU. To 
go down (as the sun, etc), ^jk 
gharah, Down to this time, ^j\ 
JiWijb Ua' haxd aPan, ^^^\ 
\jjb %U^ yaumind haxd. 'B» 
going down of the sun, S-^jijfr 
^jau4j^\ ghurUh ashghama. To 
down with (knock down), S-^ 
darah; (to subdue), i.^jLcyA«M. 

DownM (ruin), j^\j^\ inhMw^ 

DownMLen, AtX^ munhadm. 

Down-hill (dedivity), j^tX». haiir. 

Downright (perpendioularly), Ji^ 

jyudlk^. mial khaU al ^miMi\ 

(in plain terms, without ambi- 

guity), U2a] lafium; (completely), 

UUJ iamaman; (plain, qwn), 




irU; (dbeetly to the 

hMMin mmtatim. 
IKnmwaid (towards the centre), 
Lij)t^JI fZa' at wtisai ; (from a 
his^er to a lower sitoatioii), 

>tfl ; (deeliYOUs), JjU m^ytl. 
Downy (covered with downX^jAi^ 

Saxy, «. See ConrteBan. 

IVtte, «• (alnmberX J^i yA^, 

Drab, «. See Stnunpet. 

Ikachm, «. >ib;J AirAam. 

Bnft (for money), <uJy poUsd. 

JkMgy 9. c^<X:>- yasa3, ^ /orr. 
Tbdragone another aboat^c^Jlor 
tafdMoh. To drag (trail as a gar- 
ment, etc.), K^^T^ iohab. To 
fag the limbs from fieitigae^ 

Sngged, Cy^iX ^ ^ fNtm;asi}. 

ftaigonum, «. \^)^*^j» tarfumdn. 

Ongon, «. ^^^ Umnln. The con- 

ttellation of the dragon, ^^;^\ 

iftomifi. The dragon's tail, 

^j^\s^3 fumah attmmln. 

Ibpmish, diagon-like, ^;s^lj^ 

Dragon's blood, ^^\ j maIUj dam 

Dragoon, i, uJ\JL«JLJleL^^p^CMfi 

^kari ihayydl sayydf, 

Drake, t. lai ^^. See Dnok. 

Draper, 9. ^^^ ^Afi ihafl. 

Draught, i. (of water, etc.) LjjJ^ 

ikurhut. Draught (sketch), iJ^m^ 
Draw, V. (pull along) J^-jVirr; (to 
attract, to allure), S^<X>- jaui \ 
(to draw, puU, or tear out), ^!i 
Afl^^; (to draw or pump out a 
secret or confession), jji horror. 
To draw out, or draw up in order 
of battle,^^L**«ll«*J-tf »afal^askar. 
To draw up in writing, v_ --^ 
jyl^yil Aa^ a^ loof lafawk. 
To draw in or draw back 
(withdraw from, break off), 

mm tm 

u y ^ : *- ^ %a9mad. To draw off 
(by distillation), JLS kaUar; (to 
carry off), ^j rafa^. To draw 
back, J^Ij tabd^. To draw a 
sword, (i...£mJ1 J^a 9al a$Mjif. 

Drawing (delineation), ^ rami; 
(pulling), J^yarr, c^Ju>->i&. 

Drawn, c^Jlst^ majtikb. Drawn 
(extracted), ^^U^ moUft^. 

Draw-well, <.^ ^fr. 
^ Dray, 9, ijijC ^okck. Bee Cwct. 




Dread, uJ^ khawf, iujb haifhat, 

Dread, dreaded, i^,.,i>^..0^^\,^,^0'^^\^ 

%ahxb hiyhaty uJ^^ mukhaf. 
Dread, v. uJU. Md/. 
Dreadful, i^«..c^ mtfi&Aafnrtjf, 

iittii^f/. Most dreadful^ 

J^\. A dreadfcil accident, 

JLLU h&ylai. \mukh\f. 

Dreadfolly, ^.jLi^^c yj W natr^tn 

Dream, «. aL^ manam (pi. cl^UL^ 

flMffdiitaOy J^>- ^u/i7i. An idle 

Dream, r. Jl>- A^^mti, aL^uJLI 

ihdf fnandm ; (to imagine, think 

idly), JtJby tawahham. 
Dreamer, «. Jl>- hdlim. 
Dreaming, 9. /^iz^\ %ht%lam\ {part,) 

fiz^s^ muhtalim. [mandm. 

Dreamless, A:^j^^^ min ghayr 
Drear, dreary. See Dismal, gloomy, 


Dregs, «. (left after grapes or any- 
thing is pressed), IjLnz ^usdrat, 

Drench, i. hjj^ sharhat. 

Dress, ^^L^wi libas, (^/u-J lihi; 
(splendid clothes, habit of cere- 
mony), ijAs^ khal^at, pi. ^AfL 

Dress, v. (clothe) Lm^ kud, ^jJA 
ff^BnUi C/**^ iltfMM; (to adom), 
^ ; tayytm. To dress Tietoalay 
^ tabakh. To drees (a^jns^ 
trim), J2} na%am. 

Dressed, drest (adorned), ^y^ 
mwMyymk, c^J*^^ flUMtoayyan. 

Dresser, «. (^pmL« ntK^s^M. 

Dressing, part, and o^P*. 

Drew, pret$rUe of Draw, 
Au Mhah. He drew them into an 
ambush or snare, ^\A^.^haf^ 
^ j -.».4^,CJl All mAo^ Aum fV «( 

Dried, (^/mjU ydMf. Flesh dried in 
the sun, Jj ji kaild. 

Drift (purpose), i^ ^^oi, «)Lt 
murdd, ^jL yharad, aJc ^ani| 
JuaiU mcJuad. 

To drift (drive along), ^ J ilfl|^ 

DriU, r. u^ m1»^, (>ixr MUflO. 

Drill, «. i^JL^ moiiah. 

Drink, c^^ $hurh, l^\jJ^ *kmrak 
Meat and drink, L^jJLi\jf^S]\ 
al akl tcashshurh. Abstinenoe 
from meat and drink, ^c\:&«]| 
c-^^lj J^t al imtind^ ^alaU 

Drink, V, L^jJ^ sher^. To 
up or drink in, ^ haia^ 






BriBkeTi «. <--^l^ shdrib. 
DaoAdngf port, ^j^ ikdrib 

Srife, V. (off or awayX 
•sib^, ^ J d!tf/b^. To driye out 
of doors, jja Urad, To drivo on 
(ptxHseed rapidly), 9y»«»l tfMKi^. 
To drive ^ rush with vioknce, 
ylcms? kaham ^ala\ 

Driyen, (^^s^*^ tmuhab, 9j9»^ 
tuuffa^. [ddfi^. 

Driyer, i, \__ -^^^ -* sdhih, «^lj 

Broil, i,^^a]U. Ad^^ gharlh, 

Droll, «. (boffbon), Hjst**^ mcukhara. 

Droll, v.js^**^^ tamaskhar. 

BroUerj, ijS^^*^ maskhara. 

Dromedary, «. ^Jti^ hafiiu 

Drone, i'jy.*^ dahhUr. 

Droiush, (J«:J tdmhal, ^JLm^ kasldn. 

Droop, 9. ^ir^ da^f. 

Drop, «. (of rain, etc.) ijaj katra^ 

Drop, V. (as water, etc.) mJ nakkat ; 
(to fall), i2L.i Mib^, ^^ traib^; 
(to intennit, cease), i^i fitroffh, 
CSji tarak. To drop in upon 
(come unexpectedly), ^/u^ iba&cu. 

Dropped, dippt^ hix^ mmaiiit. j 

Dropsical, dropsied, UM<&M»^v».>^ r >'lig 
sdhib isiiskd, ^^LmIau.^ mustaskl. 

Dropsy, lL**r»^>l isiiskd. To have the 
dropsy, J^***:..,.)! istaska\ ^-Sj 
UMC^JIb waka^ hU isiiskd. 

Dross (of iron, etc.) Iju^ sadd. 

Drossy, v^Ju^/* musadA. 

Drought (want of rain),^^ix«]UjLfi 
^0(^0171 ail maiar, i^luj nashdf. 
See Dryness. 

Drown, v. (suffocate in water), 

^£jS,gharrah'y (toimmerge),(jJLc 
ghaiias\ (to overflow), JL)«fi/; 
(to drown or be drowned), ^j^ 

Drowsily, (j^mJCj hikol na^\ 
(sluggishly), ^ J^V ^» ihmdlin. 

Drowsiness, ^jmju na^as; (indo- 
lence), Jl^l i^ifia/. 

Drowsy, ^^\*^ na^dn. 

Drub, «. ^b^ darhat. 

Drub, r. S-^ <?arai. 

Drudge, v. a«x>- khadam, ^\s:>^^}i 

^mal khadddm. 
Drug, «. IjJ dawd (plur. <l[j<^^ 

adwiyat), ^^ ^tTo;'. 
Druggist, «.jlkc ^a^^r. 
Drum, s. J^ ^/. A kettle-drum^ 

2[^Ia} nakkdra. To drum, beat a 

drum, jIt ^io/, JJali JJ <^ib 





Brum-major, $. j^^j^^ tQhur 

Bnunmer, «. JU^ tabbdl. 
Bnmk, dnmkeiiy ^)J^ $akrdn. 

Like a dnmken man, ^yU 1 J2^ 

mul Oisahrdn. 
Bnmkard, s, t^J^ tukri. To be a 

habitaal druBkard,>Jl^^ 

ta^Uam ^W assukr. 
Bnmkenness, ^^LiA iukr. To feign 

dronkenness, ^|^.JL«rf^U^iJ-^ 

^amal halaho sakrdn. 
Bry (not moist), ^^l-j ydHs; 

(thirsty), ^luJa^: ^atshdn. Bry 

in constitntion, ^\j^\^^ti^\^ 

ydhis al mitdj. 
Bry V, (free from moisture), ^j**^^ 

yabhas. To dry in the son (flesh, 

etc.), JJi kaddad. To dry or 

wipe dry, ^•**^ masah. 
Bryer, $, (jm«w« mttydbhii. 
Bryly (without moisture), tX-^ 

(jmLJI ^ala* al yabds ; (frigidly, 

without affection or emotion), 

if Ji|^ J^ hikol hurudat. 
Bryness, ^j**^ ychs, ^^ ydbusat; 

(want of sensibility, frigidity), 

i*^jiji hurndat 
Bual, ^V^ mu9anna\ The dual 

number, JLiiJf tagniyat. 
Bubions, dubiously, etc. See 
IhubtM, JoabtfuUy. 

Bucaty 9.j\:jd iMLr^ye^ ma^ 

Buck, $. iiai hatta. 

Buck,' V. \ji\i^jt»A^ Umuu I 

See Biye, dowse, plunge. 
Buct. See Guidance, dire 

passage. Bucts (in the I 
etc.), jLfil^ sawd^. 

Buctile, ^:*ix« muii^, aJjcS 
kdhil atta^m, ^J--^^ miM 
(tractable), jl:u^ mukidd. 

Budgeon,^^2CU^ hhanfar ; (jni 
tion), ^.^gf phadai. 

Bue (proper), ^J Idyik, c^ 
mimdM^, c--^)^ wdjih, Mji \ 
\^y/^ tnafrHd, A debt 

ioafSL, J^tfAyyuMt mustahik. 

Bue, «. (right) ^J>- Aoi^ (pL ^ 
huknk; (custom, tribute), « 
khardj, ij^ jaziyaL 

Buel, «. c^ji^ dnwel. 

Bug, j?ar<. of dig, jf^iar* moA/ 

Bug, 9, vjJ^ «a<^f. 

Bulcify, J^ ^/a\ 

Bulcimer, ^^15 ^»a» (pL ^ 

Bull, duU-brained (stupid), 

halld; (sad), Mj|^ «Mi 

(drowsy), (jwli na^^dt. i 

market, ^\ jum^Jj^ «tli ifcoi 

^ Bull, «. (stupifjr), j-^ Aofyor 




idlyX i^^JC^. Mb; 

tnpidity), iJi> halddai, 
fidiM^; (aloggiahTieafl), 
idwfm; (sadness), >£ 

it), M^\ ahkam, {jmj^\ 

or strike dumb, v. (with 
lent), vj:^ ^a^^. 
silence), (jw^ kharas, 

), aS^^jJ fettw ^tf^Mn. 

>j sti^/. A dnngbill, 
maahalat (plur. J^U« 

: ghathlm, 

'*£- ghoih, J Jl& ghadar, 
r. (copy or corresponding 
\jijya ttZra tdnigah, Ji; 
*^ naskha, 

deceit), Ij^ rtyei, jjix 
dvableness, \h hakd, 

Durable, Jli h^h,^ ajU i^^NMi 
muffamvr. Not' durable, c^U 


Durably, /•t^jJl^Jif ^M addawdm. 

Durance, duration, aIjJ <biiMm, 
\sLi hdk&fj\yis^\ istimrdr, cl>\j 
aabdt. Duration of life,^^.4ji!\Jjl9 

Dura mater (membrane of the 
brain), iUjJlAl wnm addimdgh. 

During aIjU md ddm, U\ asnd* 
During the war, c^-^lLi^Jli^ 
fi amd (d harh. During our ad- 
ministration, U^jIjI^^^w*^^ 
/l taman iddratind, 

Duskish, dusky, »pjf^ mu^m. 

Dust, jLc ghubdr, ijfX. ghahrat. 
To raise dust, jac ghabbar. 

Dust, V. (sprinkle with dust), j^ 

Dusty (full of dust, covered with 
dust), 9j^^ kolahu ghabra. 

DutiM, duteous, ^ ■> Vi ^ muti^, 
jU:^ munkdd. 

Dutifully, ZcU^ J^ bikol td^, 

Dutifulness, Ls^Jb td^t, ix\Jb\ 

Buty, J^ hak (plur. J^a^ hiikai\ 
^j rann (plur. >»^]/« murdiim) ^ 
(office), iL«jc^ JbMdiiMit. T<^ Ql<c^ 





one's duty, A A r^^'>'\^\J^ 
tammam al wdjtb ^alihi. The 
duty of an office, (^^n(t\^ mansah, 
^JS- hkidmat, A duty or toll, 
^yoM!^ mahsUl, A collector of 
duties, ^J0asT^ muhaml. 
Dwarf, s. J^|^^ koAr al tad. 

Dwarfifihness, JuUlt^M wghr al 

Dwell, V. ^^^ iaian. 
Dwells, «. ^^JL^^ mutawattin, 

AjXt mukimf ^^\^ sahin. 
Dwelling, «. cu%«j haytf 

makdn, ^jLm^ maskan. 

Dwindle, r. (consume away), ujiIj 

Dying, s. ^^y mawt; (tinging), 

^ ,ahsgh. 
Dynasty, s, (line of princes), ^JijlL!! 

^U^^lull attdyfat al mvlukiyat. 
Dysentery, «. a jj I J \^\ ishdl addam, 

ajJ^Jm^o sayl addam, c^JJ 

tMzif, Ij^LmjJ dUenteriyd. 


Each, Jo-lj J^ kol wdhid. 

Eager, (ardently wishing), jli-ii^ 

mushtdk; (vehement, hot, choleric) 
. ^\j^\j\^ hdr id mndj; (quick, 

busy), ^j/-> sari^; (sharp, sour), 

Eagerly (ardently), Jj^i 
shau)k\ (quickly), U^ 

Eagerness (ardour), ^L^^^- / 
ij^ghayrat\ (vehemem 
L^'^xrir ghadab ; (imp 
(^ys^ hufUm. 

Eagle, i.j^ nasr. The ( 

tion of the eagle, ^l 

annasr attdyir, ^-^|j 
anfuur al tpdki^ 

Ear, «. (organ of hearir 

usn. The two ears, 

atmdn. To lend an ea] 

istama^. The ear or 

Ear-ring, «. (J^ halak. 
Ear-wig, «. ,^ll!l^lia:^ 
adddn; (a whisperer), 
wdshl, /♦UJ nammdm. 
Ear-witness, «. w«Ld sdm\ 
Earl, «. l::^^ comte (Frei 
Early (in the morning), 
bdkiran. Early (quickl 

sarlcan. Very early, 

^a^* bdkir. 
Earn, r. ,-<|^ r^J^^, ^J-aa 

u, <<un kaseh. 
Earnest, a<^*. ^.\ ^y^ 5» 

(zealous), j^-i ghayyUr. 

Earnest (handsel), j^^^ 

^ In ^Bluest, ^J^-^^ ^ 

» • 




Imiestly (with attention), JCj 
JuLJ hikoltahayyud; (zealoosly), 
aUcj^^J^ hOul ihtrndm; (im- 
portanately), /♦]/' J^ hikolibr&m 
SmestneflB (fixed attention), J«^ 

jW; (zeal), ^Uu^f fA^»mdm, 
1^^ phayrat; (importunity), 
f\j)\ ibrdm, ^Uubl tA/tmdm. 
Intfa, «. ^jl «rrf (plur. ^^];^ 
maH) ; (the element earth), 
imAjj iurdh. The inhabitants of 
the earth, ijoJi\^^\ ahali Vard. 
The face of the earth, ijOji\^^ 
wtfii Ford. The globe of the 
arth, ^Ji\i^ kurrat Vard, To 

hide in the earth, o^^^S^^5*^ 
Ho/a' fll Vard. 

Bvth-bom (meanly bom), J^ff^ 
L^ouivSl majkul annasab. 

Istiien, ^\j9 turdhl, 

Evthinees, <--^|;3 turdh. 

Znthy (belonging to this world), 
^j^ ardi, ,<^lfi ^lami ; (cor- 
poreal), f^\A..^^ jmndnl. 
Earthquake, v, Ujlj zahalat (plur. 

J ;J) zaldzil. 
Enthy, ^\p twdhi ; (terrestrial), 
^^\ ardi. 

Ease (rest), ^tj rd^^ ; (facility ), 
^ |j( ' «tiAa/a^; (carelessness), 
J 1^1 ihmdl; (gracefulness, want 
of constraint), SJiaLt mtddtafatf 

Ease, r. (give rest), ^j rayyah. 

Easily (without difficulty), JJLj 
JU^ &tilo/ tuhnlat. [jya$ar» 

Easiness (fsuiility) 11 j^ iuhilhU,jutJ 

East, «. J/u^ uwmAt*^ (pi. J;Uu^ 
mashdrik), ^jJ^ shark. The east 
and west, c,.^^*4bJl^J^/uw4]1 al 
mashrik tool maghrib (pi. j^LuLJI 
c^LjLaJI^ a/ mashdrik tool 
maghdrib). Distant as the east 
from the west, ^j^jLjiSdM hu^ 
al mtuhrakin. 

Easter, t^yiJfjujill al ^d ash- 
Sharif, .^^\s^ cldaffash. 

Easterly, eastern, J,jJ^ sharkl (fem. 

^Li^ sharkiyat). 
Easy (not difficult), ^Jjtt hayyin, 

fj^sahel; (contented), ^^l^rai?!. 
Eat, V. JS\ akal. To eat and 

drink, «-^^^ J^^ akal wa shereh. 

Eatable, J^U fndkul, J-^^J 

Eaten, Jj^U mdkuL 

Eater, s. Jl^^ akkdl. A man eater 

(cannibal), ^LiJlJL^\ akkdl 



Eating, part. jwvf. J^T mW; 

•• J^ oH. Eating and diinkingy 

i^J^i^J$\ aU tea fikmrh. 
"Ehh, jj9^ jawr. The ebb and flow 

(of the tide), Jy^^jjP^jMrtaamad, 

Ebony, (jm^jT ainiU, 

Ebriety,^^ tutr. [ghab^dn. 

Ebullition, iAiii ftkfaUi, ,^ULe 

Eooentrio (deyiating from the oentre, 

iiregolar), ijo^Ulli^U. ih$ldf 
al id^idai. 

Eodesiastie, aif, ^^^>»*i\^ kandyH. 

Echo, 1Ju0 iodd, yjc\i ydghl. 

Echo, r. ^^li^ ^nuU ydghl. 

Edat, (ji^j raumakf \^ diyd. 

Eclipse, 8. (of the son), i^LJljl 

inkUdf; (of the moon), i^iyn^ 


Eclipse, V. (the son), ^da*!> £a«q^; 

(the moon), ci>**flw hKoMf. 
Eclipsed (as the sun), f^JuSj,^ mun- 

hoiiff (as the moon), v»goifflgV^ 

•HmMa#(^. To be edipsed (sun), 

ua Ml ( }\ tnkaaafi (moon), 

Lmi^tji^] uMoiof. 
Ecliptic, 9. y^A/LJ\fJjjl9 tarik 

oihihanu, m^jjJiM 5ln;.>< num- 

takat al hurnj. 
Economy (frugality), J IjCLcl i^tddl; 

(arrangement), u^^j-Jy? ^^i^, 

Eoonomio, eoonemioal (frugal), 

JjcjL^ wm^kM. [mrrmriL 

Ecstaoy, ^j^^luJLLckrl iMU^f 

Ecstati c , Jjku^ «MM#«/, i}^^ 

Eddy, «• i^ gkamnU. 

Edge (thin cutting part of a Uada)^ 

«x^ Aad!i^. An edge (bocdsrjb 

j\:ibmdr, Lj^\^ kOtki^ uJjk 
Edged, ^\i kdti^, J^ kadd. 

Edict, «.^l amr, Jl»- AiciM. Thft 

royal signature on public edielii 

wjjj tatpklc. 
Edification, m •\n2 ta^m, Juijf 

tarhiyat, i^^jlj ^(^5. 
Edifice, 8. ij\f ^amdrai^ ^\m 


Edify, r. c^jI M^cib^, Jl^ ^MmL 
Edition (of a book), ijj» UhfM, 

ijMU na8krat. 
Editor, 8.jJ^\j nd8kir. 
Educate, v, ^j rahht^, c^3t MddA 
Educated, ^^ murdbht^. 
Education, i^Ji tarhiyai, ^^ 

tacllm, u^j\ adab. 
Eel, 8. O^Ll^lvl^ $0mtA d . 

kayydt, ^^^,Cj\ an^^. 
Efface, V. See Defiuse, erafle» 

Effect (that which is pcoduoadlrf 




i^tij nai^. The cause and 
fffwty 9Ji\ji}^\ ^ ^ fMtlfir^ 
(phir. f j^^l^ J^)f a' tMft' t^ 
)krft^. Effect (pmpoeeX fX) nfya^, 
ijo^ ifharad, JuoS ifcoMl; (oom- 
^0tum)y Ju^Cj Mbitf. 

JU mal (plnr. Jl^ 
^0, Jjj rnk (plur. j|jj< 
ofifil, jUf ^tfidr. Private effects, 

Vbttt, 9, (effectuate), m^ tammam, 

SHectedy aL^^Ji Um&m. To be 
effected, fXi^ sdr tdmm. 

Eflbotible, j^ yatum. 

Hbctiye, effectual, efficacious, effi- 
cient,^^ muassir, ^5^^^ ^/^> 
^Jlcli^ laho fd^yat, J^LJ 

fibctiyely, effectually, efficaciously, 

i^J^ hilol kuicat, iLlfliJ^ 

Kb/ fa^iyat ; (completely), 

'UU- tamaman. 
Bhninacy (female softness), Ju^ 
im^mai, ^U layunat. 

Sffieminate (soft), ^sKJi nd^im\ 

(lascirious), fj^\ifdHkf i,,>.fwLg 

Kftminate, r. (soften), ^ na^^om. 
Kfferresce, r. ^^s.phdla\ - 

Eflfenrescence, ^Ul£ yhaJaydn. 
Efficacy, efficiency, JLLcls fi^iliyaL 

See Effect, agency. 
Efficacious, efficient, ^JlaU fd^ik. 

See Effective. 
Effigy, S;j«tf $iLraif J^ tAoiU. 
Effiux, effiuzion, cI^AmJI fiM«/ai. 

See Efftudon. 
Effort^ _Anj M^f, «X0»- /tuli, tX^ 

/tiAi, Jlfx^l ijtihdd. 
Sffirontery, X^lS^ wokdhat. See 

Effiasion, ^A^° * «q/Z, v_ ^y* mS. 

The effusion of blood, ^.vlt^^^o .. 

m/!!^ addam. 
Eft. See Lizard. 
E. G. (exempli gratia, for example). 

Egg, «. Lij-; baydat. The eggs of 
fish, J^i^ khubydr. An egg- 
shell, <LiJ|^yAj JbifAr ^ haydat. 

Egg, r. See Investigate, incite. 

Eglantine, t. (a species of rose or 
sweet briar), ^JlJ*»*^>^Jul nwrfn. 

Egotism, iij\j\ andniyai, c,>^ f»- 
d.^! jJI Mhb audi. 

Egregious, J^VJ hdmil, JJmL^ 
fHuhmmal. [hikmndl. 

Egregiously (exceedingly), JUXj 

Egress, egression, ^j[^ khur^j. 

Ejaculate, v, ^^j rama^^ 
I noihab. 

• * 




Ejaculation^ $. (short or sadden 

prayer), ^^J da^iU; (throw), 
^j rami, 

Ijject, V. (drive out), ^^j^^ akhraj; 
(to cast away), ^Jff tarah; (to 
void fix)m the mouth), 9^ji^ 
iitafragh. To eject from an 
office, Jj£ ^%dl. 

Ejectment, $. (from a possession), 
d^U^f^^^j^l Mraj min al 
mlrds, [sion. 

Ejection, ^5/*-^ ikhrdj. See Expul- 

Eigh or eh, t'n^'. ^^ aA, M. 

Eight, ^-^Uj samaniyat. The 
eighth, ^\j sdmin. An eighth 
(part), ^^^ Mimn. Eighteen, 
jJSis.^-mj\,A^ Bamaniyat ^har. 
The eighteenth, ^^mlc^ji^u sdmin 
^har (fem. ^^r.<U^b saminat 
^harat). Eightfold, uJU«i^<LjUj 
samdniyat ad^f. Eighthly, L^U 
adminan. The eightieth, ^yUj 
tfamdniln. Eight score, <oL^ 
^^::m.«}j mdyattpasuttHn. Eighty, 

Eight hundred, <ut«^Uj samdn 

tndyat Eight thousand, uJ^I^Uj 
samdn aldf. 

Either, b yd. Either the one or the 

other,^llllj tX^tjIlb yd alwdhid 

yd al (zkhar. Either of you, 

A^iX».t ahad hm. Either aida^ 

^ \sr jdntbln. [supply. 

Eke, 9. See Add, increase, leogtheoi 

Elahorate, iJ^ ^mdUf wImo* 

musanna^ To elaborate, ^^ 

kammal. Elaborately, l::;;^) J^ 

hikol i^tina. U^Xi ^*M iOiaL 

Elance, v. See Throw out, dart 

Elapse, v.j^ mar, J|j wdl, CL^Li 

fdt, ^ »n ^ mada\ The time 

which is elapsed, ^^^Ulf^Uj 

zamdn al mddU 

Elastic (springy, springing), 

ilJizJi Idstlk, 
Elate, yJcw« mutakahhir. 
Elate, V. J ^i "...^ilj ^awtalah 

Elation, ^^Jo takdhhur. 
Elbow, «. j;i^ mar/ak, c ^ ktt^, 

Jjj zind. lakMar- 

Elder brother, «. ^^-^W^ atoi* 
Elder, 8. (a man whose age gives 

him authority), ^^v—Ji dlnyi. 

Elders, ^^r*^ shayukh, sr^} ■-- 

mashdyekh, /^^JL\\^\^\ a^ydn 

al kawm, [hil^umr- 

Elderly, ^^Ija«xa::l^ mutakaddim 
Eldership, Is^yssXit ihaykhukkai; 

(primogeniture),^^^ hakuriyet. 
Eldest,^ hikr. [hala$a$u 

Elder tree, s. j^LJJL«-» gt^r ol 

^— ^ /•Id*, 

Beet, IP. i^.Jssij\ itUakkab, .l&c^l 
Beet, elected, j\ \ k^ mtMUir, 

m tmi aJt h ab, A Vi»n/9 

flee&m, c^lidl^ iiUikhdh. 
Beetire, i„,.^^cuj yuntakhab. 
BeetiTely, c^UoJ^IU M Mikhah. 
Beetor, $. c,>^fgi;^ mtinfailM. 
Bectre (amber), Ij^afl^ kdhrabd. 
Bectrical, S-'oU- jdtib. 
Beetridiy, <-^«Xs>- jVii^, ^«^W" 

Bectuary, #. ^j^-js*^ ma^iln, 

(pliir. ^^^;^U^ tfia^d;1»). 
Beemoeynarj (Uving upon alms), 

d kasmtdt ; (given in charity), 


iUm^ hoianaL 

Beganoe, i^\Jff zardfat, J^LLJ 
ktdfaty ^j**»>- hum, JU>-/ifffid/, 
fjjjj raicnai. Elegance in speak- 
ing or writing, IsHLj haldghat, 
^^Loi foi&hat. 

Begant, y^hM 1 i^/, uJj^ soH/, 
cT*^ Aa«i, J-4Jr /tfrnl/, ^ 
lakl. Meet elegant, i..!^* osra/, 


Elegantly, ^Ual J^ ^Oo/ /a^/o^. 

Elegy, «. (poem), iiju>^ kasidat 
(plnr. J^Loi kasdyid), A mourn- 
ful or fdneral song, ^Uj^ mar- 
««^a^ (plnr. ^]/« mord^i). 

Element, j«a:^ ^umur (pi. ^^^Ixe 
^anditr). The four elements, 
ijuji\jia\:ji\ al^ndair al arba^,^ 
The four elementary qualities of 
man, lgigw\ <L ji-j^H al arha^ 
akhldt. The elements or letters 
of a language, L^sxli.^ 
hurH/alhufd. The elements or 
rudiments of science, >!«!). j|^ 
shuruh al ^hn. 

Elemental, elementary (belonging to 
the elements), ^j^^t^- ^«m«uri ; 
(uncompounded), u^^,^.,>-r 
^Aayr murakkt^. 

Elephant, $, (^/ll* An elephant 
keeper, JCi fayydl. The ele- 
phantiasis (disease of the ele- 
phant), J^Vb (^ a(^. 

Elevate, v. ^le> ^alla', ^.^ fuuab, 

t^j rafa^. 
Elevate, elevated, 9^j^ marfUL^ 

Elevation, ^^j\ iriifd^ Elevation 
or sublimity of style, c^LjJ^t 

Etevator, #, ^\j ra)l^. 





Eleren, jMbfi tX^^ ahh§d ^a$har. The 

Elf, «. (a spirit supposed to be seen 
in wild places), J^ ghQi. 

Elicit, r. U;.^<g*^ mAo^, 
Eligibility, eligibleness, 

Eligible, j;j) Idyik^ S--^!^ «^^V^, 

al intikhdh. 
Elision (catting off a letter or 
syllable, etc.), i^i\>- hazf, 

Elixir,^;MM^l akiir. 
Ell, s. cf f J zara^. [hnJtisd. 

Elm-tree, €. jf<^^ darddr, l>^ji 
Elocution, Jl^-Loi fasdhat, JlcLj 
haldghat, [praise, panegyric. 

Elogy, ^S/9 tnadh. See Encomium, 

Eloigne, v, (put at a distance), J^ 

Elongate, v. (lengthen), Jj^ 

tawtoal; (to go at a distance), 

Juiu)-.|. rdh lah^d. 

Elongation (lengthening), J^J^^ 
tatwll; (distance), Jua^ 5u^(?; 
(departure), ^^firdh. 

Elope, v.^farr^ «*j^\ tn^diam. 
Elopement,^!^ yJrfir, /♦J^^ w^tsdm. 
Eloquence, i>>Li3 foi&hat, (L,sLj 

Eloquent, .^ua9 fasihf wL hahgh, 
Jifost eloquent, ^r^\ o/mA. 

Else (i^ron. other), ^^ I dkkm 

jfi. gkofr; {adv, bendi^ ezoept), 

WU wUL ^add, \ A\ »■ AddkL 

ELiewheie,y;^T J^:^4/^ "'^"'^ 

Elucidate, r. ^j waddah, ^J^ 

hayyan, ^jL tharah. 
Elucidation, ^f^y tawdlh, ^^Ui 

hagdn, ^jJU Bharh. 
Elude, 9. JjU^ ^iMrf; (to avoidX 

jds^ ikUautr. 
Eludible,j^ja>.!l^^^|C4^ wmmhmd 

ihtindr, J\j.JXo^^\f,j1 Idmm d 

ihtwdr. [Stratagem. 

Elusion (artifice), IL^ hlkU. See 
Elusive, elusory, ^ILi ghaihtkdik. 
Elysian, ^^*^j^ fardasl. See Be^- 

lightM, deliciouB. 
Elysium, (jMj«3piJf al fmrimm^ 

tLs\ ajjannat. 
Emaciate, r. (make lean), i_^*r 

da^^f^ s^jLssT nahhaf; (to be or 

become lean), <— £<up <^^<s^* 

Emaciated, L^i^a^ tuihif, i _ ^^"-^ 

Emaciation, ^W* »NAd/a^. 

Emanation, ^^Ju0 9udilr. 

Emancipate, r. ^jAs^ khattoi, ^Jis\ 

a^tak, ^j^\ atlak. 
Emancipated, ^Jh^a^ mm^tdk* An 

emancipated slav^, ^)3jk^ Ma^^ 




j\a^» i^tdk, ja,\ 

mi. [Caatnte. 

IpTTilate, 9. ^^a:L ihata\ See 
Snaiu (a town in Syria), U^)^ 

Bnbvoation (going on board 8hip)| 

(patting on boaidX Jm^ woiL 
hbaigo, i.jSS^\t^,jLJ\^^ man^ 
umfar fil Mr, c^yilj^ 

mtrdkih ^«fi ti/ kkurHj min til mind. 

Bnbadi:, «. (go on boaid),^^^l(J^p 

wmdftl hahr ; (to put on board), 

Enbarraa, v. ^jJL ahaunpoak, 1 
bbamaaed, ^^yL^ 
Ta be embarraaaed, 

UiamaBment, ij^hlrai,LmAJa0if\ 

iiiirdh, ^JuJy^ UnkcUJL 
bbaaaador, ambassador, ij-f^^ 

Embassy, ». ij\L» Mfdrat, 
bbattle, c. Crye^^/^luJ^ sa/ 

W ^iuiar M Aari. See Array ; 

and under Battalia. 
Aabay, 9. (inclose in a bay), I0U-I 

^\( aiai ka JUa^: / 

^"^^ fNtMAocnffOlA. 

Kmbelliah, r. ^J sos^aa, Sm- 
bellished, ^;£j^ mwuiyyan. 

Embellisbment, JLjj siaoi. 

Embers (hot ashes), ^^ aharar. 

Embezzle^ 9. (to appropriate by 

breach of tmst), ^^^JciL^^-t UMaku; 

(to waste in riot, etc.), (— i/>^t 
airaf, cJjj toilci/l 

Embezzlement, ^UsL khiydnai. 

Emblem, 9. ij\j^\ iihdrat, ^U^ 
kandtfat, <t«)U ^aldmat, ^L^ 
^drai,l^j ramB. [ramsf. 

Emblematical, emblematic, i^J^j 

Emblematically, J^lj hUramB. 

Embolden, >««*>- joisar, ^u!i^^y 
lawtpa* kalhaho, 

Embolismal, amboloos (intercalary), 
A*MM»^ kdbUat. 

Embrace (fold in the arms), ^U 
^nak. To embrace one another, 
^Jj\m5 ta^nak ; (to comprise), 
f^AsJ^\ ishiamal; (to admit, re- 
ceire), JkoTI atiakhai. 

Embrace, i. XaJLa^ mtf^dfuiifcii^, 
^Jlofl^ haddnat* Conjugal em- 
braces, Jl^^ tpudl, ^Up^ jimd^. 

Embracer, t. (Jj\m^ mu^nik. 

Embroider. .. J> .a««. 

Embroidery, JjL} Mris. 

Embroil, t;> Ll^ khalat. 

Embryo, 9. ,^y^^ lonln. 




Emendable, ^Ui\^jL4,y mumkin al 

Emendation^ JLa\ isldh, 
Emendator, «. ^**^^ musaUih. 


Emerald, <• J^J tumurrud. 
Emerge, r. ^ Ju^ seder, lI^J^s^ hedes. 

Emergence, emergencyCsudden occa- 
sion), JUjU. hadisat ; (the act of 
riaing mto yiew), j^ zuhur, 
c ^ tuln^,jjt}^ iudHr. 

Emergent (sadden), iLU-r^i— c 

ghayr tnutarakkah ; (rising into 
view), ^^U nd«Al, iJI^ adder. 

Emeroids or emerods,«.^f^lj hdaUr 
(plur.^^1^ batpdstr). An herb 
which cures the emerods (verbas- 
cum or mullein), c^jjl^^ jl Man 
al dubh. 

Emetical, emetic, ^J^si^ munattik. 
Emetic, t. i \jSo^\ istifragh. 

Emigrate, v. jLjjJfuli^ tarak 
addiy&r,jS^ hajr. 

Emigration, ^jS \ cL^ tarh al watan, 
f^^ys^ hifrdn. 

Eminence, eminency (exaltation in 

rnnk), \Jip^jaldl, !it\^ kardmat, 

^ ^HLw. Eminence (height), 

cUt^I irtifd^. An eminence 

{hiffh ^ound), ^ iaf. 

Eminent (exalted in degree), JU 
^H, v-i[^ $harif. Very emi- 
nent, ^Jlci»L,ft><c,. ^'^Li^ 9dki^ 
tnakdm cdh. Eminent men 
^U^^v-^bj^ arhdh al ma^U 
lli^ shurafSL. Eminent (con 
spicuous), jfj f in ^ moihktr, 

Eminently, i<^^^^}i •» fwi;'*«i 
Emissary, $. ^yJ^jdsiU. 
Emission (sending out), ^t—^^t 
tkhrdj, j\j^\ isddr. 

Emit, r. (send forth), ^>^^ aUre^. 
Emollient, ^J2^ mulayyin. 
Emolument, if Jl^LJ fdyidai, ^ 

naf^, ii^M^ ma^dsh. 
Emotion, L^\jJia^\ idtirdb. See 

Empale, r. (a man), JJ^ kkawwak 
Emperor, i. (or king), ^UaL* iuttdn. 

The Emperor of Bome, j^a^ 

kagsar. The Emperor of Chini, 

j^ii faghfur. 
Emphatic. See Forcible, eneigetic. 
Empire (command), J^ hukm,Ji^ 

amr; (the imperial dignity), 

^:»laLi Boltanat, An empire er 

kingdom, ^Ol^^ matiiiaibi^, feViU 

saUanaL illaJ dawlat. 
Employ, t;. (keep another at W0ik)i 

aJcv khaddam, JxJs ikaghgU* 




To employ one's-aelfy JjL:;^! 
M u f JU iL To employ one another, 
^LiUiJ Uuhd^Mn, To employ 
due as an instrument or meansX 
J^il-Smi) uta^mal. To employ 
ereiy endeavour, Ju^\ JiL haxal 

fiM^f, J^-^i^l J«X^ IhouU (d 
tmfkAd. To employ (oommiasion 

9r entrust), Jij waklaL 
Empbyable, JUt *; .Ji\ l,>% *>- tj 

Employed, JjL-i-JL^ muihtaj/hil, 

^}jkJL^ wuuhghoi. 
Empbyer, «. (one that uses), 

Eniployment, employ, ^JiLl' ikiufhl, 
j^\ amr, ^Ja^ ^amal; (office), 
v^.^.a«>^ jfumMii ; (seryioe), ^Jtf>>. 

Enpoison, r. ^i^^nii MmsMm. See 

Emporium, «. (mart), j JCJ bandar, 

j\j[i hdMdr. 

Empower, v. ^^ faunoad, 
Emprees, $. 4SJLL« malakat, JLjUaL) 

Emptiness, le^ iUa^. [/<3<^. 

Empty (void), ^U* ife^ft, ,--?Li 
Empty, r. ^^^fadda\ 
Empyrean, «. (highest hasvao). 

Emulate, v. (endeavour to equal or 

excel, without envy), (Jj\^ idbak. 

Emulation, ij^ gMrai, Juaa^ hasad. 

Emulously, f^J^ htkolghlrai. 

Enable, v,j*yi iaddar, i^y kaunoa\ 

Enact, v.j^\ amar, a^ haltam. 

Enamel, 1:^^ mind. 

Enamour, v. (jJlUS' ^hek. 
Enamoured, Jh^L^ ^kik. To 

be deeply enamoured, Jh^^^ 

^y^ ^shik mafnUn, 

Encamp, v. ^^^ hhayyam. 
Encampment, 8. v^<^^ urdi* 
Enchant, v.jSff^ sahar. 
Enchanted, j^^**^ nuuhar. 
Enchanter, s, ^»^Lm» idhir, ilsr* 

Enchanting, adj.jsf**^ mwihir. 
Enchantment (magic charms), 

Mr. Enchantments, /t^\ 

^%dtfim. [idMrat, 

Enchantress, $. (sorceress), i^Li 
Encirde, v, Sj\Jh^m\r.^i^^ toada^ 

^hi tdra. 
Enclose, v. (surround), )o\i^\ akdt ; 
, (to confine), ^jitf>- habat. 
Enclosure, «• ZJoW\ i)idt«t| jyi «%r. 




. Ju4 sotUL An enoloeure of pales, 
^Jjjf J ddr^hln. An enolosare 
for cattle, j^i^i^ kaaHr. 

Enoomiast, ^jL^ mddik, ^\tX^ 




Eneompaas, r. See Enoircle,enclo8e. 
Encorei ^U^ kumdn, Lo^l ojfdan. 

See Again. 
Encounter (battle), ^j>- harh; 

(accidental meeting), ilL^Lf 

mcUdkdt, <lJjL«^^ musddafat; 

(casual incident), LmS^ toak^t. 

Encounter (combat), *^j\>^ hdrah; 
(to meet face to face), uJjL^ 
sddaf; (to oppose), (^JJU^ ihdlaf, 

Encourages, (animate), jM*>-ya««ar, 

'*lr^L5^^ ^^^^J^^^' To en- 
coutage an insurrection, CJ 

iAuJi\ harrak alfoidd. 

Encouraged (stimulated), 

Encouragement, uXj^a^ iahrik, 

^joijsC tahrid, 
Enoourager, $. cXjS^ muharrik. 
Encroach, v. ^le.^^JJu U^dda^ 

^aW, J^Uaj tatdwal. 
Encroachment, J^Ua? tatduml. 
Encumber, r. (>4^>- hammal, 
Encumbraooe (impediment), 

wum^uoyC ta^trrmi; (biirdffi)» 
Ji4»> Amu/; (debt), uiji imri, 

Enoumbeied, fy>^*^ unmnHI^. 

End (conclusion),^! dJ^er (pliir. 
ji^^^\ awdkhir), Li\e, ^kibai, 
Jl^U ffhdyai (plur. ci^UU ^AtfytfQ; 
(of a book), JUiU. kkdimtU; 
(aim, intention), J^ Ami!, jt^ 
murd(^; (an event), 9yjirate^; 
(death), Jp^\ afal, iZ^ym mmH i 
(aboUtion), JUajt tiW. TiMfnd 
of the world, ^UjJt^t^t 
ifikirdd auamAn*, To &• tod of 
time, cijUJJJ^T^l iV 4Mm 
ossomdn, ^^UjJil|.r. »\ Jt ds* 
iiUihd oMaamdn, The end of a 

sentenoe cr period. 
The end of a Terse, d«jU iba%«<L 
The end of a speech or letter, 

khitdm M JMlMt 
Brought to an end,,^_^fu^ mtmUM, 

In the end, ^3|^T dlher at 
amr. To no end, ^b MIAmi. 
End, V. (bring to an end), ^ 
iammam; (come to an end), ^^^ 

intaha* ; (to put to death), JsS 

Endamage, v. ij\*M^\^^ ^s 

al kluudraL 
Endanger, r. 4^!^ kkatur /I. 





olfLs^t ifiikiid, _ju« M^f, AlcJbl 
Mimdm, J«x3l iMliii, A great 
codesTonr, Alj^tcLihl i^fimdin 
fffw. With every endeavoor, 
/•UcJbl JC^ htM ihim&m, JC-f 

SodeaTOur, v. io^jadd, ^ju» 9m^\ 

loded, Aa3 iamdm, mAS^ mutam- 

iMn, ^jpi>^ wwniahl. The book 

ii ended (flnisX S-^liOl^j tarn 

Kodi?e, \jXJb hindibd. 

IndlesB (not terminated), 
fkttfr wmmtaM, ^\ *— ^^^-^ 
fil^fr«iii^MdAi; (infinite in time), 
Ait J dd^em, c^Jj^ 0^0^. 

bdlenly, Ujb ddyman, j^blWb 

Sodlennesey a|^j dawdm, j\jAS^\ 
Mmrdr, *Xf\ ahd, iidj\ ahadiyaU 

bdone, v. ^j rakam, (J^^^ 
w^l tAiiraA ^oAs' al poliua. 

bdoraementy <• ^ rakam, ^jJ^ 

Sadow, r. (with a portion), jip- 
>»Uas»<«-AJji9aibf. Endowment 
(portion), ^f« moAr. Endow- 
ment* (for pions naea), uJlijt 
awldf, iJL>\^ hh^rdt, c;^Lm^ / 

hutmdU Endowment (quality), 
(.^j iMi{^(plnr. (^L^f awidf). 
Of fine endowments, ^,^-wL^ 

Endne, i^. (with mental exoellenoe), 

Enduranoe, \jb haid,j\jASm»\ iitimrdr 
(sufferance, patienoe), j^ itiir, 
£lt idkat, jJikae? tahammul. 

Endure, v, (bear, snffer),^^ iohar, 
Jao^ takmnmal; (to last, re- 
main),^^^«aMif iitamar. 

Enemy, $. jj^ ^adata (fem. 5^J^ 
^adawai, plur. ttXcl a^ilA). A 
prudent enemy is better than a 
foolish friend, ^j^\^\^^Se' 
Jjbls^j;jJu0 ^adaw ^hU dkklr 
min iodlljdhil. 

Energetic, i^y kauflf i^^ $kahHm, 

Energy, S^Jui kudrat, iyi kUwat, 

^IfMi ahahdmat [^tt^/* 

Enervate, r. enerve, enfeeble, L»flir^ 
Enforce, v.j^Jahar ; to invigorate). 

Enforcement. See Compulsion. 
Enfranchise, r. (mannmit), (jaJL£^ 

i^Ao^tot, jLLU^^ifc. See Liberate. 
Enfranchisement, jl^t i^i. 
^K^Oy ^« (^^t) S-{;1> Adroi; 

(to employ another in business), 

^^ t^yywi. To exigdi^ (^wdl- 

tract to do asyUung), 'bjii^^ 
^mai thart. To engage (be bc- 
curit; for a debt), ^)ii^ iakajal ; 
(impawn, stake), ^^j rahan. 

Engagement (confliot), ••r'j^- ^rb, 
J\ij Jcit&l. An engagement (to 
pay debt), ilUi" kaf&lat. En- 
gagement or contract), \ij^ thari, 
Jkfc fahd, i\Ac ^aM Engage- 
ment of tlie attention, JLbJil 
^^1 iihtigUl alfihr. 

Engaged, J^jjLw^ matkghal. See 

Engender, v. (beget) Sij teeUd. 

Engine, f. (for raising wat£r from 
rivers, etc.) L^^jJ dui&h. An 
engine for throwing Btoaea, etc., 
jjU:.aru« tnanjanik. "Warlike en- 
gines (in general), i_7^1(.Zjl1 
alst al harh. An engine (device), 
^j/ano, L-jijii daUh, i^ htgi; 
(an agent for another), iJ^jij 

Engineer, *. (director of artillery), 
^fSxTyj tahjl, ijmS:~^^ muhandii; 
(a director of bnildinga or works), 

2 ENJ 

Englut, r. (swallow) ^ Ma^. 
Engorge, v. ^^\ Atefaj. Se* 

Swallow, devour, goi^. 
Engrain, t. (dye deep and daiaUe} 


tahagh ffhUmik. [otc. 

Eograpple.p. engrasp. BeeOrappl^ 
Engrave, t. i^^^Jd tuiiMh,jka~ htfiur. 
Engraving, *. y^^isu nohh. 
Engross, r. (attention), JUljAA 

ihaghat alhAl. 
Enhance, p. (a price) ^^^Ijt j tdi 

aiiaman; (to raiae in ecteem), 

lakial. See also Aggravate. 

Enhancemeiit (aDgmentatlon of 
value), iu^lfjLj %igad€t tl 
kimat; (aggravation), £iu toAW. 

Enigma, t-j^j rons, jiil luglk. 

Enigmatical, Jj.*;.* marmOa, %J)y 
ramti. In an enigmatical mbh, 
enigmatically, J.4^ H ramam. 

Enjoin, v.j^\ amor, *i». Awbai. 

Enjoy, V. (live in bappineBi) j^ 
tana^am. To enjoy tlie jumm 
aion or property of anythii^i 
t.J^ taaarraf, ^^ tMmattt^ 
To et^oj the powwrion of wealth, 
*J J fi i yAteiMM. To eajoy the 
company of ft miitren or iatimati 

■iMo, *-iyja^ lu^ tiki. 




». imS^ toiorruf, JcJ 

«. See Kindle, exoite, 

wni^ wasio^; (to amplify), 
^^U hdlagh JU halam. 
ge eloquently, i^JL^i Jjlt 
t/ ib^m. To enlarge or 

lerty, ^^/oIls^- khdlloi. 

See Extended, expanded, 


at, (rr^^ ^a«?«f^, <^lf[<^^ 

(magnifying represen- 
J!i!L^ mubdlaghat, ^ji^ 
3ee Exaggeration. — (re- 
>m confinement), ^LaT 
tlsh^ khdlds, 
r. ip nat^trar. 
dy^Jl:^^ munau^fi^ar. 

See Chain, bind. 

(give life) ^^^\ ahya\ 
JLijJl^JLjLi kayyad hH 

«\jye ^addwatf <C«^^rv 
fy JLiJls^ mMdlafat, 
r enmity, i^yia^\j^\ 

ij«& Aarraf. Ennobled, 
To be en- 

|||fni?ity)i V^ ihtddat, 

ioa ttttknJMlm. 
Enonnons, JutXJi $haM, 

«Aarrir; (exceaaive),^;^ iMir. 
Enormoualy, ^ijJ^j hi ihiddaiin. 
Enough, adv, ^^ has; $. i^l^ isdfi. 

It is enough, iAi^ hafdyai. 
Enrage, v. uy^«rtr yhadM. 
Enraged, i^yyar. yhatM, 4:;W^ 

Enrich, v. J^iS ayhna\ 
Enriched, M'»r»k^ tmtgManm. 
Enrol, v.^JuJUjuJ kayyad hil 
daftar. To enrol a caoae in « 
judge's book, Jjbt* «is^ak 
Enrolment, ji-Jj dafiar, J^s^ 
tMjil. [istence. 

Ens, ^'1^ hayin. See Being, ex- 
Ensign, <. Jl^ ^aUm (plur. ^\ 

a^m), lAj rdyat (plur. CL^^^^ 

rdydt), J^ hayrak. 
Enslave, r. Jyjc^a! itta^had. En- 

slaved, JljOm^ mtw^^ioi. 
Ensue, 9. ^ ^oM^. See Follow, 

Ensure, v. ^;U\j«X-ffi^Jafil 4^^' 

^a^ wa amdn. 
Entangle, r. l^ laf, i^j^ kkarda^. 
Entanglement, ^J^ kharda^, 

LU. khaU ; (perplexity, puszle), 




Enter, 9^ J^a dMM. To canBe 
or force to enter, J^^ J iMkhal. 
To enter by foroe, ^i^ Ju^am. 
To enter into oonferenoe or oon- 
Boltationi \j^J!uj tashauford. To 
enter into partnership, \y^luJ 
tashdraku. To enter into an 
agreement, \^i\ftUj> ta^dhada. To 
enter into a treaty of peace, 
J^\^j£s> ^kadu sulh. 

Entered, J:S^\j ddkM. Entered 
in a book or roll, -.jjujw* 
mundarif, jJX« mukayyad. 

Entertain, i^. (receive hoq>itably), 
yUy^li^U daf al muiaftr\ (to 
talk with), ^JlL^ takMam 

Entertainer, «. (host), L-*^—f»-Li^ 

Entertainment, t. ^^L^ diydfat. 
A place of entertainment (as an 
inn, etc)| ^LioiMj ildr «I 
diy&fat, J^ maMal. Enter- 
tainment (amusement), ^ lahlLf 
if jl /isasa^, la>. hoE. 

Enthusiasm (inspiration), ^^ ^ M 

f/Adin, ,^».j tooAf; (vain belief 

of divine inspiration), JkU jUi^t 

jUj^^lfJli i^iiJkad hdta hU 

. h&min mUtffif ; (ecstacy), J^j 

Enthusiast, $. (visionary), J^ fl gu 

infi^aib^fyii^ ; (a man "of a warm 

temper), ^\j4\^U kdml d 

Entice, v. i^>^^ n$ho^. 

Enticement, \^ ighwd^ i^'^jmik. 

Enticing, adf. ^->«i^- jdM. En- 
ticingly, i-f-fiU^JCj IM 
jdMjfMt, \^\JCj Hkol ighwd. 

Entire, J^l^ hOmil, |*U3 UmOmt ' 
aIJ Mm. 

Entirely, UUj ^orndflUNi, ^U3li 

M^^Midffi* Entireness, ^J ^4(3 

Entitle, r. (give right or daim), 
lgj\cy»'»>U^ ^amaiaho sdM 

Entity, ^l^ kdyin, 
Entoil, v. JJui^ljuXuM^ flMisi M 
masyadat. See Ensnare, entangle. 
Entomb, r. (bury), ^ J <20/mi. 

Entrails, ^^^^Lo^ mMdrfn. Bee 

Bowels, intestines. 
Entrance, JfiLj^ madkhid, J^«> 

ilMi^fl/; (commencement), ei^ 

Entrap, v. See Ensnare, involve. 
Entreat, v. t^J> tamgjja*^ ^^«mIsI1 

Entreaty, u^ M^, lacUl Ofl, 
(jmUJI %Umd9* 

sn 495 

mtjthali (• pavage to » honae), 

Kirelope, the envelope or coyer of 
a letter, etc., uJle ^hUdf. 

Enrenom, v. (poison), ^^^.^ zammam. 

fttfiaUe, Jums^ ffuhsad, Jf^Uu^ 

Jum^I muitahik al hasad, 
bvied, Jj m ip^ mahsud. An 

oiTier, Ju«l». hand, 
bfious, Jyu^ hasud, J^\^ hand. 

SnTiooaly, Sm»^JCj hihti hasad. 
bfiron, 9. Ll^l aAd^. 
bTinmSy t. ,<»*^y nawdM. 
homerate, 9. J^ ^a<f, s^^tHf>. hasah 
Emmeration, L3>-\ t^a, t}\sjLJ 

ia^ddd, ^^LA»^ Ai«d&, tViC ^. 

bmeiatum. See Declaration, in- 

Smmdatiye, ^^aJi lajkh 

Anroy, s. i^^\ ^hi, J«(^ waklL 
bvj, r. iXm^ ^MdM^. To envy one 

iBotlier, ^jjLydlo^ iahdsadit, 
Smry, Jum>- ibuMl, ^^ ghlraU 
^Jiemgrie (journal, abnanac), 

flj\Sj iakdmUlm. 
Sjpbefos (city), {jMymj\ aftiU. 
^ppedinm (loneral oration or poem), 

»U^ mariat (pi. ^\/9 inar^). 


Epionre, «. iS\)^. hofftrdnh 
Epicurean, vi^^ iatndnh See 

Luxurious. Epicurism. See 

Epidemical, epidemic, ^^J^ ^rf, 

i^Ojl^ mu^. An epidemical 

distemper, *bj tcK^. 
Epigram, <• ^«xi2r^-£>.]^«^ ihi^r 

akhiraho hadh. Epigrammatio, 

^^sikadhl. An epigrammatist, 

^1 j3^L2» $h&^ kaddah. 

Epigraph, ^y^ ^mwdn. See 

Epilepsy, 9. fj^ sar^. Epileptic, 

Epilogue, t. ^lfi>- khdtmoit. 

Epiphany, <. i^Um^JIju^ ^d al 

Episcopacy, L^^^^JlJL^ ukafiyaU 

Episcopal, ^J£^\ iskifl, 
Epistolary, ^ \ A^^j roiayill. 

Epistolary correspondence, JLj IC« 
Epitaph, 9.j0ii}}di kitdhat kahr. 

Epithalamium, $, {jmj p^ n^A^ 

madlhai ^tr«. 
Epithet, iLfi iifat, v.J^j wasf (plur. 

(^U^t aw9d/), i^aju na^, i,y^ il 
2tiib^ (plur. sjUJ^ «tts&). Dis- 
tingnished by an epithet 




fipitomOy #• 

j\,ac^\ Miudr, 

Epitomise, r.yitfijwi ikhUuar. 
Epitomiser, t. jOvx^ muihUuir, 

^Kxsh, epocha, ^j^ idrikh (plor. 
^j^y tawdrikh). 

Equal (resembling, capable of oom- 
parison), i^Uu^ miMdtrf ,^5^UM:^ 
mutidtoi ; (uniform), JU-^Lk« 
mtf^dMl; (impartial),^j0^!^l£L 
khdU al ffharad ; (indifferent as to 
choice), ^Is^ mukhayyar. 

Equal, <. (of the same age, rank, 
etc.), jjJ^ larin. Without an 
equal, JI^l^^ 3t7d miBdl, Above 
the heads of his equals, ^Le 
j^|/l^(jkWjM ^M rUs al ahrdn. 

Equal, V. (make equal), ,^jLs<dfra' ; 
(to be or become equal, v/^1«m3 
todu^a' .' To equal or compensate 
fully, Jli kdfa\ v/jlsr yaw'. 
To equal, equalize (make equal), 

Equality, ifljLyb^ mtMdti^d^, ^y*^ 
iatwiyat; (of the same dignity, 
age, etc.), A,a,jUx< muldhakat, 

Equally, ZjjmJI^Jx ^oiis' awaiwiyat, 

Equation, j\jLm»^ Miifatpdl. See 

Equator, t. \^\L;. iW^ ml uimd. 

Equatoriali \j i Ji\]a^(>^ ^j m ;< 
ffumtAi Uihait al ittimd^ 

Equerry, j^l^^t amir mtkttr. 

Equestrian (belonging to hofseman- 
ship)| <J^^^ ihayydh; (mounted 
on horseback), ixj^*^ rdUb. 

Equilateral, ^Lii\i^j:.M*^ mmUmH 
al adid^, cljlf ^^Lm::^ wirfgidirff 
al adld^. 

Equilibrate, J«xe ^addah 

EquiHbrium, equilibration, JiJ-J 
to^<^/, Jlj&fit »cYute/, ^jLm 
mu^ddalat, ^j\^ «iiiicFda«iM<. 

Equinoctial or equinox, «. Jf JocI 

The equinoctial line, J\jc«Uu^ 

too/ 9kiAdr. The vemal equinos, 
^J\J\s:jii\ al i^iddl mra- 
h\^. The autumnal eqoinox, 
^^t Jtja«S\ dl i^Uidl d 

Equip,^^ kaddatf J^B^ foUoL 

To equip or arm, J^ foflU. To 
equip a fleet, i,^^y^9^i>- jahkoM 




Equipage (trtin^ retinae), ^^j 

Equipage, s. (oaniage), ^^ ^aha, 
Iqnipme&ty d^f JJ iaddruk. 
Sqidpoiae, eqniponderanoe, JlJjU^ 

wm^ddahi* Bee Eqailibrium. 
Equipolleiioe, J^Jfl^rHlify Hwat 

«/ mu^ddalat. [mufmf. 

Equitable, JjLc i^Ml, j-Qxti;^ 

Equitably, ^f«X-icj hi ^addlat, 

cjl^b Msaicdh. 
Equity, il\jx> -^addlat, Jj^ ^adl, 

ujLo}) imdf. 
Equivalence. See EquipoUence. 
Equivalent, J jU^ mu^dil, t^^UMi^ 

iNCfdtrf. An Equivalent, ^^ 

^fwad. To give an equivalent, 

^Jb ^mawad. 
Equivocal, Af«^ wM^^Mrt, j;1m 

wm§UaL [mubham. 

Equivocally, ^»f».«^^^ hi wqfhin 
Equivocation, equivocalneas, vlX^ 

Equivocate, v. cJS^ hhada^ 
In, ^jl3 MriM. See Epoch. 
ftadicMite^ «. ^ii kala^, cj3 imm^. 
Indicated, f j/-^>^ moiisa^, t./^^^^ 
MiMtaa^, J^Ljum^ mtM^fn/, 

SradieatioD, JIa'mM isMil. 

Erased, ^js^ wmmJd. [miwiU. 
Eraaement, ^s^ mah% ^ja\j^\ 
Ere, JJI hdbL See Before, sooner. 

Ere long, ^^^^y^j^ ^ karih. 
Erect, V. c_..%.^ immo^. 
Erect, aJ[U kdlm, i^yai^ ffumtAi, 

Erection, t^^^n) nosh, ^j raf^. 
Eremite, t. ^^L^i «dyf%. See 

Hermit. — Eremetical. See Soli- 
Ermine, t. c^l^Li »n^dh. [tary. 
Erode, r. See Corrode, etc. 
Err, V. (make mistakes), lalii ^M!^^, 

Jj tall, f^ datt. [ddfe^. 

Errant, erratic, JL^ ddU, ^L^ 
Erroneous, kli ghdlat, \jakwan. 
Erroneously, ILLc ghaiatan, \<j^ 
Error, kli ghalai, ^ 9dh% IksL 

i^Aa^d. [before, till. 

Erst. See First, once, formerly, 
Erudition, Jlc ^f7m, ^^JjO ta^m, 

tm^o\ adab. 
Eruption '(hostile excursion), ^j[/^ 

khurHjt (^y^ hujum. 
Erysipelas, ^ Aomil, ^^ humrat. 

See St. Anthony's fire. 
Escape, jl^^dr, i\sf:^ tiaf&t. 
Escape, i^. aJ^\ inhaum, ji farr. 

To escape {or be exempted), Ju 

ESS 408 B8T 

E«Aew,r. See AToid, fly. Ann. | E-eatWly. cy\i5V »*•««• 

EBCort, i./i- ghafar. See Convoy 

To escort, lail>- ^/<wi. 
Efloritoire, «. <fciiLlj ha%Udkhta. 
Especial, ^j-^»fi5^ hhwiUH. See 

Principal, chief, special. 
EBpeciaUy,^U^-^i^ hImiUan, ^ 

^yaa^\ ^dU (d JAusUs, 
Espouse, V. (wed), ^jjj-f tMawwqf. 
Espy, I?, (see at a distance), (^/•«**fl^ 
toyowo*. l^:r^^ imtahan. 

Essay, v. (to make an experiment). 

Essay, «. J^ M •H^ ^^^^ •^^ 
hud; (experiment), A-J^—a^ 

iajribat, J^-^^ mtihdn; (of 

metals), J^ ^tfor ; (treatise), 

2Ld; rasdiat. 

Essence, ti^^i sa^, y>^ jawhar, 

MjtJu nafs; (of a composition), 

i^lLfi^ khuldsat, JJuJJ i«J(fo^. 

The essence of any business or 

thing, ^!l^(^-i-3 no/i fl/ amr. 

Essence (perfume), jJ^a-c ^a^. 

The essence or attar of roses, 

t^jM^ ^ter ahpord. To essence, 


Bvential, J\j sa«, ^j^yrJ^^^^' 
^ ij^^ ^'^^ (necessary), s&^jj/^ 

Easoine or esaoign (legal exooae), 

Establish, v. (settle firmly), ^/^ 
makk(m,J/ karrar, v-^^ !•«••*# 
^ ^oj^ofi. To estaWiah pewe, 

Established, J^-J^-^ 

i__*mr*'^ mansnh, 

^oM, J^S*^ ma^Hd. 
Establishment, fX3 hySLm, UjI 

fiwAd, v--^ ««rft», <^V5 ««*«*5 
(form, model), ^^^^ *«•*»> 
J i^a fori * ; (foundation), 

Estate (state, the public), j^f*^ 
jamHr ; (condition of life), J W 
Ad?; (fortune, possession), JU 
mal (plur. J^^^— •^ amwdl). A 
hereditary estate, ci^^^;;^* wWf. 
A landed estate, ^Ufi ^fkdr (pL 
d^^^lifr ^oidrdO. Estate (rank, 
quality), i-t^j^ martahai, iJji 



* !• 

mamalat, ^j^ darafat, 
Esteem, v. (prize, rate lugh),jA 

Esteem,jL;Lft\ t^^t&fir, iUjr»^4|rt 

^5/^^ tA^trfim, j»J^ iabim. 
Estimable, esteemed, J-iJ^ t«^ 



.1^ Bdkib i^Hbdr, 

WyLjy^ <» Li^ sdhib iahrimf 

jfiJt^ mu^faimr, [hauah. 

Itfmate, 9. ^;'«^ UiMimaii, j^kmicw 

Ertimatft, estamatum (oompatation), 

^gfsAa^ takkKOny ^^LA»- Mdi; 

(▼alne), 4«J Jtono^. Estimatioii 

(opinion), ^j sa^m; (regard, 

honoar), jLi:;^! i^if^r. 

Bitiiiiatedy ii^jMbcr* mn^i, J^ Jm^ 

btrange, r. (keep at a distance), 
Bfte., et caetera, 2r^j waghayrahoy 

tfo^ ^itf, ^\ abbrev. of »/^U^ 
•V akhrihi. 
Eternal, i/J^f o^oilry <^>^ ^'^f^'* 
waihady ^1 J ddym, i^S^j^ Bar- 
nail, (JU idifcf, vU idyim; 
(without beginning), Jjl. Life 

eternal, JbJjJUL^^ alhay&t al 
ItenMllj, IjuI dbadamy ^^^\i^} 

Itenuty, fiJjt ahadiyat; (without 
beginning), l^j\ mdUyat ; (with- 
out end), Si\ ubdy h^\ ahMyat. 
To all eternity, J^^l J\ Oa' lahad. 

tnan all eternity, Jj^l!^ min 
al mal. 

Eternise, v» or etemali^, jJI Mad. 
Ether, \jJb hawd, ^Iclili /a2a£ 

d^ir. [hawdy. 

Ethereal, ^^^Um) iomdwHf 4/^^-^ 
Etymology, ^L4K)1 J^l aalalkalimai, 

jfU^^l iiMikdi. Etymologioal, 

Evaooate, «• ilJ farrayh. To 

eracnate (by a porgatiTe), ^Ub 

^jU'yi ^afaj. Ua' al khdrif; 

(by vomit), fr^i^it utafragK 

Evacuation, ^^ ^t;/V^A, ^uLir 

takMiyat. Evacuation (by vomit), 

qLaimaI ttU/rdgh, [deceive. 

Evade, 1^. See Elude, escape, avoid, 

Evangelical, _JLart tnfik. An 

evangelist, ^^i^^a^ iii/ift. The 

evangelists (gospel), ij^^'i\(^\s^ 

kUdh ul infU. Evangelism (the 

publication of the gospel), ^Uo 

Jt^i\ Uih&rat ul 4nfil. [%d'll 

Evanescent, evanid, vi^i fdnl, JjIj 

Evanish, v. ^<«ii gimmliy 4-jLi 

gh&h. See YanisL 
Evaporate, r. Ju(«dJ Aua^^oi^, 
Evaporation, jlaC i«^r, JujmI 

Evasion (excuse), j\dss\ i^u&r; 

(artifice), Um^ MkL 
Eucharist, t. ^J^t^Lj^AJt al 

hiridn al ma k ad d a u 




Eaolid,(jMJu]il. Euclid's ElemeotB, 

Eve, even. See Evening.— Eve 
(proper name), \^ hawwd. 

Even (level), ^^^luu::^ muUdwlf 
i^j2m«^ mustawl; (placid, even 
tempered), ^L> idkin; (alike), 
J jU^ mu^dU, ^luA.^ miuhdhih. 

Even, adv, Li^l aydan. 

Evening, Lu^ maid, ^UwLr. ^hiyat 
(plur. d^LjLc ^aiA^S^). In the 
evening, eventide, L*^lc:^^ 

Evenly (equally), JIjljil^Lj hi 
i^id&ly byuMb/t mwtawiyan. 

Evenness, Ij ". .«il M^itrd ; (im- 
partiality), ^1«X£ ^iddlat, uJLajl 

Events «. (incident), jli^l i^^f/<3it 
(plur. ci^UUJi itU/dkdt), Imj]^ 
wdhi^tf <Ujl»- hddi8at, ^j^ 
^ridy (consequence), 4,.;i,iiLg 
^Sihii^^, A^pJ natljat. 

Eventful, ^ muhim^ CL^UliJflt^ 
^ Jii! min alittifdkdt al gharibaU 

Eventual, ^y^^ itttfdhi, ^J^s- 

Eventually, \i\iu\ ittifdhan, ^^ 
jUjJf huoajh al ittifdl. 

Ever, for ever (at all times), AiV^ ^^^ J 
dayim aJ ayiydm, \aj} J dayman. 

Evergreen. ^L^ *«y ^^. 
Everlasting, c/J^1 o^oi^ ^jt oMft, 
tjjl>- khdUd, j^Aj ddym, ^^X*^ 

Everlastingly, Uj^^ <{a5f»Mii| \j^\ 
ahadan. See Eternally. 

Ever-living, fJLiy.A^^^ hof Id 

Every, J^ W. Every one, J^ 
\^ kol wdhid* Every tim^ 
i^fj^ kol wakt. On eveiy 
part, in every part, c^ls^JC 
hikoljdnib. Every hour, IcLi J^ 
kol 8d^t, Every year, Xm.iJ^ 
kol Banat, Every man, J^J^ 
^/ rq^/. Every woman, if K^l J^ 
kol amraat. He put every enemy 

to the sword, ^^tjuiSi J:J kaUd 
al ^d kollahwn. 

Evict (dispossess legally), ^ - ^ . It 
c jJj^\) asbat btl $har^ 

Evidence (testimony) ^-^^ | y- 
shahddat ; (apparency, manifesta- 
tion), j\^\ izhdr, ^^Lj ^d% 

ness), JJbLl shdhid. To give 

evidence, Jkf^ shehed. 
Evidence, v. (give testimony), Jkf& 

ahehed; (shew),^;^! Mhar, 
Evident, />\fe «dAtr, ^1^ u^itA, 

,^^ aoriA, ^^^-^ mtf^ojiyafi, -btSI 




hfA,j»,\) iakir. An evident rea- 
mii proof 9r demoiiBtzBtion), 4:mJ 
liyyuM^ (pliir. 4::i^l4; hayyiii&t\ 
To make evidenti^^^ m^. 

Ifil, M{f . ^Jj rail, Ousli y&#»ic^y 

Efily ''^ t^tfrr. An eril (mis- 
fHrtmie), h hold, Zjb\j ddhiyat, 
iiM^ miuMuU ; (a disease), ^jOj^ 
mmrad. The king's evil, ^IS^ 


Sfince, «. l:uwjI mIhU. See Prove, 

show. [praise. 

Eology, ^Ob« jiuM^A. See Encomium, 
Bonuch, ^^eosw ib^l (plor. ^L.dfiL 

Uniydii, ^<^\^ tawdthi, 
Erolye, 9. (Jio /ai^. [/o^iln. 

Iqkhorbiam (a gum), ^^^y far" 
Bophrates, i\jkl\ al/ardh. 
^bttopean, ^jsrj3\ afranjl. latwad. 
Eazine (sea), JyJj^ hahr al 
Bwe, t. A>»;>f ^AoHaifto^. 
Ewer, %. (jiji\ ihrik. 
Exact Qnst, tme, aocorate), ^^^^ 

tahlh, ]ff^00a^ madhm. 
Exact, 9. i^Alff tdlabf ajI kuam. 

To exact a debt, ^J<^J^ iaiah 

Kxactea, ^^disu^ muKUm 

Exactor, t. (^^U Idhid. The 
exactor of souls (the angel of 
death), ^^j^f ^li kdhidd arwdh 

Exaction, L]Ux« mutdlabat, c— Jib 
^o/o^, (,aj\ (7 ^oi^A/ (pi. (^10 
takdUf). Extraordinary or op- 
pressiye exactions, LScx-i^^Mj 
takdUf ^nfyat, LijC(^\ij 
tdkdUf ^fiyai. 

Exactly, isi^JC) hihol $dhhat, J6 
^J Inkol dikiai. 

Exactness, iss^ lahhaL 

Exaggerate, v. fia£> ^auam, ^\) 
h&lagh. [mubdlaghat. 

Exaggeration, laf^ taJHt, iUL« 

Exalt, f^. Ja£ ^assam, mjs^ fakhkham. 

Exalted, 9^j^ fnarfa^ t*?^ 
murtafi^ c^^-^uL.^ musharraf. 
Exalted in dignity, jjill^U 
^dU al kadr, (•U^l^U ^dll at 
fnakdm, ^^LuJMU ^dft MA«^n. 

Exaltation, cUjj^ irti/d^ inij 

Examen,6xamination,^;M;^ ^«I^A, 

tmtihdn, c^ls^l ibtihd$fj{J^\ 
Examine, v. ^^og? /okot, ^-^^sfiwA 




iiUlMar. To •zamine by in- 
terrogationy A|ir>-»1 ittafkam. 
Examined, ^js^ mafhiU, ^J»^su9 
mmftUath, Jh-A-c^ fmihakkak, 

Examiner, t. examinator, iJlSs 

mufaUiik, ^^a»^\i fahii, 
Example, a. Jt^ nuual (plur. !h^\ 
anuOat), iir^ mukhat (plur. ^ 
nuaath), ijyo Hirat, J^\ ail; 
(applied to ponishment), 5jf^ 
^tbrattan; (a person proposed as a 
model), SjjJ kadwaU To be 
punished as an example, ^jOtAij 
(jmUJ ij^ tdkOios ^atan lU 
nd8. For example, ji2L« tnoiokm. 

Exasperate, i^. i^Ut aghdg, L^^»Ar\ 

Exasperation, ^J»iiy^ tahudUh. 
Excavate, v, (to make hollow), 

%^y>- jawwaff yL>^ hafar. 
Excavation, jUjl^-! Mifdr, •&>. 

hafar, ujb^afT tqfwlf. 
Exceed, v. (go beyond boonds), 

j^laT tqfdwasL, jJ kebsr, Jae. 

Exceeding, |Kir^ \gji^ mufrit. An 

exceeding, J^lfi^ mutajdunm. 
Exceeding, exceedingly, ado, \j^ 
^asiran, iSe^ /Man. Exoeed- 

ingly noxioas, jja^\jt&S tmUr 

Exoell, V. gj^^JJ flak ^ 
Exoellenoe, exoellenoy, J»ai >U( 

iL^/«ft« (pL JiUi A*vfl)^ 

^y^kam&l. HisExcellflni^at 
Pasha» UiU\i(jlM M^dM d 

Excellent, J^U fidil, UljjJ^ 
tAori^ i^jLx^ mmetf. 

ExoellenUy, Ji^ J^ MM fiO, 
^J^l JUij UkamOlalmmrUUl 
Words excellently anranged, fHi 
f}^1\yb\i ialdmbdhir almHOm. 

Except, 1^. ^^j>tSmA utamuf. 

Except, excepting, 4^^ aiwtfpjgi 

lllc^ Mshd. 
Excepted, .. ; ^ 

Exception, Liil^I Utifud. Witbottk 
exception, l:»2ii««sl)b MZd %9iimA* 

Exceptionable, \ ; \ ^wiH^^^Cm 
mtufiifcm a/ w^mm^. 

Excess (snperfloity), i^^lj wiydiai^ 
^jL2L« tnubdlaghat, ]ffji fmni^ 
Wj\ ifrdt, iji ioirat; (inten- 
perance), J^jclc^Ujlc ^fuUmd 
utiddl ; (violence of paanim)| 
kmm'^tnr- ghadah. 





BzoeaiiTe love, ]p\j3\ 

bf, sJ\jyfawk al hadd, 

\ffwBik aL ^dai, 

, V. Jjj ladal, Jjus*^! 


y ZJjL^ mubddalai, JjJ 

jj Ju3 tabdilf u^y^ ^awad. 
ige ar difference of moneys 
ri. An exchange (where 
ate meet), .|jb laoAr. A 

letter of exchange> ^dflCiL^ 
, ll\^ hawdlat, ^uJ^ 

df J^J^ mahdiH. 

T, t. J^lf^ muhddU; (a 

changer), ^\^ $arrdf. 

cii^ harrak, ^ kayyaj, 

harrad. To excite a ta- 

r disturbance, d:cJi\^j 


it, ^j^j.^ tahrid, 

iXfi idrikh* 

f • ^Ltf <dA, 

Excluded, |«jiy>^ mdhriUn. 

Exdnflioni ^^ man^ [miukhimM. 

Exdosiye, exdasiyelyi ^jaa^^o^ 

Excommnnioate, i^. a^^ haram* 

Excommunication, aj^^ harm. See 

Excoriate, yuJ taahskar. 

Excoriation, jmA^j takahir, J^ 

salkh, 'J^ sdlakh. [munkoiMr. 

Excoriated, ^^Luw« nutiliM^jwjL^ 

Excrement (dung), ^v— :>>* hhard^ 


Excrescence, $. aj^ toaram. 

Excruciate, v. i^Se- ^asatab. 

Exculpate, r* ^^<^ if*fi^ ^^ 
^La idmah. 

Excursion (for pleasure), jr^jj 
datffra, A hostile excursion, hj\c 
ghdra (plur. iZj\j\^ glUlrd^). 
To make a hostile excursion, 
,J-6*;li J^ ^amdl gh&ra ^M. 

Excusable, j^y^ mo^sflr, ^^\^ 
jjuiSl wdjQ) al ^tar, c^^^^ru*^ 
j\Ssx!i\ mmtawjih al t^indr. 

Excuse, s.jJ^ ^UMr,j\Ss^\ i^trndrp 
ijijt^ ma^araL A Mvolous cr 

weak excuse, J)jO ta^aUal. By 
way of excuse, Jlicltj;j^ hi 
tank al ta^aUal. Worthy of ex- 
cuse, J jJL* mu^tar. [wfak ^oii* 
Excuse, V. ^i-ft («MMr«. y;f^^ 



Excuaed, j|^«jk«^ ma^ifir. 

Excnser, $. (maker of apologies), 
jSsjL^ mu^Uuir; (a pardoner of 
offences), ^Ly^^ musSmth. 

Execrable, »^J^ fnakrnh, ^J^karih, 
Execrate, v. ^ la^an. [la^nat. 
Execration, 9\Sz^\ uiikrdh, ^ix] 
Execute, t;. (perform), j^ tammam. 
To execute a criminal, Jsj taial. 

Execution (performance), Jl^ ^amal, 
\j>-\ ijrd. To put in execution, 
t^j^^ afra\ To put the laws 
into execution, j;k.!|^\ yrd al 
hak. The execution of a criminal, 
u^iLi!! JiiS iatl (d mwtnib. 

Executioner, $. Si^jaUdd* 

Executive, ^-^ ^antaft. The 
executive power, >»Ul>-j(t«XA:^ 
fnanfad al ahkdm. 

Executor, J^U ^dmt7. The executor 
of commands, ALJl>-j(ljui..:k.i^ 
munaffid al ahkdm. The executor 
of a last wiU, JL^jJl J^J-j:^ 
uhM ^aU al wasiyat. 

Exemplar, %, ^\ asl, d.i'^ tuukhat. 

Ezemplarily, ij^ ^ibratan, J^^, 

jfSJU hi wapUn yu^tahar, 
Exemplariness. See Piety, probity. 
Exemplary, 2r^ ^thraian, i^^^^y 

f^l ma/a al ^Orat. 

Exemplification. See Copy, tran- 
script, illustration. 

Exemplify, v. (illustrate by ex- 
ample), JL« moMo/, Jll^fc,.^ 
darah amtdl, f^^\Oj^\ morai 

Exempt, r. ^J^\ ^\^^' 
Exempt, exempted, ^k 

^011. To be exempted from publiD 
burdens, (^jLll» (t Jl^^uJL,iu 
L^j^\ mu^f min atUdbdltfd 

Exemption, irliU^ mu^fdt. 

Exequies. See Obsequies, ftinenl 

Exercise, JUjc^^ isti^mdl, ^^il^ 
ihuyhl, ^^j riyddat, imk^A^ 
mumdrasat, mAju ta^m; (wod^ 
labour, exertion), J^ ^amal, Aic«# 
san^t, _)uj M^f ; (recreatioD)| 
^jS3 tafarruj. Literary exeroisey 
A^LnJ ta^km, (jMjJ dari, A 
place for gymnastic ezeroisesi 
^\ju.^ mtddn (plur. ^oL^ 

Exercise, v, ,Ja>iic^\ itta^wkU. To 
exercise authority, J^ habm, 
y,Mi3 tasallat To exerdse iB 
military art or manceuyres, ijf 
jiJju ^Hkd ia^lim. To exeraiae 






one's-fldf in anythingi {j»*J^ 
MdfWf . To ezendBe 9r take ezer- 
dae (on foot), ^J^^ tamashih^. 
Kant, V, (endeayonr), J^f^ljJ^ 

Kzotiony ^JL^ M^f, >H^ j^f^f 

Exhalation, ezhalement, ^L.a^ 
idUdr. The exhalation from 
waterlx^, etc., USI^Ukr hakhdr 
idwtd. [mifinaho hukhdr. 

Exhale, v. jL,flc;«U,;.^^Ug ^'^ 

Xxhaoat, v. <— ^ mro/', Jlaj^ ofi/bJ. 

Bxhanated, ^^ ^^^ ; (poor, 
pemtilesa), ^/Ji^ mtf/Iw, aJj 

Kzfaibit, P»j^\ tmkar, fjOjS. ^ad, 
Idiibition, j\^\ i%hdr, i^^sLJi 

Ukdim, {jo]j^\ i^rdd. 
SshilBrate, v. ^(^A ihtahty, jmj\ 

wmmr. Exhilaration, -yi fcuraky 

Exhort, Mf. IJ nabbah, kc^j wa^a^ 

^ WwMMv* 

Exhortation, A^^u^ naAhat, ^"^ 
iJacy maw^OMot (plur. k^ ^^ 

Exigence, exigency, ij^j^ darlkratf 
JiLfUJl a^i»f ^ yfef^r. The I 

SOS £X0 

exigency of the occasion, time 
and place, i^yLj\jfJ>sif^\\0aJ:j\ 
^L«^1j ikiidd al mahaH wal 
fitraat waoMmdn. On account 
of the exigency of the afiair, 
U:Jl^lu.....»^ hoBob id iktidd, 
^L::;>-^U«Xftj hikadar ul Miydj, 

Exile, ^^ naft. 

Exile, s. yJ^^^ tnanfa\ 

Exile, 9. _iJ no/a', «3^ faroi^. 
Exiled, ^J:^ manfi. 

Existence, O^j wujikd. 

Existent, existing, ^^y tnauy'ild, 
^\^ kdf/tn. Not existing, ^^ 
O^^y ghMfr mawfad. Self- 
existing, or necessarily-existing 
(one of the attributes of Omnipo- 
tence), J^yic^^^^-lj wdjib al 

Exit. See Departure, recess. 
Exodus, ^^ja^\jLa nfr al khurHj. 
Exonerate, v. J^^SAp nasaal al 

Exorbitance, exorbitancy, ^^r^^ 

4xk^1^ al khurnj ^on al hadd. 
Exorbitant (enormous in size), 

jJ^l^-rjlsL iMrif ^«n al hadd. 

Oxorbitantly,4xLl ^^jU- ^ ^^ 

h* naiff^n khdrj ^n al had. 
Exorcise, r. ^le>4^Je. ^auam ^ala\ 
Exerciser, exoroiat, «. »<ii.J5ii "hm^ 


wnutUkrim. Exoroiiiii, s^jmju 

Ezordium, ^tjt> Mdjai, i^iLt 

muhaidmnat. \jkmih. 

Ezotio, , ^^,j>f*A mfuAn, s^^ J, 

Expand, o. (open, spread), «X« mad^ 

Expanded, L^mm^ mobfi^, \j^x/^ 

Expan8e,expannon, kuj &mI, j1 Jo^l 

imtiddd. The expanse or apace 

between heaven and e9rih,^jaw. 
Expansibility, kuJl^UUl imkdnal 

hast [hatt 

Expansible, \aMJ\^jLk^ mumkin al 
Expansive, iXL4j yunUad. 
Expatiate, ^^^^uLJIJjt tawtffoi al 

shark. To expatiate npon, J«ai 

Expect, r. ^^IkOt tpitaor, c^^ 

taraikab, ^y tawakka^ ^J 

Expectant, expecter,^;!^!;^ mtififaiir. 

Expectation, expeotanc] 
«n^Mdr, Ju^ ^oMtii. Without 
expectation, jUoijI^jj Mton 

Expectedy^^ltfjMt mmdoM/f. 

^pedimoa, ezpedimoiy, ij%j^ 

inriirat, ZiL^ %ii»<i 
A«fl«i| SJyrj iPifMi 

Eipedian^ JjJ toyO^ ^^ 

It is not expedient, (jjjjj^ gfiagff 
Idffik. Anexpedi0nt,^«)JMhit 

r^ t^' ^V ^'^ ^^ '^ 

expedient, jf^l Idk, k-^^^j Myii 
Expediently, La^jI lAylam, l^t^ 

Expedite, «. ^^jbP- ^'al, c^t lunsti 

(to despatch), J^\ orso/. 
Expedition (haste), d^ swr^if, 

JLjr«^\ M^-^d/; (a joimuv), 

jLa safar. A warlike expedittos^ 

jLa safar; (against infideb), iAp^ 

jihdd. A general expeditioii of Ae 

nobles, /«^eA3 nafir ^m. To go 

on an expedition, ^^LJI^Jli^A^ 

^aaam ^M assafar. 

Expeditious (expedite), ^^yBp' ^af§L 

Expeditiously, expeditely, JCj 

JUr«^l hiM isU^ah ^^\^ 

^' al ^aiat. [akhraj. 

Expel, V. ^ J dafa^ Jj rod, ^j^\ 

Expend, V. ^^ khanif\ i_^ - 

saraf, J«3j ioso/, j;aJ1 mtfak. 

To ex^«ad to the utmott of one's 



IW eipend proftiMly» Uiil? M(»/| 

Ufnm, ^j^ hkmjy d^ wr/, 
I^enBiYe (extraTagaiit)i uJ^«a^ 

hpmifrivenflBs (oostlinesB), 'rj^ 
hhmj\ (extraTagaiice)y ujilj ialf. 

imiihdn, ij^S^ khthrat. 

Biperiflnoed (akilM by practice), 

wdsOf^j^ khaHr. 
Xiperimenty «. ^l^ut inUihdn, 

T9 make an experiment, ^^^^^t 

K^erimental (belonging to experi- 

aent), ci^-^^^ mtihdnU 
Biparimentally, ij» <-JlC^ hikol 

UArat, ^[^^\Ap^y hi tcqfh al 

Ijqwrtlyy ijm^J^^ hikol hhibrat, 
Szpertneai, ij\ h n) shatdrat, 

Expiate, v.yic^ igUgyar. 

Expiation, i^J da^ai, ij\iikafilnsL 

Expiatory, t^j\ijc^\ iiUghfOH. 

Expiration (condoBion of any 
limited time), if J^j1\aUj tamAm 
al wa^datf lfJ\ int%h& \ (the last ' 
l>'eath), i^*i\ alafl; (respira- 
tion), ^jttMJ tanajfiu. 

Expire (breathe the last), ^jjii Ju 
mdiam arrawh ; (to breathe oat), 
^/*mj tanaffat; (to c(Hiolade, to 
be ended), ,^!^«*«*,'. 

Explain, v,ju*j fassar, ^jJ^ sharah, 
Explained, -.^^L* moihrnh, jmi^ 
mufassar. In the manner ex- 
plained, ^jj^^Mt^1Jlj„;,4ili hU 
mamodl al nuuhrnh. It cannot 
be explained, J j m,iri\^jLik^j^ 
ghayr mtmkin <U ta^lr, juJul^ 
Idytttafauar, Clearly explained, 

Explanation, ^Ij-i haydn, ^jJL 
iharh (plor. ^^j^ ihurUhXj^kMJi 
tafATij0^ ta^r. Explanation 
of dreams, ^j^l/ff"? ta^hir al 
rHyd^ CL^UU^I^^mauJi tafar dl 

Explanatory, explicative, i^gj^^Jo 

Expletive, v. (superfluous word). 

Explicable, explainable^ ^^^^JL^iw* 
j^^mSLsi\ munikin aUafslr, (JjIS 
^j^\ ^M oihtharh. 

Explication. See Explanation. 

Ezplioity jJb^ tdhir, fCj^ sarih, 
^\y todHh, 

Explicitiy, j^U? tdhiran, \a^^ 

Exploit, «. Cp-^^bi^LJI oMO^o^ 

Explore, v. ^^oinT' tafOsscLi. 

Explored. See Examined. — Ex- 
plorement, exploration. See 
Search, trial. — An explorer, 
explorator. See Examiner. 

E:q>losion, v, ajIi^j tatddum. 

Export, V. j1-J1^1J\^1J-aJ 

^U>- ils^f nakalamw&l Ua* (d hildd 

- *j 

al hharjiyaU 

Exportation, J^\A\^]\y.'i\^JsS^ 
<L.i>-.«v,'>"^l ikhrdj al amwdl Ha* 
al hildd al ajnahiyat 

Expose (lay open), j^\ tmhar, ^x- 
^arad. To expose to the sun, 
^jttAJU shammas. To expose to 
danger, j h^^^Oyg ^ad 1(1 
hhatar. To expose one*8-self to 
danger, Jt,Aw_A.v»j^L£»> khdtar 
itna/nho. To expose one's lifo 

508 SXP 

in the semoe of God, 43U>-|»Jul 
^IJujlcI hMM ha^dUkd tt 
khiimai aUak. To expose to 
infamy (to revile), ,^^ fadttk. 

Exposed, ^x^ ma^r^j zPJ^ 
moMhrHh. Exposed to the ioi, 
^jmAuC*.^ nmtathatnmaa. 

Exposition (explanation), d^L^ 
hikdffoi, ^Ju» haydn^jsi^ Ui^i 
-LsjI Iddh^ ^jJ^ iharh, y^ 
tahf^f yjOjC^ ^d. 

Expositor, «. •^L& 9hdrikt jiLim 
mufoiiir. [mUcW. 

Expo6tulate,^XuJ taihaUa\^SsJU\ 

Expostulation, \^J da^d, %^^ 
da^wa\ c|p nkd^ L^L^ mumd" 
u^at, uJlifi^l ikhiOdf, L\L& 
tMkdyat, \^LL shakwd, 

Expostulator, s. ^JcJ^ intftUdb, 
cjUm* mundsd^. 

Exposure (disclosure), j\^\ uAdr, 
luJ\ ifshd. [interpret 

Expound,^^ foMor. See Explaia, 

Express, v. (by language, eto.), 
kfi! fo/os, ^^ sharak,^jl} hmf i^t 
^j rakamf v.*ft-«^j wa$a/; (to 
squeeze), yioe ^omt. 

Express (clear, plain), jJb^ idMr, 
^jJLn mtfiayym ; (for a particular 
purpose), ^Juaiu hika9din. 

Express, $, (messenger), ^Li id^l. 







EXQ 509 

(pronoonoed), ]^yt 

EzproBBiUe (that may be attered), 
)^i\jytdfn; (that maj be squeezed 
oat), J.MI fu^ar. 

B]qpre98iGn (by language, eto,), laSj 
itOiffiu, IaaJ lafk, lisdJ lafiai; 
(squeezing), ji^oosu ta^r. The 
expreedon and signifioationi lai] 

B]qpra8Biye, ^Ja&i laj%l\ (deaorip- 

tive), ^J^^ watfl. 
EzpraBBiv^, UiaJ hfium. 
EzprazBiTeneBs, aKJUJJ hOwat al 

hiiam^ t^J^J\i^ kawai al waaf, 

cJLvf itiidf. 
Bzpreflsly, Ur^ sar^Aan. 
Emulsion, ^js^\ ikhrdf, djb tard, 

Jj rod, ^ J daf^ 
Ezpulnve, ^b ddfi^. The ez- 

pulaiye power, ^jJliJlS Hwat 

Bzpnnge,9. u.^ ht^, ^jS^ moM. 

Exquisite, i- fljh l Xd^/, ^^^u^ ni;/t«, 
^ Jj dodl^. Of exquisite beauty, 
JUs^l^jj UdH^ offtrndl. The 
meet exquisite part of anything, 
£JU. khuldHa, ij\Aj naidwat. 
Exquisite things, (jmjUi nafdffeB. 

Exquisitely, ^jmJuoyj hinaw^n 


ExquisitenesB, iJ^iu nafiUaif ii^ 

Extant (remaining, not annihilated)^ 
(jb hdhi. Projecting, J^Ij hdrist. 

Extempore, extemporal, extempo^ 
rally, extemporaneous, extempo- 
rary, ^<fJ JJ hadihl. An extem- 
pore speech, J^j^\ tktirdh. 

Extend, v. ^po tawwal, J^^ mad^ 

LwwJ htuat. To extend the limits 

or territory, jlLJlw^ij tooMa^ 

Extended, extensive, Jj J^ mamd^, 
iiJ:^ wmaUadf )aZi^ mubatsatf 
^^^ UHuH^, V/^/^ ^arl<^. 

Extender, «. Jjl« mdd$d. 

Extendible, extensible, Jcj4J yunUad. 

Extensibility, extensibleness, i^ 
jIj&^^I kuwatal imtiddd. 

Extension, extensiveness, extent, 


Extenuate, v, (attenuate, make thin, 
lean, or small), u^i^l■^ hhaffaf^ 
^Q ffg^ fuiAJ^f, j;3j raUcak ; (to 
palliate), 1^ ^(OBor. [<^l/* 

Extenuated, ^g jn^ noAl/*, 

Extenuation, ^^« rikkaif 
du^; (palliation), j«X» ^tor, 

Exterior, ^U? zdMr, ^V:^ UiiOiT^ 




The eztorior part, i^UaJI*;^) 
MUHrai audkirat. 
Eztarminate, v. J.^LL.rft iitdtal, 

Extennination, JLo^l M<ifd( 

Ezterminator, t. Ji^\:umi^ mmUUiL 

External. See Exterior, oatward. 

Externally, ^jy^ sUraUm, l^U? 

Extincty MiXMX^ mun^udim, ^J^ 

tnutfl, l^aL:^ muntafi, ^Vifl'.^ 

Extinction, extinguishment, UJ9I 

Extinguish. ^ tafa'. To extin- 

guish (annihilate), ^jS^ maha\ 

Extingoishable, ^J^^ yuntafi. 

Extinguished, ^J^ mutfi, ^^aL:^ 
mufUafi, f\ysi\^ munkaH^, I* Juc^ 
mun^adm, /«>jOa^ ma^i^flm. 

Extinguisher, ^J^ tnutfl. 

Extirpate, v. ^li ifcafo^, J^^l^^l 

Extirpated, Ju^l.">^->< musidtal, 

Extirpating, ^Is ibd/»^. [ibi/^. 

Extirpation, JLo^l istttdl, ^j 
Extirpator, «. ^li kdh^. 
Extol, r. J^ hamad, ^ti^t madah, 
T4f extol iflUBoderately, ^^ 

^aJ»4 hikthfUmUk. T. 
extol one's-self, ^1 J^Jk^ MoioA 
sdMo. To extol ^one another, 
1j». jUJ Um&iak9k. 
Extolled, ^^^^^^^ m t mi ^k f i^miy^y 
maȴkf^ *iykiss^ makmlkd, j^Jm^ 

ExtoUer, $. ^U mOdik, -\X« 

maddah, u^^^ w&$if. 
Extort, V. |Jl0 sudm. To exttnt 

by torture, ^^>^JJJ^La^^^fll^^^ 

rama' ^aA/ a/ ^osd^. 

Extorted, |*^UiX« mas/fim. 

Extprtion, Ji^ %fdm. OppreenTe 

extortions, iA\ri^imi\Jj taidHf 

Extortioner, extorter, «. JU9 adMi^ 

Extract, v, ^j ^»a\ ittakkng; 

(select), v,,,^ic\jl intakhah, j\sSA 

ikhidr, [mukkitim'. 

Extract, t. ^^fir^ talkhU, 
Extracted, ^jS^^u^ nnuUMraft 

fjojir^^ mutalakhkhfu. 
Extraction (lineage), J^^l ad, J^J 

nasi, c^'^««».> fuuab, ^j**:^ jms. 
Extractor, 9, fjosr^ m ul a k hkk ii . 
Extrajudicial, i«.^\ c^y 4«il^ 

khOdf tartlh oihakari^at. 
Extramundane, ,c^j,c^ «% imibNi. 




Biinwfdiiitry, j^\j nOiir, -jU^ 

^h, k^^jc gharib. 


\, ijjlj nddtratf 

Extravaganoe, eztrayagantneas (sa- 
perflaoua expense), c^L.}! isrdf. 

Extravagant (in expense), j«V« 
muhur, i^j Mi,^ musrif'y (ir- 
regular), fj^LJJlcJlU^ lAOts/ 
41^ id^tdai. Extravagantly (ex- 
pensively), cJIJ J^ iiW ^a/a/ 

Extreme (last), ^T aJUiir, j^-oSl 

«ibia*; (greatest), Ja^] a^m, 

jS\ aJtbar ; (highest), ^Jsi\ a^la\ 

Extreme, extremity, JbU ghdyat, 
«X»> hadd. \jhdyat. 

Extremely, 4jvi ghdyat^ JuIju hi 

Extricate, v. J-LuL<J\J». ^ a/ 

Extrinaic, (,^11? tdhiri. Extrinsi- 

cally, ^jy-^ siiratan, I^Li? 
Exuberance, iji^ kan-aL 

Exuberant, ^jJuj^m*^ muiiayhnl, 

fjoAi filyed, j^ kaalr. 
Exult, r. Ji^ tahaliid. 
Exaltation, ^Ify) ihtiMdj, 

iahjat, JJl^ iahlll. With exul- 
tation, ^Ifix^lJ^ hikol ibtikdj. 

Exalting, adj. j^j m ^ moirilr, 
-tf#^ mmhtahij. 

Exultingly, ^Ifjl J^ hikol tUihdj, 

j»j»^JCj hikol sur&r, 

Eye» U^ t^y« (plttJ^- c;^ cayan) ; 
(or sight), j^ hoiar. A wink, 
glanoe, or signal with the eye, HUa 
yhamtat. In the twinkling of an 
eye,,^lij^4/l Urfaial^yin. 
As far as the eye can reach, « ji 
^^^lx« iU<^ mad al hasar. To 
look attentively or amorously 
through half-shut eyes, uJ^lak. 
^■g»tiH lahaz hitaraf al ^ayin. 
Squint-eyed, J^t ahwal (fern. 
'i^ hawld. One-eyed,j^l a^crar 
(fern. \j^ ^iprd). An eye for an 
eye (retaliation), ^^ Jjj^^^-j.^ 
^yin hadal ^ayin. The comer of 
the eye, ^J^^f»miJ0 tarafal ^ayin. 
The star called the Bull's eye or 
Aldabaran,^|^jJ! addabar&n. 

Eye, V. ^U? toGa^. 

Eye-baU or pupil, s, ^j^\Z^ hikhhik 
al ^aytW, ^^^1tijL>- hadakat al 
^in, ^Jt^^^J^^^ imdn al ^ayin. 

Eye-brow, c.j^c>-L>. hdjib. The 
hair of the eye-brow, L^JJb hudb. 

Eyeless, J^ a^mi . fki^lKm&. 




Eye-lid, «. ^jA>'jafn (plur. ^^Us^^ 

Eye-sight, ^j^ijaj noMrat ^aiyin. 
Eye-witness, «. JU^LSi 9h&hii (plur. 


Fable, «. 4.iaS ib«<aA, ^Ul^ hihdyat, 
J2^ »UMa/. Fables, Jll^l oiiMd/. 

Fable, r, *i^LjUL^ JId^ hdka' 

Fabled (celebrated in &ble), J^*^^ 
CL^UL^^Lifi muhka' ^anndho 
hakfy&t, t^ypy4 fnawsHf. [wdtl. 

Fabler, fabulist, $. ^J\^^ hakd- 

Fabricate,r.(con8truct),^^ ^mmar. 
Fabrication (constructing), ^^^^^ 

Fabric, s. Lj bind, ij^" ^mdrat. 

Fabulous, _^j wahmi, [hikdydt 

Fabulously, ^IJll^l j!w« tnisl al 

Face, B. ^j wajhfjoj nazar. The 

face of the earth, (j^Ji^^j toqfh 

al ard. To change the face 

(change countenance), ^j ^ " 

talaunpon. To turn the face, 

^l^jjlj ddr wafhaho. Having 

. the face of an angel, cJ^^ <^-j Ji^ 

tntsl wajh al tnaldk. Face to face 

(opposite), Jjil^ .mukuhiU • The \ 

&ce or page of a book, dJ^ 
Face, V. (meet &oe to face), ^Jjli 

ifcdM ; (to oppose with boldness), 

Faoe-painter, 9,jya/* n nn awwH', 

Facetious, uXy lanf,i^jJ^\*,.jM 
laHf id mashrah, u^^^i? sorff. 
Facetiously, ^q ■> U^g ^j^ W 
nafT^m Mf/*. FacetLOOsnesfl^ 
liUa! latdfat. 

Facihtate, v. J g ..» sahhal. To 
facilitate the means, jm^ yaumr^ 
JLjb hayyan, L^L^I^j^Ia hayym 
al tooidyit. 

Facilitated, ^^MM^ muya$9ar. 

Facility, Uy^ suhiUat ; (ductility), 
j^^^ tayslr. Facility in dis- 
posing of merchandize, jAjj 

rawdj. With facility, iiy^jij 
hikol BuhulaL 

Facing, JjIa^ tnukdhU, 

Fact, 9. (deed), JjufiJ, J^ ^moJ^ 
«-^ sani^; (reality), ^^a^as^ 
haklkat. In fact, ^^jllj /<< 

Faction (confederacy), jW'f ti^tAsJ, 
jUJl iUi/dk, ijJb\jL^mu^had4U; 
(machination), <Ju^ Affo^, oU*J 
/a«a(^ ; (tumult), ^Ujj fitnat. 

Factious, .^^fattan. 




Im&malj,^^ hi makrm* 

Aeto (agentX J^^ waklL 

luioirjf «. il^j waidlai. 

EKtotmn, t. jUf« mihfndn. 

nieolty (ability), ijtXJ kudraif 
j\^sj\ ikUdar, iy kuwat, JlSLL 
UUtai; (powers of the mind, 
edacity), Sy kutaat, Jla ^m, 
jLi ^, CJ\jj\ idrak, lAji 
fiHTdmU, ^ fahm. The viable 
hcvlty, ij0a\J\ iy kUwatal hdnrat. 

Fade, v. (grow weak), u.i^ c^^^^/*; 
(to wither as a yegetable), JjJ 


Faded, ^pbj dahldn, u,g^i^ dtf^f/l 
Fagot, «• ^L«^ Ausmtf^. 
FIeuI, r. (become deficient), ^^^^ 
neibt; (to become extinct), f^dju\ 

nUafa\ It did not fail to be, 
uL^Ju\[^ md anfak. 
Fail, fidlure (want of success), f^Se- 
^Isiil ^adam al najdh; (defi- 
ciency), jyoi kusUr, ^\»n 9 ) 
nukadn ; (omission), Jw«L^ 
tahdmtU; (extinction), UL1 t^d. 

Without feiil, jy^jt^^j^ ^*^ 
ghayr huslkr* 

Falling,*. (impeirheti<m, dedeienoy). 

jf«i saka, Ua£^ khaidf j^ai kiisUr, 
^LaftJ nuksdn, Cy-^jr ^ay&, ^^^^oaJ 
ndhfjfi^asl tahUr, 

Fain (wishfol), jli/L« muahUtt, 
Jiyi»t,^.^>.'*>^\^ s&hib shawk; (com- 
pelled), j^«^ mafhUr. 

Faint (feeble), t— Qj<«<^ dtf^f/. 

Fainti v. (become feeble), ii— ittJ 
<^^if^; (to swoon), ^J^ gheshh 

Fainting, «. <iJLr ghashyal, 

Faintness, faintishness, I^ ^^*az» 

Faintly, Lsr^J^ &iib/ ^t^Vn. 

Fair (handsome), ^^^ To^f^^^yu^ 
ham, ^}^iA^ Jamil; (clear), uJU^ 
shajfftf; (honest, just), J jU ^dil; 
(mild, not seyere), ^^ wadl^ 
^)Lt mu/cZym; (commodious), 
i.,^..^!:*^ mtind«»5, J^l^ muw&fik ; 
(civil), t— >j1w— '^'^lig «dAt^ <Mi!03. 
Fair demeanor, £j luJ 1 insdntyat, 
i^j\ adb, ciia! /ti(/: 

Fair, «. (stated meeting of buyers 
and sellers), j^y mawsam, j\j[j 

Fairly (beautifully), J--«^^^^ 
hi wqfhinjamll ; (commodiou^), 
lLLJ\y^JCj hikol muwdfakat; 
(without a blot), c, ^ fj^^j*^ 
min ghayr ^h ; (completely), 
UUJ UmdfMm^ 




(honesty), t^ taldh, JLit 

Fairy, «. JLIs^ jiimiyat. A fury 

Bupposed to give or core diseases 

in the throat, a^-J-I^-aI umm 

Faith (in religion), ^J i/{», ^UjI 

f«fidm; (trust), jUiict t^ikdd, 

^Lifil i^tbdr^ j\asx\ i^mdd; 

(fideUty), iJUir^ haklha, i^\i:iJ 

utikdnuU, lij tcafd; (promise). 

Faithful (orthodox), ^j^ mUmm ; 
(honest, true, loyal), J jli^ s&dtk, 
XiiA^ mu^mad, ^^J^\ amin. 
The faithM professors of the 
Muhammadan religion, ^j^m^\ 
al mwlimln. 

Faithfully (honestly, truly, loyally), 
iLjljjJ^ hikol dayydnati J^ 
^U:L<al hikol utikdmat. 

Faithfulness, i^\^\ amdnat. 
Faithless (unhelieying), ^^^U 

mdlaho dayn, ^Uj^IL hild imdn, 

ji\i kdfir. [imdn. 

Faithlessness, ^Ju^jiS^ds- ^adam al 

Falchion, «. v.jL^ «ay/. See Sword. 

Faloon, t. jb hd%. A large royal 

falcon, ^^LiSi shdMn (plur. 

Falconer, t. ^;<^i^|^^J/• ■m rrft l 

Fall, 9. IsAmi Mia^, ^j t^oibi^. To 
fall away (grow lean),ujiM d4^\ 
(to revolt), t<^^ ^<u{ ; (to aposta- 
tize), «V3;\ or^; (to perish)^ 
CJ^ heUh To &U down (in 
adoration), Jusr* M^'ai; (to dip 
or tumhle down), Jhlj wML 
To &11 in (coincide), J;aJ\ f^M 
fji\^ iodfgki^ (to comply with), 
^j radl. To fidl off (separator 
he hroken), ^LajI tiiibito^. To 
fall 00 (to hegin eagerly to do 
anything), IjCL^t %btadd\ (to 
assault), f^ hqfam; (to happen, 
befal), jJl-«^ s€dar; (attempt^ 
ju^ 96^, Xai koiod. To iSdl«r 
drop, )jL^ iokat, ^j waka^. To 
fall (yean or hring forth yonng), 
LZJji^ unddai. To fall from « 
high to a low station, 4jj-Ajf 
in^azah To fall in love, Jh&^ 
^hek. To fall into an error (ia 
writing or speaking), Lli ghdei. 

Fall, «. L^ «Mibl^ ; (ruin), S^|;£^ 

khardh, cJiib AoMib; (diminn* 

tion), (^/aA-J naib; (declivity), 

jjjh>« hadur; (a cascade), Jl*^ 

FaQin|^> port* j^\^ wdU^ 




liiiML TliefUlingiiokiieBs, ,j6^ 

FallacioiiB, J^j^ mmawwir. 

nOaoioiiBly, JlL».J^ hikol hilat. 

MaeioaaneeB (fallacy), ^Jug>> Al/a^. 

Mibility, laUJt^lCtl irnkdn al 

Fallible, iaUtc:..^ ^dU o^ y^n^^, 

FIdae (not troe), i^j\^ id%ih, 
jjj^ fmaawwar. False testimony, 
jjijifjlfl shahdiat sOr. A fiJse 
report, c^ jl^ JiJ noib/ kdwib. A 
iSdae reporter, <^jl^Jj1j ndkil 
kdaib, A false syllogism, ^^\i 

Fkhehood, fidseness, &lsity, ^^Xc 
JaJiLS ^atUm al halakat, <^^ 
kM,ji^JJ tatujlr, jUj na/dk. 

«ftpi J«ii AaiL To accuse falsely, 

FaUfioadon, J>j\ g 7 UiUld, J^ij 
taghalf ^^iX. ghuihf {j»f^ talbU, 
jmj nAr, j^^yJ tazwlr. See 
Gounterfeit, confutation. 

Falsified, m/« mmawwar. 

Falsifier, *• jj^ mtmsMwwir, ,c«^ 

Falsify, r. ^/Ld gha9h,j^j %awwar. 
Falter, v. See Hesitate/ sttunmer, / 

Fame, i^fii «A«Ara<,^lfj0\ i$Atihdrp 

{report), j^ khabar. 
Famed, j^fuL« «Mw^iir. 
Familiar (domestic), _1aJ ^ay^S, 

si^^-t?-^ *«y^*«J (intimate), 
mutadlif ; (affiible), 

aJl>. hatlm \ (aconstomed), jlix^ 

Familiar, «. (acquaintance), c.^r»-lig 
tdAi3. To render familiar, c*^»-li^ 
Bdhah, To be familiar or inti- 
mate, u^^rwl^ ioidhah. 

Familiarity (intimacy), <LiJ1 ti(^a^, 

^jtt^\ ttu, i^i^\>A/9 mmdlidbaiy 

iM^\y muwdnasat, ^^U^ tnU' 


Familiarise, v. (render easy), Jjfe. 

Familiarised, («^^ wiuallaf. 

Familiarly (unceremoniously), /^*Xe> 
ujLJl^I ^adam aUaklif. 

Family, s. (those who live under 
the same roof), ii^i^ljjbl M 
Maytf JLe ^ydl\ (those who 
descend from one common an- 
cestor), J«9l ail, i—Muj nawhy 
JiMj ntui. 

Famine, kc:' iaM, f ^J^t' ^^' 
mine and pestilence, ^y^^j ^^^ 
kaht W0M^n, 




Famiah, v. (kill with hmiger), 
f^/Mnra^; (to die of hanger), 
c ye\^CL^[^ wULi min ojjik^ 

Famiahment, ^^ ja^ ti^ 

Famous, jj|MM« nuuh-hur^ ^JL/^ 
Famously, j^^JL^c ^ h* ndw^ 
nuuhhUr, ij^JCi hikol shuhrat. 
Fan, «. <^^/* moru^a^ (pL ^^]/« 

Fan, V. <^j^Vs^>^ hawwa* bil 

Fandfbl (imaginative), J^- ^^ 

mutahhmfytlf j^Ai^ muta$awunr, 

Fanciftilly, iJW^^^^ ^ naw^ 

FancifulneBS, j^Sij^^j^^\j^J^ 

fkr wa rdff mn ghayr iadhlr, 
JUfiL khaydl. 
Fancy (imagination), ^}\^ khaydl, 
J ji rig^ iaihajfftd, jjbj wahm, 
Jbtji UMohhumf jyoi taiowumr; 
(conoeption, opinion, thought), 
^ Jlhr, ^ natm ; (caprice), 
Jb[t>^ khatiTf Ja6 ^akl; (in- 
clination, liking), (J^-^ mayl. 
The power of fancy, JLsrI jy 
kUtoatalkhay&l. Fancies, d^^Lar 
takhayydl&ti ^^^W^ hhaydldt. 
Fancy, v. (imagine), ^Jb^ ^atc^oAAom, 

"Fasiib, 9. Jun^ ma^M, See Temple. 
Fan&ron. See Bully. — Fanfiufo- 

nade. See Bluster. 
Fantasm, «. Jlf^s^ Jthaydl. See 

Phantom. [mti^aM£^yyiZ. 

Fantastical, fantastic, 

Fantastically, ^y^j^^y, ^ w^km 
wahml. [fiilness. 

Fantasticalness. See Caprice, fEuiei- 

Fantasy. See Fancy, idea, imagina- 

Far, Juju ha^d. To remove hat 

o£f, jJu ia^^Af. To he &r ofl^ 
Juu ha^. Not &r off, Jui^/^^ 
ghayr ba^d. From afar, Juiy^ 

mm ba^ld. Far mon^'UU 

ghaliban. [oomioaL 

Farce, feuroicaL See Comedy, 

Fare, v. (feed), g^ ta^m. 

Fare (food), CLy iHi^, J^ oil. 
Scanty fare (just enough to pre- 
serve life), d^'^UcJy hU Id 
gamut. A fiare (for ciosBing a 
river, etc.)» j^l^^b hdjal^iitir. 

Farewell, C^U^ khdtrak. To bid 
fEurewell, q3^ wadda^; (leave to 
depart), Q|«3^i^dk^^, ^«3y ^dicA^ 

Farm, «. ^jij^ masr0^0^. 

Farm, v. (lei a fisuin), ^1 afar; 
(to take or hire a {arm),j>-\sm»\ 
utdjar; (to cultivate the ground), 
J^ falak, vl.^ haroB. 




(one who rents lands, 
buM^ mtM^tr ; (husband- 
lb falldh, A fjEurmer of 
.), (•pJ^ multaztm. 
o ha^. See Bistanoe. 
(a horse doctor), jLko 

>y^ khannHa. See Pig. 
^ darta, 

rther, Juul ah^ad. 
See Advance, facilitate, 

e. See Encouragement, 
*e, further, \se\^ md ^add 
it (most distant), Jju\ 


sihr, [majtun, 
yj^sT^ mashury ^jy^ 
5, adf. j^ui fattdn. A 
ir, ,j:Jl^ muftin. 
Mm), ^j zay, ^j ram, ; 

f, S jU ^d(^^. A fashion 
iy*S kiMwat, j^kasem, 

(rank), <U3^ martahat. 
7. i^JiJJb handantf ^^Jm^ 
ji^ ^maly %^^j waddahy 

le (established by mode or 



custom), AjJ^IL ^^^ fMffyahe, 
ij\ji\^\y tnuwdfik al ^ddat. 
To become fashionable, ^yi\ij\^ 
sdr kdnHn. [Elegance. 

Fashionableness, ^\^ sord/a^. See 

Fashionably, LMjj^^yi hi wojfhm 
%arif. [ma^aJn 

Fashioned, 9^"*^^ matn^^ i}y^'^^ 

Fast, V. aIi^ idm. 

Fast, «. /^yfi aawm. 

Fast (firm, fixed, immoveable), 

l:uoU 8dhit; (swift, quick), ^j^ 

Fasten or make fast, v, i^jfj kawtoa\ 

^jL^ makkan; (to cement, con- 
join), (J^ hsak. 

Fastened, v/y^' tnuiatowc^, ^\^ 
mdkin, ^j^^ makin. 

Fastidious (disdainful), j ,&■ r^m ^ 
mustahkir, ^^ (—"■.>< mutkabhtr. 
Fastidiously, ]jf^V ^ istiksan, 

&t istihkdr. 
Fasting, «. a^ «airm. See Fast. 

Fastness, Jiji kardr, ci^Lj sahdi; 
(security), ^Ul amdn ; (a strong 
place), ^j..»>arw J.S/* mahaUhatin, 

Fat, 04;. ^j;-;w «am{ji ; (greasy, oily), 
^ Jk^ mudAtfi, (jt^^4> i^iii. .'Fat 
and lean, Sj^^i^*^ dehni loa 

FAT 518 

habra. Fat meat, isJbJ^^Ak. \ 

Mme mudkini. 

Fat, 9. ^jA^ iamnum. See Fatten. 

Fat, s. ^J duhn. The £at on 

broth, etc., U^l^J dahhM al 

Fatal (deadly), lJ^ muhUk, JJlS 
kdUL vj,.!^ muml^ ; (ineyitable, 
destined), (^f^^sr* mahiUm, jjSu% 
mukaddar. [iahdir. 

Fatality, fatalneas, Liii kadd, j^«XAjf 

Fatally (by the decree of fate), 

^jiiJb M takdir, j*xLt^^^ 

^t wafhin mukaddar; (mortally, 

destmotively), Ullf^ muklikan^ 

^U kdidan. 

Fate, LaJ ^a(^, ^ JiJ ^o^r (pi. 

^jUJ ^ateiftr), iAjjJ kH9mat, 

^JU? M/t^; (death), CJ|^ moM^^ 

Fated, ^JlL^ mukaddar, «^j-^j-^ 

Father, «. S^^ »&, jJ^j k'^/*^- 
Father and mother, |J^JlJ|^ 
walidln. My father, •r my 
Either r ^\ ail. The ^Either of 
a family (the master of a house), 
^::^\L^;.>^L>sdkibalbayi. The 
Almighty fether, ^^ jUJlc^i^ 
A father-in-law (wife's father), 
^ ^m, jT Atfvifl. Fatiiers, 


J^J^^ i^VM. See AnoestoTi. — 
^\ ah^ is often osed metynomic- 
ally in the formation of Arabic 
oomponnd epithets, which are 
applied as proper names to ra- 
tional and iirational beingSi ai 
well as to things inanimate; as 
The father of desires (a lover), 
y.^J^\^\ alULiOtdeSb. Thefatlier 
of the wife (a husband), i!|/*lt^t 
abUi al mir&t The &ther of 
sorrow (the devil), »j^y\ aH 
murra. The father of tiie watch 
(the cock), ^\ V\ 5j \\y»\ oH al 
yahi&n. The father of the oorkd 
hair (the wolf; al90 the fox), yi\ 
jju>- ab^ j\ad. The fother of 
stratagems (the fox), ^^ f » ^ y»^ 
aba hmboi. The father of de- 
fence (a fortified town), ji^AV^^f 
aha manmar. The father of Ufo 
(rain), *\^^^\ ahu al kayOk. 
The father of health (sngar), ^\ 
Ulll aba askakafd. The fltther 
of excellence, J^iiJl^l aSba al 
fadl. The father of beneftoenoe, 
Oy4^yi\ aba affad. The fiither 
of perfection, JUDI^t oH al 
kamdL The father of redemption, 
\jjL!i\j)\ oH al Jidd. Thefother 
of bfcanty, ^,^\^\ wba nl Awm. 



The fiither of the servant of Ood, 
Alltjux^jit aba Uhd Ma. [The 
pcoper names ibnned, in this 
nunnery by the Axabiansi are 
Tery nnmerons.] 
Fitherhiood, i}y)\ abwiyai. 

Fatherleesi ^^ yatlm. 

Fatherly, ,^y\ dbauH. 

Fathom, $. cj) H^ (pi. cj^\ ahwa^. 

Fathom, v. (measure with a &thom), 
^jj hawwa^; (embrace), j;3U 
^nak ; (to master, acquire, reach), 

Fathomless (bottomless), j;f^U 
nmlako ^mJs. [at^ab, 

Fatigoe, v, c-^^ ta^^ab, U;^^^ 

Fatigue, v_ -^7 ta^b, Jo kad. 

Fatiguing, part, y^'^s r .^ mut^h, 
^_ ^mrA\y__^^^^ mnjib atta^. 

Fatigued, S-^yc^ mat^, ^U«3 
ta^n. To be fatigued, w^ 
U^b. A mind fatigued and fuU 
of cares, J^-i^^i^yc^JL) 
^\iSi\i bdl vuU^h tea moihghiU 
^ha ifkar. 

Fatness, ^^^4^-1 wmn. [ma^nf. 

Fatted, ^^fi***^ mu»amman, uJjU^ 
Fatten, v. (make fat), ^^^^i^ $amman ; 
to be or become fat, ^^^b^^ $etnen. 
Fattened, ^^j^^^AM^t mmamman. 
Fatuous. See Foolish, stupid, im- 

519 FAV 

Fault, «. (w-wi ^fly>, UmL A*«<d, 

ibMilr, ^f^ iohH, laA^a «a^^, ^ 

• i • * 

fuMat, 4^U iahahat ; t^^ J 
sofi^, i|^ hafwai, XLU ghaltat; 
(defect), j^^aLJ iMwb, ^^-^a-^ 

Faultily, ^^^9j^ *» »<wt^ 

mwsfit^, ];;^'*<3A? taJcslron. 
FaultinesB, u^>^jx. ^ay^, Uafi*- Ma^d. 
Faultless, Uaf^jt^ffj %%r ^^^, 

,^M^1} htld takAr, ^u-A^1 

Faulty, u^ J^ fMnmih, ^ J samfift. 

Favor, ciU htf, h}js> ^n&yai^ 

^AJb himtnat ; (benefit), ^\mj\ 

m^irao^. Favors, CjIaDj talat- 
tufdt, cjUax:! t^W/, cjLtlyi 
^awdUf, M^ hamam, f^j^ matd- 
rim ; (vindication), ji^ ^ttur, 
j\jsa\ i^kdr. By &vor, ii\M 
bi^nd/yat. By the fitvor of God, 
^UJ^^^U\iLJl:JU bi^indyat al 
bdrl ta^la\ To curry fiivor. 

Favor, v. ^^U\ a^n, J^U $d^, 

^\^j^j^^\ ahian ila.* 
Favorable (kind), c^^J^ %yfi. 

See Kind. — (propitious), J^km*.^ 




muwdjii, ^js^^ mu^n. A fiiYor- 
able wind, ^\y\yb hawd nm- 
Favorableness, mj^ karam, LJ\j 

rdfat, ^laJlJ^ thafakat. 
Favorably, v— p.ViJJ^ hikol hUf, 

SjlcLm^ J^ hikol musd^adat. 
Favored, (jiy muwaffak, Ji^La.^ 

muid^, ni-fieivored, Aav^^JU^ 

karih al mantar. Well^favoredlj, 

iJt^^^^^ &« ioqfhin jamlL 
Ill-fevoredly, Xj^^^^^^i^^ hi 
tcqfhin mahr&h. 
Favorer, fautor, 8. Ji^La.^ musd^id* 

t'avorite, «• i^^fwLa^ mfMdAti. A 

royal favorite, u.^^^Jj nadlm 
ul maUk, 
Fawn, 8, (young deer), JUi gluadi, 

Favm, V, (oonrt servilely), ^J-cpJb J 

Fear, uJy^ A^Amr/*, <LA£v kha8hiyat. 
The fear of God, ^^ takwa\ c ^^ 
K7ara^, dm^UArw khtuhiyat aUah, 

Fear, r. uJl£>- ^AcS/; (to make 
afraid), (-J^ khawwaf. 

Fearful, i^,U. A?A5y»/; (awful). 

Fearfully (timorouBly), uJ^J^ 
^<^/ khawf; (awfully), <UJbJ^ 
3»>b/ hayhat, 

Fearfulness^ iUJb hayhat. 

Fearless, uJlaC^ ^^ yoiM/. 

Fearleedy, vJy^^^ mnm /^|fr 
Vkmof. \VkaMf. 

Fearlessness, uJ^Wjlc ^cuXflwi A 

Feasible. See Practicable, plausible. 

Feast, 8. (great entertainment), 
iS^diydfa^\ (holiday), Ju^ ^ii. 
To make a feast (entertain somp- 
tuously), ^U^ Jf ^nuddiydfai, 
^Ws^i*^ MtM&o' diydfid. 

Feaster, <•• (entertainer), Jw«Lfi 
^LidJt ^mal addiydfiU. 

Feat, <. 1^ ^Aosd. See Action, 
deed, exploit, trick. 

Feat. See Neat, nice, skilful. 

Feather, 8. L^j rUhdt (pi. d-^lu^J; 

rishdt and ^Ju^j rf«A). The long 

feathers in the wing, -.Ixs^l^^ • 
rish ajjandh. 

Feathered (covered with feathers), 

(jMj»jd! laho rUK 
Featly. See Neatly. — Featness. 

See Dexterity. 
Feature, Is^^ wajh, Jtsi^ mansutr. 
February, ]ff\^ 9uhdt [excrement. 
Feces, feculence. See Dregs, lees. 
Fecundity. See Fruitfiilness. 
Fed, uJjjL^ ma^uf. 
Federal, i^jlac?! ittihddi. 
Fee, *. (reward), j>-\ qfr, ^\y 

sawdh. The fee to a judge for 

deciding a partition of inheritance. 




iikmSWftmtj ratm al kitmai. A 
kokar's fbe, iHHj iUdJai. Fee 

Mde, cjLa^ ^1/ (plnr. U«J 
#11^^), k^ijnr^ iiaM/. To make 
fbeble, 4^Julc da^af. To be or 
beocmiefbeble, ujLM^litf «dr tild^f/' 

FeeUeneflSy Jjc^ ^ta^ (.jUJ ii»^ 

Feebly, (.juw J^ SOo/ du^. 

Feed, i^« (sapplj with food), ^\ 
at^mn\ (to take food)» ^1 ahdl\ 
(to pasture), ^j ra^\ To feed 
cattle on hay or grass, ^Ir. ^ahf. 

Feeder <• (giver of food), aji1x« 

Feel, r. (tonch), ^^tuii lanuu, ^j»»^ 

has. To perceive, ul^Jt a^^ail. 

To feel (to have sensibility, to be 

gentle, mercifiil), (^^^j raham, 

l^fjiiL ahafak ^M. 

Fed (feeling, tondh), ^j,*a^ latM. 
The power of feeling, <U^)U1 iy^\ 
al k&ieat al Idmiiat. Feeling 
(perception), cJ\;Jl idrdk, ^ 
fahm, ^j*M>^ has; (sensibility, 
tenderness), L^»-j rahmat, iSJuii 

Feet (plnr. of foot), m\^\ ahd&m. 
Feign, v. (dissemble), aJL>-^ 
^mal hdlaho. To feign igno- 


jdhU; (make a &lse show ot), 

j^\ oAar, 

Feigned, ^U- J^U ^mU hdlaho^ 

To feign sickness, ^.aj^^U- J^ 

^amdl hdlaho marid. 

Feignedly, ^jy^ HLratan. 
Feigner, s.J^J^ mfuawwir, Jl«U 
^U- ^mil hdlaho. 

Feint, $. (fedse appearance), <LL»> 

Felicitate, r. cL^b ^rol, ^Jjb 

Felicitation, JL^L^ muhdrakaif 
^Lii^ tahniyai. 

Felicity, if jUm» Baudot, Juui «a^d^ 
L=..^da^H JliUBd/. Eternal 
felicity, ^Jj^lifjUMJt aesa^ddat 
al ahadiyat. \%&Um. 

FeU (cruel, etc.), ^\i kdA, JU? 

Fell, 9. J^ jOd. A fell-monger, 

Fell, v. (cut down), ^bS lata^ A 
feller, ^IS ibd^t^. 

Felloe, 8. (circumference of a wheel), 
c^^j jJl^l J ddyir addnddh 

Fellow, «. (companion), J^ r<|/t^« 
l^.B. Fellow, in composition, is 
generally expressed by Jf ..j .i^ 
ro/til, as — ^A fellow traveller, 




fellow student, ^jxA\fJ^j 

rafik addars. [jnmdj\ 

Fellow, r. ^\jj\m^jJ^ waffakhum 

Fellowship (equality), SIjLa^ mu- 

sdwdt; (companionship), ^\jJ^ 

9hardkai, cJ]/:^! Mtirdk, Lsf^ 

tuhbat, jL.LJ1 UUfdk, L*j\y 


Felo-de-se, ^LuyiJ JjlS hdtH nafsaiho. 

Felon, 8, Aj£B^ mufrim. [aharrir. 
Felonious (wicked, etc.) j^j^Ja 
Feloniously, ^jef* ^c^^ hi wu^n 

Felony, Ajbcl Vi^ hhaid ^aslm, 

^^ jLJ fasdd kahlr* [mawulU, 

Felt {pari, of feel), ,^^«*-«w« 

Felt (cloth), jU luhhdd; (skin), 

ji>- jtld; (perceived), ^ym,s!^ 

makiiU. Ifdnkka. 

Feluccai $. (small ship), ^^.Jlj 

Female (opposed to male), ^^\ 
unsa*. A female (of t&e human 
species), i\y9\ amraat. 

Femme covert, 8. i^^ytij^ mora 
mwutwtoajL A femme sole, u:^ 
jL> hint hUbr. 
Feminine (soft, tender), *f U nd^m. 

Feminine (in grammar), cU^ 
mmmmas. The feminine gender, 
C^UI atidnU. 
Fen^ 9. U^AUUw^ muitanki^ md, 
SeeManb, bog. 

Fence (guard, protection), fiUi»- 
kimdyat, ^\^ 9ijfdnaif hi fw 
hajk. Defence (an enclosure), 
^-J^UI ihdiat, ^Ja-iU<* wnh 
kdfcauU. A fence or lattice work, 
^•IjI^J iford^ SAM. 

Fence, «. ^A^^U- Adm«' ^ola'. 
See Defend. To endooe, kWt 

Fenced (defended), {jm^jS^ moJlrfit, 

^^isr^ moA/ils ; (enclosed), Llcr^ 

mti^^, J^^iyuL^ maahmuL 
Fencer, «. (swordsman), iMiL.jL« 

Fencible, L^\»nn \\^JL%>^ mumJm 

assay dnatf ^<«4k^ ytMiAoffia'* 
Fend, r. See Defend, keep off, ez» 

Fennel, S^ 4. .A ^Amiirii^, Hog^s 

fennel, JtJj^j^ar hakhUr marimn. 
Feed, feud, <. (land held by military 

tenure), ^Uil^li^ muJtdia^a, ^nJoi 

Feodal or feudal lord, feodary ^r 
feodatory, s. ^^^s^U^ mukdti^. 

Ferment, v. (be in agitation), 
^U hdj ; (as liquors), ^^4&£w1 
ikhtamar; (to leaven), j-^* ^^ 
ikhtamar, jA.j:jkriii^ khaOdA 
yakhtamir; (to be fbnnented), 
1 ikhtamar. 




Ferment, tjs^t^ ikamlrat; (in- 
testine commotion), ^L.sq^ 

Fermentable, y**::^ yakhUmir, 

Fermentation (of wine, etc.)^Ui£w1 
ikhtimdr ; (leavening), 
takhmlr. Fermentative, 
mukhammir. [sd/tm. 

Ferocious, ^^^j wah»hl^ aJLJ? 

Ferocity, ^L^^^ wahshiyat. 

Ferreous, fermginons (composed of 
iron), ^cJJ«x>. hadidl. 

Ferret, v. See Disoover, drive or 
hnnt out. 

Ferrule, «. (of a cane, sword-sheath, 

etc.), jj«x>^^^^mmJJ ialhU hadld. 

Ferry, r. (cross over a river, etc.), 

Ferry, s.j^x^ ma^har (plur. ^U^ 

mm^ahir), ^laL« makta^ (plor. 

^U^ maJMi^. The £ure for 

erosaing a ferry, jyffi\^\i hdj al 

^K^fir. [muMi. 

Fertile, c^;. i;;bMf&, cu.wm^ 

Fertileness, fertility, c.,^»a>> Mm^. 

Fertilisew 9. ^i^^iri'vl akkaah, 

Fenrencyi fervor, i^U^ Aomdtpa^, 

Fervflttt, fervid, jU- Mr, wo^U 

Fervently, ^|^ J^ Mb/ ikprtfrw/. 


Festival, «. Juc ^li (plnr. oLet 
a^ydd). The festival of Easter, 
j^\j^ ^d al kaldr. ^*^\ Juc 
Jujs!^\ ^d alfaah al mqfld. 

Festival (pertaining to feasts), 
4^Ju£ ^dl. Festival, festive, 
festivous, jjiyM^ nkurar. 

Festivity, ^ji farah, j^j^ swUff 

LluJ fuuhdt. 

Fetch, r. (go and bring), 

Fetch, «. XJu^. hllai. 

Fetid, ^jijc^ muta^ffin. 

Fetidness, JLj^ic ^ti/%iiia^. 

Fetter, fetters, b, JuS Jbyi. 

Fetus. See Foetus. 

Feud, quarrel, contention. See Food. 

Feudal, feudatory. See Feodal, etc. 

Fever,«.U»-Atfifiin<3;or^<4^ Atimma'. 
The cold fit of a fever or ague, 
^43^ \ albar die. A malignant 
fever, ^Ljygr^^,.4b,» Ammiimi' 
muhrika. To fever (catch a fever), 

Feverish, feverous, (^y^as^ makm^m. 

Few, JJi iailL 

Fewel or fuel, Jy^ mukud. 

Fewness, £li AtZZo^ [See lie. 
Fib. See Lie, felaehood. To Fib. 
Fibre, a. liJ lifat. [oiM^. 

Fickle, 2^1u,Jla:i^ muUdUOik 




Viokleness, j^l^JiJ takalM 

Fiction, jlaH Ijdd, ^\jx:>^\ ikhiird^. 
FiotitiooB, v^JuLaJ taklidi, ^If' 

Fictitiotisljy^jjjju U tauolrm. 

Fiddle, a. t^lj rihdh, ^U^ 

kamdnfa, [jfahrk. 

Fiddle faddle, jys^^^ shy la 

Fidelity, Jl3U\ amdnat, Ij\ 

saddkat, X^UjljI Utikdmaty JLa 

FidQoiary,fidacial,(X4CJt^ mu^mad. 

Fief, 8. 4«J23 katl^at. 

Field, 8. (indefinitely),^^ Ju^ mlddn, 
Lai /add, A cultivated or sown 
field, ^jy» masra^. A barren 
field, J^ /wr(^. A pasture field, 
^j^ fnar^\ To challenge to 
the field, ^^Iju^U^J (2a^a* 7t7 

Fierce, ^Up^t/^iri^ «^ar«>aJ o^^d^. 

Fiercely, XmiL<& J^ ^»^/ 8hard8at. 

Fierceness, ^\Jbi\i^\jJ^ 8hard8at 
<U atbd^ 

Fieriness, ij^^ hardrat. 
Fiery, ^^U ndrt, 

Fifteen,^^r r; .,u.4S* khanuat ^har. 
Fifteenth,^,-luc^jdM^l£w A;Admi« ^a«^ 
Fifth, ^^^Mb/tl^ khamU. 
Fifthly, L.,#U^ khdmisan. 

Fiftieth, ^yuA,^ hhamtOn. 
Fifty, ^^ywbt.^flw khamtlin. 
Fig, <. ^Lj ^Ma^ (plur. ^ An). 
A fig-tree, ^ ^j^ 8hajarai tin. 
Fight, r. c-^U. ^ro^, JJU kdid. 
Fight, «. c-V^ Aflr*, Jt3 kitdl. 

SjXs:^ muhdrahat. 
Fighter, s. \j^ tnuhdris, c— >^\^^ 

Figment, 8, See Fiction, invention. 
Figurable, jiyasJ\jLi>^ 


Figurative (not literal), g^^ 

majdvi. Figuratively, \j^ 

Figure, JC^ 8haklf ijya 8iirat,jiyai 
tastoir ; (arrangement), v_,-r^7,7 
tartlhf ^UasJl tntisUltn; (distin- 
guished appearance), (L^|^ 
kardmat, Ji^jaldl, cJ^ 8haraf. 
A figure in arithmetic, aJj raibMi» 
J j^ ^adadf y^ 8ifr, A geome- 
trical figure, J^Jc^ya^^aKplor. 
J^ljtfj- jaddwii). A rhetorical 
figure, JLl^ mt>d/, ^L:^ 
kandyat (plur. CJbl:.^ kandydt). 
A parallel figure, i^^jSL^J^ 
<Aa^ mutawdzi . A circular figure, 

square figure, ^^JCj^ skaU 




Fignre, r. JCl J^ ^amal 9hakl,j^ 

Bowwar. To figure to one's self, 

jy^ tasawwar. To figure (in 

painting, embroidery, etc.), ^^*3j 

Pignred, JLL^ muihakkai, ^Juh^ 

munakkaah, jy^^ musawwar. 
Filbert, s. (nut), jjcj hundui. 
Filch, V. See Pilfer, stcaL 
File, s. (for polishing) J^ mdbrad. 

A file or catalogue, ^ J daftar. 
File, r. (metals, etc.), .3;^ fturiM^. 

To file papers, Ja-^j Mib/. 
Filings, lc\ji harOdat. 
Filial, 4^f^ baitawi. 
Filiation, i^ hunmoai. 
FiU, r. ^ ifwZti', ^ maUa\ 
Fill, filling up (completing), h^\ 

Filled, ^^tfi:'*^ motMAn, ^^-L».># 
miMN/fi, ^Icu^ mumiatl. 

Fillet, «. JuW ^MdM. 

Filly, «. y]J^ Jbrra. 

Filter, filtrate, «. ^ 9affa\ A 
filt^, aUi^a^ moifdh. 

Filth, filthiness, i »»l qr no^Vteo^, 

Fin, «. c:.;^1^l:^>»fid* al hut. 
Finable (mulctable), Ok^^^^c»-1j 


Final, ^^ I aikir; (oondufliye), 

Finally, ^\^\ akhlran. 

Finance, 4JU!laJmd%0A. A finan- 
cier, XJUStJJotfr^ fflliAoMt? a{ 

Find, r. ^X^j t^OfVu^ ; (to perceive), 
CS^j\ adrdk, jJiLJ tuuar; (to 
acquire), J^ Aomo/. To find a 
Terdict,ACL|;«x.0t asdar al hukm. 
To find out, cL;«x>.l ahdoB, «xart 
oS^'oi. To find difficulties, to 
be averse, JJjO ta^attal. 

Finder, s. «X8^tj wdjid. 

Fine (not coarse), wj^ rq/l^, a^U 
nd^«ro ; (free from dr^;s, dross, 
etc.), ^U. khdUi; (elegant), 
lJ-jJJ Wl/, J---«^ yamtf ; 
(thin, transparent), uJLjLJ« 
%haffdLf\ (small, BubtQe), J^«3 
<^^^> O^J ^<>^ > (soft, smooth), 
Ji^l Mi/. Having a fine edge, 
uibjraAf/; (dexterous, artful), 
.^^^>-l^ «cEAii& tiuarruf; 
(fraudulent),jt JLfi ghadd&r. 

Fine, «. i«J/>- jarimai, Lt\jA 
. ghardmat. In fine, ]^^1 oiUlrofi. 
Fine, v. (take a fine) Mj^jarem. 
Fined, (^^js:^ nu^fikm. 
Finely, beautiflilly, ^JLkAy!^^ 




Uiol latafat, Ljy» JCj MM 

Fineness, ^^t-^- hum, J l*;*- /«»<!/. 

Finesse, « L L». Al^. 

Finger, «. ^^^^t (uiha^ (plor. ^^jli^t 
<wSM^). The ring-finger, j^au^^ 
hanmr (plur.y.^^ ^andWr). The 
little finger,^^..^3i>- khinMr. The 
joint of a finger, etc., fj^-aiu^ 
mafaal (plor. J^li^ mafdstl). 

Finger, r. ^^^^^^^ /ama«, 4jus J dagh- 
dagh ; (to steal, ^^ Barak, To 
finger a mnsica] instmment, j J 

Finical (effeminate), jJcJU mughan" 

dor ; (nice), ^^^Jio %&rif. Fini- 

cally,^ijUflj Utardftin. Finical- 

ness, LjSj!^ tardfat. 
Finish, v, Ji^ tammam, j^^ khatam, 

^^^A:>- khaUas. To finish a thing 


mam al amor kamd yqfah. 
Finished, ^\^ khdUs, ^\aj tamdm. 

The hook is finished (finis), ^ 

c^l:;^! tarn al kitdh. 
Finisher, <. a^c^ mutammim* 
Finite (limited), J^As^ mahdnd, 

tiss^ muhaddad, JJc^u muta- 

Fimtenes8,J^»- Aoid^. See Limitation. 
FiT'tree, s. jjy^ sanawiar. 

)j^'i\MAJ tarn- 

Fire, jU n&r (phir. ^^'jJ i^rd«). 
Hell fire, |i^>p*jVj ndrjo^MMMM. 
Asparkof fire,jljXidj hoMsaindr. 
To strike fire, jVJ^Jj ibioA Jidr. 
Anything used in striking fire (as 
steel, flinty etc), ^\ Jj kaddOkoL 
A worshipper of fire, jUl Jut 
^ad&di^0f»nar. Fire (ardour), i^ 
ghlrat, ij]j>- hardrat. Fiie- 
arms, ijj^ir^\ oilihat n&riyai. 

Fire, r. (set on fire), J^ karak^ 
jU\i^joAe^iraklnln&r\ (totdce 
fire), JjS^f %ktarah\ (to be fired 
or in^amed with passion, (JjcJtt 
c^..«Mib UUa^al hU ghaiai. To 
fire cannon, 0\A/»c^j^ 4l«^ai 
moiq/f ^. To fire a musket, (jMrJi 
dJ^^U kawwaa hdrude^ 

Firm (fixed), ^}; rflMJl*, jilj 
t(7d«tA;, ^^fi^ maithikt^ vjuoLj 
«d3t^, ^^;X« mo^n, ,J;^^ maftfi; 
(solid), Jl4i£CU« munjamid, ^^ 
i^irl. Tomakefirm,^^^maiUMi. 

Firmament, UyJ W«<ii9id, d^/Ud. 

Firmly, cSls'iSC^/aiakuii^adk, 

Firmness, aIX^Ui! uUkkdm, j\^ 

kardr, ijL^ saldhat,^ lx« maidnatf 

cl^Lj sabdt, ij\^j ratdnat. See 

Stability, compactness, steadinessy 
resolutiou, certainty. 




Hfit, Jj< awwa (fern. h\, plur. 
^j[1 oiMMftii). Firsts firstly, in 
the fint place, JJt awwal, ^j[t 
MMM&M. From first to last, 

tZs' «/ ffUfir. Making the first 

last (transposing), 

Fiscal. See Exchequer, revenue. 

Fiih» <. JLC^ MMAJbi^ (plor. iJL^ 
MM4i^). A laige fish, CL?^ Aa^. 
The scale of a fish, ^jjj jiU. A 
fish-hook, cjib dd/ii^. A fish- 
pond, \^f^ haiwdj S^j) hirhat, 

FUi, «. <J.x<WhUi>gJ taaayyad 9amak, 

Fisher, fisherman, ui^ jL«0 sayy&d 
9tmak, [BomaJs, 

Kshmonger, $, vli^^Lj hayyd^ 

PIshy (having the qoalities of fish), 
^^Ca...^ 1 ^Lt <lJ 2aAo tahdytf 
aiMmak ; (consisting of fish), 
^C^ satnakl. 

RssUe (capable of being split), 
jUmJ!(1^j^ mniniUii al imhikdh, 

Kwnre, Jh^ «AtiJ(. To break into 
fissures, ^jL^fjAJ^^aJU takuHa^ 
tkUk^k thmkah. 

Fist, s. oJSLa^ JuMat al yadd. 
A blow with the fist, X«j3 ^iiiia^. 
To strike with the fist, J3 fajbrn. 

Fistula, jf^U ndsur. 

Fistula lachrymalis, <U/tJ <2ajn^0^, 
c/^^^ ^J dumU^ al^ln. 

Fit, «. (paroxysm of a fever), j^ J 

Ukk.t iauT al hummd ; (a sudden 

start or effort), /^ys^ hufum. A 

fainting fit, ^^l^Ai ghuihydn. A 

fit of anger, L,.^«tfTr. yhadah, la*£ 

Fit (proper), ^jSi Idyek, ji\^^ 
tnuwdfii, c^^vydl:^ mtm^MS ; (pre- 
pared), ^.^U- Addfr. 

Fit, V. Ji\^ wOfii ; (to be adapted), 
c^vmsU ndaab. 


Fitly, ijLi\yJCi ^tiol muwdfakat, 

(^\y^\j hissawdh. 
Fitness, iA}\y muwdfakat, XiU 

laydkat, L^\u^ mundsabai. 
Five, <Um«^ khamaat. The space 

of five years (a lustrum), 

CL^l^MM) khamtat sanawdt. 

Fix, r. ^^^ moAAofi, vj:-^ aabhat, 
L,<wi3 ikMaA. To fix the eyes, 
^^loJl^jA/tl am^n annaur. 

Fixed, iyi« mtfJbvrrar, v:;^\j «dS«^ 
A place where anything is fixed, 
i^jio^ madrah. A fixed habi- 
tation, ^l .-C,,^ moAdn. Fixed 
upon, jliiC^ mvkhtdr* 

Fixedness, fixation, fixure, j|^-i 

/ iuiHt. 




Flabby, jVSr***^ mustarkhl. See 

Flacdd, Jj^i saw, «-fl-fc^ *»t?/- 

Flacddity, flabbiness, L^ji^\ 

Flag, «. (grow feeble, flacdd), l-a*^ 

Flag, «. (colours), ^ ^afaw, J;-^ 

Jayrttil, \^ Uwd. To hoist a flag, 

Flageolet, «. 4^U *5y. 
Flagellation, S^jM. 
Flagitious, ji^ Bhan^r, xMf&iid, 


Sr » _ 7 1** 

Flagitioosnees, ^ Mwrrt *— ^-u* 

Flagon, «. jiij kumhm, ^uIS ion- 
nfn^. Alargeflagon,iO J/ *arra^^. 

Flank, i-^V i**^- ^® ''^J^* 
flank, ^ rt;- maymanai. The 
left flank, 5;*--^ mayaarai. To 
flank or attack the flank of an 

Flannel, «.V*i/«^*^»''*- 

Flap, «. (anything dangling), tJ;t 

^a/. The flap or lappet of a 

garment, Jj*^ iayl^ 
Flare, r. See Flash, glitter, glance, 

show away. 
Flash, 8. (of fire or lightning), J;} 

iorl; ; (a sudden impulse), ^yt^ 

Flash, V. 

harak. To flasb 

(make an impetuous effort), m^ 
iiii 1^ hajam ^a* ghqflat. 

ma^fjjy^ fnashhur. 
Flail, s. hj»c darhat. 
Flake, «. l^i^ aaflhat. 
Flambeau, b, J*^^ mash^ (plur. 

* See Torch. 

Flame, ^U nfir, l-^ ^A^*- See 
Fire, passion, ardour, love. — 
Flame without smoke, ^ul'^loJ 
lUdn amnOr. 

Flame, «. ^)a^ »ha^, 

Slaming, flamy, J— cl—S* «Aa^«^, 

Flagrant (notorious), ^u, «./i»r, ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

Flask, «. <iu*^ «Ai«^, '^ ■ * ■ J ' ' * 

Flat (level), c^^Ufi^ mtitodtoi, 
^j-njr--* mustawl, fc/^^-«*^ miwaiPl, 
Vt^..-« 4(mT<; (not elevated), ^*fi 
«^i^ y^yr mur^^; (insipid), 
««Jj iZtfZ^^. Tasteless (unani- 
mated), <U«tiiiiU iTid^ffAo ta^, 
j^lp- ydffifd^. The flat dde of 
anything {ako any thin lamina, 

^ ^\a!tft, \Aaji^\ ^ «»A Hat- 




Doeed, ^jJai\ afioi. A flat rooi^ 

Hat, «. (efyen ground), ^tju 

nafly (horizontally), Jjiif 
wmhaaiffan Ulafk, l-^ 


Flatness (levdness), J>4-^ <aM; 

(deadness), SJ|^^ &««riU^^. 
Flatten, f^. (make flat), J^ Mhhal. 

Flatter, v, ^jLt tnaUak. 


Flatterer, s. fJLi^ mumaUik, 


Flattery, ^jLu tamaUuh. 
Flatolency, ^ nafkh, ^j rf A. 

Flatolent, ^uJ naffakh. A flatulent 

tomonr, ^Lsr^ nafkhai. 

Flayonr (odour), iss^^J rdyhat\ 
(agreeableness of taste), if jJ lamat^ 

Flaw, «. (crack), Jh^ «Atii;; (de- 
fect), c,..>jr. ^^^; (a blast of 
wind), 1^54^;^ nafkhat hawd. 

Flax, ^L:^ kuttdn. See Lint. 
Flaxen, «Jl:;^i&u^^nt. Flax-seed, 
^\s^jjj hasur huttdn. [kashar. 

Flay, V. jJl^ jalad, J^ 8alakh,jjuJ 
Flea, 9. ''^y-ji bcrghut. Fleas, 

vj:^^!^ hardghlt. 
Fled (part, of flee), («jjf^ maAsiZm. 
Flee, V. (run away), ^ /ffrr, u-^ 

Aarai. Any place to which one 

flees, Isr^ malfd. 
Fleece, <• i^y^ijp^ JanuU saf. 
Fleece, v. (shear sheep), J^ jai ; 

(to strip, plunder), i^Xa ioiai. 
Fleeced (robbed, stripped), v^j)um#« 

madnh. Fleeced or fleecy, ^^■ t^^ 

Fleer, v. (deride), i^f^f^i iitahsta', 

jk*^ tamaskMr. 
Fleet, <. v.^L<« S^lj^ ^amdra^ morA- 

M, Uwj^ J donanmd. To flt out 

a fleet, (^y^ ^^^^^ jahJun 

mardktb Ul harh 
Fleet See Swift, nimble, quick, 

speedy. [flow, skim. 

Fleet, V. See Vanish, disappear. 
Fleeting, adf. Jjs'**'^^ mudmahalf 

JU /am, ^jU ^drun, JA) 

gdyHf JtjjJ^^yirf MTf^ otstawdL 

See Momentary. 
Fleetly, Uj;m9 aari^n* 
Fleetness, l^j^ 8ur^, 
Flesh, A^ kiAffi, 1*^ ZttAilm,^^ 

Aa^. Flesh dried in the air, Jjji 

kadld. Aflesh-hook,c^^AaZ^&. 
To get into flesh (grow fisit), 
^^Am» amnm. Flesh (carnal de« 
sire), i^ ahahuxU. Following 
the lusts of the flesh, CiJl^l ^ 
L.B-v..\\ toli^ MhaKahMD^l 




mim^n^fot. One flesh (as hus- 
band and wife)i ^^jj tawj. 

Flesh, 9. See Glut, satiate, aooostom. 

Fleshy, ajt^ mMmf f^ lahim, 
i^i^M^P^ jatlm, Msr\j^ koHr al 

Flexibility, flexibleness, ^UU^ 
^^jc!l imJsdn atta^aumntf, ^JjU 
>^f^\ idMiyai al ^uy\ 

Flexible, flexile, ,cX^ munhanl, 

Flexion, flexore, ^^ ^mj, Ju^ 

FlexnoQS, adj. ^^y^ mu^awwqf. 

Flier, a. i^jj.^-^ tnahKHm. See 
FngitiYe, runaway. — (in the air), 
jlt tdtfer. 

Flier, 8. (of a jack or other engine), 
ZJjU^ mu^dakU, ^l£) takkdlat. 

Flight (from danger, etc.) jj/^fir, 
(-.^ Aari; (the general flight 
or rent of an army), ^UJjib Aoslmo^, 
;^ kasrai. To take flight, y 
far. To put to flight (defeat), 
l*JJb Aoisam. To feign a flight or 
retreat, jj^ 1^1 ashar al Jirdr. 
Flight (flying through the air), 
^1^ taifordn. 

Flightiness, ^j^ tawash. Flighty, 

Flimsy. See Frivolous, spiritless, 

FUnoh, «. jUf ta^alUl. 

Flincher, $. J^x:^ muta^aUU. 

^^Sf V. {jM^ kawwat. To fling 

(as a horse), jjmJ; ra/at. 

y^t, ^ya imowan. A flint for a 

musket, tinder-box, etc., jU£>- 

Flinty, (J\^-^ Mi^ic'dnf. Flinty 
hearted, ^^^^iJIJi^aJJ AaOiiAo 
niM/ a88awwdn. 

Flirt, v. (move about with quick- 
ness), |.»^ Marram. 

Flit, V. (migrate, remove), J^i^l 

iriahaL See Bove, flutter, fly 

Float, r. (swim), ^U ^dm; (to 
overflow), flp>^^ tamawtpaf. 

Flock, «. ^^ i^^i^. A flock of 
sheep, >xg^Ja3 ^ic glumum. 
A flock of people, ^ Ua^ Jamd^aL 

Flock together, <;. w4>-/0ma^. 

Flood (deluge), j^Li^ ^aeM»/Slii. 
The flood of Noah, -y^Lijt 
tawafdn niih ; (high water), J^ 
mad. The flood and ebb of the 
tide, fl^^x* mad tea jaw. 

Flood, i;. uJU? ^<S/. See Overflow. 

Floor, ^j^f^ Mhn, iL^L <dAa<. A 
stone, brick, or eartiien floor, )eh 
haidt. A Aoor or story, ^jJbtabak, 
iiJa iahakat (plur. jLb UMh), 




jUo\ Mak, IjL1\ MahU. 
The upper and lower floors, 
fjl:^ljfjl:y)li[Lyi attabahd 
tUfmoh&myai tool tahtdntyai. 

Y[andfjJb\j w&hir. 
Floridness, floridity, jJ^ nahr. 
Floristy $. i^JJ^j\ Mhari, (JIjlmJ 

Fbunce, v. n, yJ^ghatoB ; (plunge 

about in water), ^^^Jai ghatta: 
A flounce (to a garment), ^jSjUi 
kaakiath. liahin. 

Flour (meal), ^jJti iaklk^ ^^jt^ 
Fkmriah, v. (as a plant), ^\ oMhar. 
To flourish in esteem (to be 
prosperous), j* % w^l—^g idr 
nm^iabar. To flourish in dis- 
course, ^\ij taf&sah ; (to boast), 
^Jblj tabdha' ; (to adorn), ^J 
tmgyan. To flourish a sword, 
k^jL^JI^^i lamma^Mioyf, 

Rout, V. See GKbe, mock, insult. 

Flow, r. (as water, etc.), y^j^" 
/sr«'. To flow from a source, J Ju0 
iodar, wJ ndba^ . To flow (as water 
from a cbtem, etc.), ^j roihah. 
To flow rapidly, JL sal. To 
flow as sweat, j^jS. ^ek. To 
flow as the tide, J^ mad. To 

ebb and flow, ^^j^ /"wr wa 
moid. To flow as the waves, 
^j A .1 tamawwaf. To flow or 
wave as hair, ujUj %ala/. To 
flow (abound), ^^ kas&r, (joli 
/d<;. To flow round, tU.1 o^^. 
To flow back (ebb), jJp^ jaM§r. 
To cause to flow, k/j^-jom^. 
Flow, 8. (of tide), x» hukI ; (abun- 
dance), ]ff\ji\ ifrdi, Ijl^ kMorat. 

Flower, 8. Sjibj %ahra (plur, ^^]/^ 
nahrdf). The doye jiUy-flower, 
Jij^ karanfil, Saffiron in flower, 
j^Lar. ^/ur. The flower of 
youth, ^\y .vr ^on/atf^dii. A 
cauliflower, Vi * ijyl kamahlt. 
The flower or best of anything, 
^JmSMjjj uubdat Mkojf. Fleur 
de lis, ^J^y^ HUan, JhJ J Moghai. 

Flower, v. jJbJ wUhhar ; (to adorn 
with flowers), ^bpUjC^ thakkdl 

Flowing, adf. i^j^jdri. Flowing 
rapidly, ^JIL^ iogaldn. Flowing 
water, i^j^^ mdjdfi. 

Fluctuate, p. (to be in an uncertain 
state, irresolute), ^^^ 

s^l^ij's^b ^*^''*'* •*•*• ^^y **' 

rdy, uXSi <A«^ ;. (to roll as the 
waves), ^yw tam(tvDV}oj. HV^*- 


tuatingi flnotnant (nnoerfain), 
djLjdJU mdlaho sdbdt. Fine- 
tnation of the wayes, -^j^ 
tamawumf ; (unoertainty), /* J^ 
j^jaW ^adam id hirdr. 

Fluency (in Bpeeeh or writmg)| 

i^\0ai fatdhat. 
Flnenty^^ iMlr, ^^^foM. 

Fluid, Jljuri ioyifdJ, JjL «dy^, 

Fluidity, fluidneaSi ^U^ maifd^. 

Flurry. See Hurryi flutter; gust, 

Flush, j^ ioAr. See Copious. 

Fluster, «. (intoxicate slightly), 
^^\ askar. 

Flute, <• ^^3pU fidwtoh, (/l-J ndy, 
jL«j^ mii»fidr, ^uLl thabhdhat. 

Flutter, V. (the wings), (-Jyj rafraf, 
i,o^\i^L^j^ dardbjand haho; (to 
vibrate), J^Ack- khafai, /♦l^- ^m. 

Flutter, flut(;ering (vibration), i^j^ 
harakat, ^Jits-j ra^h, J]j-|j Mkdl; 
(hurry of mind), c^l^^kjl Mirdh. 

Flux (flowing), ^^^►/r jaraydn, 

fJL^ Mifoldn. Flux and reflux 

of the tide, jj>'j*^ ff^d tpa 

jatr; (a dysentery), Jlf^sl wAd/. 

Abloodyflux, /^jJ^^^^U^/Virdydn 

ai^m ; (confluence). 

633 FOG 

Fluxion. See Flux, flowing. 

Fly, V. j\Jb idr. To cause to fly, 

jJiff tayyar. To fly at, ^a^ 

hajam. To fly (to avoid punish- 

ment), ^U>.(^^Jl£>* JchaMas hdhko. 

To fly off (revolt, desert), 

^Mf. To fly (abandon), 

iarak, jS^ hajar. To fly fia 

refiige, ^jf^\ iltaja\ To fly to 
any person for refbge, ^^^^a^l 

Fly, <• i^^Uj iubhdnai. [tayfrnr. 
Flyer, «. (through the air), ^Ib 
Flying, part.ji^ tayy&r; (running 

away), /MJf^ ma^fini. 
Foam, iyij raghwat. The foam of 

the w^j^MySj raghwat al hahr. 
Foam, r. |<i^ ragM^ Jjj soioiiL 
Fob, <. (jM^ Hb^ Uj fpo^d. 
Fob, r. ^Jis, ghaah. See Cheat, 

elude, put off. 
Fodder (dry food stored for cattle). 

Fed with fodder, uJ^U^ ma^/u/. 

To fodder, u,b1j» ^alaf. 
Foe, «. j«Xe ^oiil. 
Foetus, 8. ^j^j^janln. 
Fog, «. ^L«0 dahdhat, a^ ghoffm, 
^ Foggiuess, ^ yAuym. 




Fob, g\j w&h. 

Foible, 9. \^^*r. ^yh^jyoi huiLr. 

Foil, V, (froBtrate), CyJ^S- khayyab. 

See Defeat, disappoint, worst, 


Foil, «. (defeat). ^Jib haamat^ 
Aj^^ MiAtsdm; (whatever illoB- 
trates or renders another thing 
brighter), fy»^ mvnawtoir, 

Foisty V. (insert fraudolently), 

sotfwor ^drdt wa fuuahahd Ha' 
al musafMff, 

Fold (for sheep), j^ia^ ha%fr. A 
fold or leaf in a book, c/^^ 
matwa* (plor. v/^Usl« ma^crf). 
Two>fold, cjL-^L.*^ mudd^af. 
Three-fold, uJUj^JlAj saldsat 
ud^df. Fonr-fold, uJUi^^jl 
arha^at ad^df. 

Fold, f^. (sheep), ^i^t<w^ %arabal 
ghanam. To fold (cloth, etc.), 
^^Jk ^ira'. To fold up a letter. 

Folded, v/j^ mu/u^. 
Foliaceoos, jV[^f^ laho awrdk. 
Foliage (leayes), ^j^j' awrdk. 
Folk, ^y ibtcwi, j;]l^ khalk, Lso^ 

Follow, V. (go after), jL lehek; 
(to imitate), al/ Mhd; (to f 

attend upon as a dependant), 
/^J^ khadam; (to obey), ^ 
td^f Jli^^ imtasal, ^J^ az^an. 
To follow (be busied about), 
JjLujf inshaghal. 

Follower, 9. %J^ tdli^y i^'^^^^ 
muktail, ^^ JCLsr* muhtazl, ^^ 

Following (going after), ^^ 
muidhi^, ^l,,:.,,*;^ muiatdbi^. 
Following as a necessary conse- 
quence, /^jsL* multazim. [hahlul. 

Folly, jAftl-J bild ,jikl, J^J 

Foment, v, (cherish with heat), JuJb 
hahhal, L<'<k>- hamma* ; (to bathe 
with warm lotions), L^Jama 
^jiSr^ ghcual hmd 9ukkn ; (to sup- 
port, encourage, excite), {jOj»- 
harrad. To foment disturbance, 
<.;r»iJlv,li^ harrak al JUnat, 

Fomentaticm, «3lm«Xj takmld, jU^ 
kimdd, (J^^ tahhlL 

^d9hik. Fond of the company 
of women, ^^^*yJlJ^U^L^^%«r^ 
muhib mu^9harat al ni9U?dn. 

Fond of himself, ij\ji^^ys^ 
muhib zdtaho. 
Fondle, r. ^j^^a^ hadan, JliL^ 
^fMk. See Caress, embrace. 


Fondler, t . jLi^ umiMUik. 

Fond, jJl JjL« i7}ay*7 »7a', fj^ 




Fondling, «. (person much admired 
or caressed), c,jj,^ .jt^ tnahbah, 

Fondly, ^(J^m hi^hktn. 
Fondness, j|^ ahawk, ^JJjI*^^ ^hh. 
Food, Cl^yi hat, ^^UL ta^m, IjLfi 

Fool, B, ^y-^ mafnUn ; (a jester), 

SjS!**^ ma%khara, 
Foolhardiness, j^d^^SA ^adam 

tadblr. Foolhardy, J^f^ muta- 

Foolish, ^y-^ mafnUn. 
Foolishly, ^Jj^^ min ghayr 

tadblr, JJu^Juu hi^am ^kl. 
Foolishness, i[^Li ghahdwat. 
Foot, 8. .♦ Ji kadam, Js^j rxjl. The 

foot of a mountain, ^*^ mfh, 
. To go on foot, j<*t»^ meshl. To 


be on foot (in a posture of action 
ready for anything), -ia^ to- 
haddar. The sole of the foot, 
i«ji kadam. [man. 

Foot-boy, *. |*1U ghuldm. See Foot- 
Footing, Jj>-^ rijl; (condition), 

JU- A5Z, j^U shdn. 

Foot-sock, 8, ij^y ^ ^y tnawtd. 

Footstep, 8. /♦fcX-J kadam, ^y 

mawta\ \_hdUho. 

Fop, *. <Lll>-J^adLi^ muftakhtr Ji 

Foppery (Faulty, foppishness), 

-A « 

dLjbL* mu^d^A. See Folly, 

Foppish, Jtb ^d^. See Foolish, 

vain, ostentatious. 
Foppishly, )U?b hdttlan. 

For (on acoount of), Jj>*) lu^l. 
For the love of Ood, for God's 

sake, ^S1 iHah. For ever, for 
ever, and for ever, UjI J dayman. 
For the sake, Jbls^ likhdtir. 
Forage, t— tt\,f> ^oZo/, ^/uuMMfv- Aa«Al«A. 

Forbear, r. (intermit), uji^j3 ^ 
wakkaf ; (to abstain), 
t<yanndb\ (to be patient), 
8dbar ; (to be merciful), ^Jx^ 
shafak ^ala\ m^j raham. 

Forbearance (abstinence), c^Lis»-1 
iftindh, j\r^\ Mirdz, ^\yC^\ 
imtipd^; (intermission), t^My 
tatcakkuf, JUjbl ihmdl. See 
Delay. — (patience), j^^^^ ^ahr, 
J ^ nr* tahammtd ; (leniency, 
mercy), Ia^^j^ marhamat, AAft*^ 
8hafakat, m»^Jj tarahhum, ^Uo^j 

Forbid, i^. ^J^ rnana^. [munAo'. 
Forbidden, ^y^^t^^ marnnH^^ l5^ 
Forbidder, «Jt« mSnt^. 
Forbidding (prohibiting), part. 




Fom (strength), iy Htoat, j^ji 
htdrmt, j\s:j\ iHiddnii^ tdhU; 
(Tiolence), Jia wuhnf j^ jahr; 
(necessity, destiny), ij^j^^ 
dmrUrat, LoJ kadd, j*ssu* mv- 
hddar. c-'^on} na$\h\ (an ar- 
mament),^^Cu*£ ^kar. By force, 
\j0^ jabran, \ji kahran. 

Force (to nse), j^p^ jabar; (to 
impel, drive), ^J dafa^; (to 
OTerpower), i^ J r ghdlah ; (to 
storm), ^»jsr^ hajam. 

Forced (compelled), j^-x^ tnajhur ; 

(overpowered), c^^LL« maghtuh. 
Forcedly, J^-^ jabran. See By 

force, compulsively. [ihztra^. 

Forceless, S^aJI^Jlc ^a<^m a J 
VoTce^Sfiii^ kaUdhatt^^yxA^kalhatUn 
Forcible, forceful (strong), ^^y 

iatrl ; (violent), <^jL:>f. canlf. 

See Impetuous, vehement. — 

(done by violence), ^j^ johrl. 
Forcibly, j[jjJ^ ^^ lawr, \j^ 

jabran, 'L^^ raghman, 'i^ 

^1 JcJlj kUwattan tea iktiddran. 

Ford, «. ^^«JaA^ tnakta^ nahr. 

Ford, v.^fJf^lai kaia^an%ahr. 
Fordable, ^13a:>£ yiM^i^. 
Fore, JJ ib^. See Former, for- 
meny^ befoiv. 

Forebode, v. J^iJ tafawwalm See 

Foreboder, «. J^ii^ mtdafawwil. 

Forecast, if^^ma) hMlrat, To fore* 
cast,j^)liLJlc^j^^LM» «a&iii( u^a 
nosor ^hibat alamr. See Foresee, 
adjust, contrive. 

Forecastle (of a ship), ^..^yiSjX^ 
»adr al markah, 

Forecited,j^Xii \ al nunkilr,jy Xii \ 
al tnazbUr, j^U.i,i4.H al tnoitUr, 
^\j[jLa^\ al mushdr Uayhi, See 
Above-mentioned, aforesaid. 

Foreclose, v. See Preclude, pre- 
vent, shut up. [Predestinate. 

Foredoom, v. jJlJ kaddar. See 

Forefather, «. A>- /oeW (pL j\ Jl>-\ 

Forefinger, «. See under finger. 

Forefoot, «. i«Jj kadam. 

Forego, v. (quit, resign), di^ torifit. 

Forehead, «. ,.t^M>- jahln, Ki^mr>- 

jabhat. Lines on the forehead, 

jL«»1 cwrdr. 
Foreign (of a different country, not 

domestic), v»^^ gharib. Foreign 

or contrary to established custom, 

ifjUJlwilU^ khUaf al ^ddat ; 

(not analogous), i^'^tA \ ^j^ 

ghagr mun&iib. 
Foreigner, «. c*^ j^ ghat\h ^^^^k. 




\jjC ghtrahdf S-^ ghurh). To 
become a foreigner (to travel), 
^L» a&far^ ^-^/^ tagharrab. To 
pretend to be a foreigner, . J^ 
v»^ -c^U- ^mal hdlaho gharih. 
Having a foreign air, or behaving 
in a foreign manner, ^ycuM^ 

'FoTeigTmeBa,i)jCghurhat; (without 

analogy), iAi\y^\AJ^ ^adam al 

Forejudge, r. UJusJl^^ hakam 

salafan. See Prejudice. 
Foreknow, v. uJ^jj;^ sabak 

toa^ef, [headland. 

Foreland, «. (jw|^ rds. See Cape, 
Foreleg, s. t^S*^ mankah, c\jj 

Forelock, ». L^\j ndsiyat (plur. 

i^^y nawdBl). 
Foreman, «. ^j**^j rages. 
Foremast, «. i^^jAi\^jia »drl al 

marhah, [before-mentioned. 

Fore-mentioned. See Forecited, 

Foremost, M^dj\ akdam, Jjff awwal. 
To go foremost, aJU takaddam. 
See Precede. [mentioned. 

Fore-named. See Forecited, above- 
Forenoon,^^! JJI kdbl al zuhr. 
Forensic (belonging to courts of 

justice), iH J^^^^^J^^^. 
matuiib Ua* dlwdn al ^addkU, 

Fore-ordain, v. See Pre-ordain, pre- 

Forepart, ^dA^ mukaddamai. 

Forecited. See Forecited, above- 
Forerun, v. ^J^ sabak. 
Forerunner, s. j;^L> sdUk. The 
forerunner of good news, j^L^ 
Foresay, r. See Foretel. 
Foresee, v.Jaj^fj^ sabak wa noEor* 
Foreseen, Lii^^^lia:^ moMUr 
salafan, [nosticate. 

Foreshow, v. See Foretel, prog- 
Foresight (prudence), ^^-m^ baslrat. 
Jii: ^akl, l^Li^e^l Migdt ; (pre- 
science), (Ji«J ta^akkul. 
Foreskin, s. ciix ghalaf. 
Forest, s, ^A^ hirsh, ^U ghdhak 
Forestei, s. (officer of a forest), 

tAr*"'c^^«*^ t^arJiyfin al hirsh. 
Foretel, v. J\i^fatahflL 
Forethought, ij^^^ baslrat. 

Foretoken, v, , ^^ tanahba\ See 
Prognosticate, presage, [htdddm. 

Foretooth, s, ^\jk&Jl^UMi 9mdn al 

Forewarn, v. ^ nasah. See Ad- 
monish, caution. 

Forfeit, s. ^\jC ghardmat, 




jarfmat See Fine, mulct, 
penalty. [See Confiscate. 

Forfeity p, m^^ jaram, Ix^ dahat. 


Forfeiture, i^jjs^ jarimat. See 

Forgave, pret, of forgive. 

Forge, s. (for iron work), ^yj 
tannur, jljkk.^jU-j1 auy'dk al 
hadddd. See Furnace. 

Forge, V. (with a hammer), JJ 
tiJoA^h dak hil tnatraka ; (to fal- 
mfyXjJj mwwar ; (to make), J^ 
^maL To forge a lie, s_o'--r 
h^ %annaf ktzbat. To forge a 
deed, (J,<^o.4". HjlJlJ kaUad al 

Forged, jjj^ muzawwar. Any- 
thing forged, ^^JuiiJ taklldl. 

Poiger, 9.j*y$ muzawwir. 

Forgery (Msification), JuLSj takhd, 

Forget, r. ^j»^ nesl, <Ub^^-\j 

rdA m«ii hdliho, [nasydn. 

Forgetful, j<-aLj nd«l, ^^L 

Forgetfulness, (^^LmJ nisydn. 

Forgetfully, \y^ »ahu>ant 

naayan, [See Pardon. 

Porgive, r. jki, ghafar^ J^ iafah. 

PorgiTen, ^jy^ tmiph/ar laho. 


Forgiveness, iyik^ maghfaratf y^s. 

Forgiver, %,jyLkg1u»furtj\kkghaffilr, 
Forgot, forgotten, |<mm^ mun«a'. 
Fork, «. ^^ forketta, [matrnk. 
Forlorn, JjJls^ makhsLUl, C^^j^ 
Form (figure, shape), JCl <AaiU 
(plur. JIL!)\ ashkdi), ijyc tUrat 
(-plvLT, jya Miwar), c-.Jli kdlih; 
(order, stated method), Jty^^ 
manwdl, ijx\j kd^dat, L^^\ 
uslnh, (^yl3 kdnUn, .^Uai nusdm, 
^UkiJl tntiidm, u.'^jV tartih. 
Exterior form, ^ll^^j*^ «tirii^ 
zdhirat. The interior form, ^U t 
alhdtin, i:>^\iijyfi mrat hdtituU, 
The exterior and interior form, 
^bji^U? 2dAt> t(;a Mtin. The 
form or essential modification of 
man, djjJ^\^^JLA\ asstfat al 
hcuharigaL The form of any- 
thing delineated on paper, etc., 
jK^j rasm. A form (mould), 

c^lS kdUb. 
Form, r. (make), J^ ^mal; 

(shape),j|^Mt£war; (to arrange) 

Jiaj na%am; (to contrive), f/^1 


Formal (precise), Cl>\iK3L».*i*»-l^ 
8dhih takaUufdt ; (methodical), 





jyLrfjJtj^lL^ mutdhik adduitUr, 
^y\ji\^\y mwcdfik al hUnHLn, 

Formality, «i.j..4.».*)^ijL-c ^dat 

Formally (according to established 

rules), Um^^ ragman, j;i\^^c ^ 

^JUJI hi naw^n muwdfik al 

kdnUn ; (ceremoniously), JC^ 
k^iXij hikol tahtlf. 

Formation, ^Jl^ takwln, 
tarM, LL^ khalkat 

Formed, ^^^-^ makhluk, c y^^a^ 
masnU^ jjr^^ tnusawtpor. A 
former, jj:^<3/« mtuawwtr. 

Former, (j^\^ sdhikf /«JJL« mukad- 
dam. Former times, ^^L^lJl 
^LJ\ asBzamdn assdhik. For- 
merly (in former times), 1«aL« 

Formidable, c,^^.^ mu^I^, t^Jkr^ 

mukhatmcif. See Terrible, dread- 
ful, tremendous, powerful. 
Formidableness, ^Ljb hayhat, ^lf« 

muhdhat, iyia^9atwat,i}yc Batolat 
Formidably, i^-Jb J^ Jti&<?/ hdyhat 
Formless, i^^L lild sUratyj^^ 

Formulary (book of models, regula- 
tions, laws, etc.), J«4Jt)\j|^J 

daatUr al ^mal 6^\j ^J \j kdnUn 

Fornioation, Ijj stiid. A fornicator, 

ij^j wdnl. A fornicatress, ^|j 

wdnUfaif <Lyyk>-li fdhiahdt, iJLi\i 
Forsake, v, CjjJ turak,jS^ hajar. 

To forsake a habit, ij\^\cJ^ 

tarak dl ^dat. [halaf. 

Forswear, v, >mJ kasam, <— iJ.->- 

Fort, fortress, », <u)j kal^t, ^j^a^- 
him (plur. ^^y^^^ htuHn), To 
retire to a fort, iAAl]^^^;'^^/^ 
tahassan fl al kal^. The gate 
of a fort, ^ulftJf^'b hdh alkal^. 

Forth (abroad), -.jl-ri- khdrif, 
LbU? sdAiran. To bring forth 
children or young, d^jJj mUdat 
To set forth (describe),^^) AsAor, 
u^j u^a^a/. To sally forth, 
j^s^ hajam, Forthcoming,yil^ 
hddtr. To be forthcoming, j«da^ 
tahaddar. From this time forth, 
IjxL'j^t^ min aldn wasd- 
^dan, tXx:\t^i flmd ha^. And 
so forth, (JU|^ walhdl^. Forth- 
right (in a right line), ^^j ^y^)asir 
hikhattin tnutawdzl. Forthwith, 
fj\J\d fllhdl. 

Fortieth, ^^y^j^ arhu^n. 

Fortification (the science of fortify- 
ing), ^jtt'oair tahsln, ^^^--^atfiil^Jx 
^Im al tahaln. A fortification 




(nmpait, etc.), ^U:j hunydn. 
A strong fortificatioD, ^ »n r*- 

Fortify, r. (make strong), ^^J^ 
iatcwa^ ; (with ramparts, etc.), 
^^^«a>. hassan; (to defend, pro* 
tect), i^^ hdnu^. [tnuhassan. 
Fortified, ^y^ts:^ tnahsUn, ^j^^s:^ 
Fortitude, S;Um£>- jasdrat, <Lj l .g 
saldhai, i£\jBr^ shajd^t 

Fortnight, «. ^^^pju^ jutn^tln. 
Fortress, 8, See Fort, fortification. 
Fortnitons, ^j^ ^drdl, ^j^j^ 
^aradi, ciUjf ittifdJcl. Fortuit- 
ously, \9\iu\ ittifdkan. 

Fortunate, h\ ' *^**^ sa^d, J*aamu« 
moi^^p ^Ugc,,^f^lig 8dhih tdli^, 
ij^£^ mukhUf CJ>^2^ mahkhnt 
The fortunate islands, j^\j^\ 
iJL^\^[i:\ ajjazdyer al khdliddt 

Fortunately, Ijuuoj Lla^- hasuan 

Fortune, ^_ --^ ■ tuuihi L:;^rig^ 
ftoM^, ^U? ^/t^. Good fortune, 
i» jU..! sa^ddat. Bad fortune, L 
^o/d. A man favoured hy fortune, 
^ILv— ^r>-l.g Bdhih tdli^ For- 
tune (possessions), Jt« m^/ (pL 
Jl^^ amwdt), jfjj rkk (plur. 
^1 ^\ amdk). To tell fortunes. 

najjam. A fortune-teller. 

Forty, ^^r^HVj^ orW^iw, j^yu;\ 
Forum, «. (puhlio place), ^^Ju^ 

Forward, |%loJ kidddm, /^\^\ amdm; 

(zealous, warm), ij^ L^^r^\^ 

sahib ghlrat', (presumptuous), 

jyp>-^ mtUahawunr; (impudent), 

L».Sb htld hayd\ (premature), 

J^ ^^h J-^ t^fil' For- 
ward fruits, ij 3t%r,j^ hthiir\ 
(anterior), ajOj hadtm^ a*xL% 
mukaddam, Jjfl awwdl. 

Forward, t;. ^«jj kaddam; (despatch 
as a letter), fj^aji araal ; (to 
patronize), JT hafna\ 

Forwardly, L*-iy«» sari^n, j<Lc 
^Lc^l ^a* al ^alaU 

Forwardness (ardor), ij^ ghlrat; 
(quickness), ^c^ tur^\ (earli- 
ness), s}tS^ ta^V, ^lLb^ ^jalaU 

Fosse, «. (ditch), JJCo- kkandak. 

Fossil, «• (mineral) (J J^x^ ma^dRemf • 

Foster, r. ci-^li ifi^, ^^ rahhi. See 
Nurse, feed, support, encourage, 
educate. — ^A fosterer, ^^^ mm- 

Foul (dirty), ^/u^ m^m; (abomin- 
able), »^J^ mdhfUhp iJ^ iarih ; 
(wicked), iX^iVs /dtid, ^ij^ thotei) 




4^^ kabihf L^9y^^ ma^Hb ; 
(not legal), y^j^jn^ ghayr %har^ ; 
(gross, oorrupted), Ju^jU fdM. 
A foul action, .^v^J^ ^amdl 
kahlh. Foul-faced, ^^IsJ^ViU^ 
karih al mamar. To fall foul (to 
reproach), f^^ toabhakh; (to come 
to blows), \yj\^ taddraha. To 
run foul (to dash together, as 
ships, etc.) \yj\^ toiddmH. 
Foul, V. ^/u^ noj^'at. 

__ • 

Fouled, y*tj^\^ munojlfas. 

Foulness, LJ^nty'dsat, ^^ wasakh ; 
(villany), ^IJ kabdhat, i^lLl 
»h4xkdwat, J^V^ shand^at. 

Found {part.oftad),Jy^y mawfud. 

Found (lay a foundation, etc.), ^«0j 
(j^\Ji\i€ada^al atdt, ^^it^\ assiu; 
(to build), ^^ hana\jA£> ^ammar ; 
(to establish), u, ^^^n^ nasah. 

Foundation, «. ^^^ hunydn, ^\ 
asl, /^Lm>1 a8»d8. From the 
foundation, fjjXJi\^j^ min al 
asd8. Making or laying a founda- 
tion, (j^\Ji\^^^ wada^ al asat. 
Foundations, cuL^Lol oidadt. 
Charitable oreleemosjnaryfounda- 
tions (as colleges, hospitals, etc.), 
uJl3j1 awkdf, cijLuud. hasandt 
Foundation (origin),. ^J^l asl, 

Founded, jy^*^ ma^mftr, ^j»t^yt 
muoMiM. Well-founded (true), 
(jmDI^^j rdvikh alasds, ^\j 
^J^Ji\ rdiikh ali»rkdn,Ju:Ji\ '^\j 
rdtikh al htniydn. 

Founder, <• (builder), vJU ^nf, 
jUa^ mu^mdr, ^jt»^y mtfomr; 
(one from whom anything origi- 
nates), ^Ju^ mubdi^ 

Founder, r. (sink as a ship), ^s^ 

Foundry, «. 'A^- — mashah. 
Foundling, 9. LdJ liklt. 
Fountain, 9. ^^ ^ayn (plur. ^^ 

^oyuit), ^^^ manba^ 

yanhu^ (plur. ^1:j yandhl^ ); 
(a jet or spout of water), ^j^jj^oL^ 
9hdderwdn; (original, first cause), 
fJJ\ 091, lukin/t inan«AJ, 1ju/t 
Muhdd. The fountain of life, 
i\^\^j^ ^ayn al haydh. 
Four, !juj\ arha^at. The space of 
four years, ^ ^\ Ju uj\ arha^ 
9inln. The space of four months, 
j^\dMj\ arha^ a9hhur. The 
space of four days, /^[j\ijLjJ\ 
arha^at ayydm. Four-square, 
^j^ fnurahha^. A four-square 
figure, ^JjJLii 9hail tarhl^. 
Four-fold, cJU^tfl^jt arba^t 
ad^f. The four quarters of the 




wofld, Sj ^iM^\c\j j\iMjj\ arha^t 
arhd^al maskAnat. Fourscore, 
^^Uj tamdfan. Four hundred, 
^^^j\ arha^ may at. Four 
thonaand, f^i\itOj\ arha^ dl&f. 

Fourteen, jlLe.huj\ arha^t ^har. 
Fdirteenthy^^juLc w tjfdt^'^ ^a«Aar. 

FourCh, 9. ^\j r&hi^ ho\j rdhi^t, 
A fourth part, wj ruh^ 

Fourthly, \fu\j rdhi^n. 

Fowl, f.jJio tayr. 

Fowl* v.jy^X>^ tasayyad tuyUr. 

Fowler, s, jULo »ayydd, j^^\j\^ 

myydd attuyHr, 
Fox, 8. i^>\ti sa^lah (plur. e^U3 

M&d/f}). A fox-hunter, oL^^ 

^^.^^JjdSf saydd tLSsa^lab, 
Fraction, j**^ kasr. Fractions of 

integral numbers, JJutiV^j^M^ 

huur al c adad. 
Fracture, ij*J^ Juurat. To set or 

consolidate a fracture,^^f^ya^W. 
Fracture, v, y*^ kasar. 
Fragile, ^4«JCm« munkasir. 
Fragility, Jl^Uj nazdkat, ^uLLS 

jLJl3!l\ kdhHiyat al inkisdr. See 

Fragment, «. i^ kasrat. 
Fragitace, v,,^ ^f&, -.y /»k;A, 

^^kc ^uir, ia^ na/hat (plur. 

CL?U^ nafhdt). To diffuse fi^- 
grance, ^ nafah. 

Fragrant, JaA^ ma^Uar. 

Fragrantly, la<;vi fdyhan. 

Frail, vJU /dni, Jlj Jlw^ mtI^ 

atstawdl, ^,i<,tUT <fo^f/^ juS^f 
munkasir, A frail, J^J san&f/. 

Frailness (frailty), Ixi /a^, (k^om 
du^. Human frailty, i^-a-jc^ 
£»^^du*J\<<.tUyiUH du^al tabi^t al 

Frame, v. (make), J^ ^amalf J^j 
toaffak; (join, adapt, fit), (j^^y* 
See Make, compose, form, settle, 
contrive, plan, fabricate, invent. 

Frame, ** j^^A ^^f^^^* Frame of 
mind,^!^) Jl»^ hdl al khdtir; 
(a mould), ^>. ILi kdltb; (a 
border), ^L^U- hdshiyat. 

Framer, «. vib idnf, JxWyd^i/. 
France, iUj]^ Frdnsa. 
Franchise, i\i\j^ mu^fdh. To 

enfranchise, »\i U^ ^^i^U manahaho 

Frangible. See Fragile, brittle. 
Frank (liberal), aJ^ karim, lc«^ 

M^i; (open, sincere), ^j^^^ 

Frankly (liberally), Uj^ kariman, 


cerely), LaLar* mtikMisan, jCj 
Sa^Js^ hiJcol haklhat. 


Prankness (generosity), ^ karam, 
ijLs*^ sakhdwat ; (sincerity), 
^^L^l iJchlds. 




' U. 



majnUn ; (enraged), 

Fraternal, t/^1 ahhawi. Fra- 
ternally, j^1^«rs.-j(ljl^ ww^ fl? 
ailAtrdn. [mtitrdi&Ad^. 

Fraternity, i^^ akhwiyat, JUi-l^ 

Fratricide, ^Lr^l Jjfli i^d^t/ o^AdlA. 

Fraud (fraudulence), jL^ mukr, 
ijuJ^ khadl^at, jl^J^ taztolr, 
<lL>- AI^^, iJlc ghadr, S^ kayd, 

Fraudfol, fraudulent, jlL« makkdr, 
Fraudulently, ii-Jb Ji7 hllat 

Fraught (full, stored), ^ 

mtuhhUn ; (laden), Jj ^.ic*^ 

maAmtZ/. [fight 

Fray. See Brawl, hoil, battle, duel. 

Freak, freakishness, JL^ khiydl, 

Freakish, ^^^ toahmlf ^<J\,i>f^ 
hhiydii. See Capricious, whim* 

Free (not a slave, at liberty), 
Jmrr^ J^j^^ ahtdr (fern, i 

..AmrraJi); (gn'MeBB), ^ji hwr\\ 

(permitted), J)l>- A^d/, ^jo^j^ 
murakhkhas; (open, ingenuous), 
^jl^ «d(^ii(; (common, public), 

tnuihdrakf cSjJL^ muahtarak. 
Free, r. (set at liberty), j!l>\ aUak, 

^jss.\ a^ak. [derar. 

Free-booter, ». See Bobber, plun- 
Free-bom, J*^ j(l^ hurr al asl. 
Free-cost, ^ r^^ ^^ ^Aai^. 
Freedman, «. ^J^ ^tik (fern. 

XJLxt. ^atlkat). 
Freedom, ^ «»- hurriat, ^Jss. ^atit. 
Freely (at liberty), ij». Jij Mb/ 

hurriat ; (without restraint), 

Freeman, s. ,»- hurr. 

Freeze, t;. iX4^ jammad; (to be 

frozen), jL^asrt injamad. 
Freight, v. (load a ship), ^I-^j 

L^^ u7Ma^ markah ; to let out 

a ship for hire), c-.-4;*«J[jli 

itot£^a/ m<ir^a^. 
Freight (cargo), <£a^j waskai ; (the 

price paid for shipping goods), 

^J^y nawlun, A freighted ship, 

JjlLtc-..^^ markah mukdtcai. 

French or a Frenchman, (^Lj^ 

Frenzy, ^^^:.>- jWnOii, /%L«;«« Mndm. 
The frenxy of Iofp, ^/^jilt^y^ 




jmiMn 0I ^ukk Frenetio. See 
Freqaency (often happening), ijt^ 
burat,j\jij tikrdr. Frequency, 
frequence (oonoourae), j^^4>>- 

Frequent, JJ^ wmUinMid,j^ 

Freqnent,9.(vifiit often) J^U ^d«W, 

^^JJJ taraddad ^ala\ To be 

frequent (happen often), J«d;». 

ij^jSj/fS hasalamrSr kaslrai ; (to 

be nnmerous),^!^ Jte$&r. A place 

which one frequents, ^jJb^^j,^^ 
mahatt matrikh* \^^ala\ 

Frequenter, «. IpJJ^ mutaraddid 

Frequently, kzAjp\jt^\ aksar al 
awhdt, ij^j\j^\ amrdr kasirat. 

Fresh (cool), Jj\j hdrtd; (green, 
nnfaded), Sj\3 tSza, ^^ iari, 
^m^j ratib; (new), J^jJo^jadld; 
(yigorous), ^^y kawi ; (fasting), 
A^l^ idyim. Fresh water (not 
salt), ^U md hala. A fresh 
egg, i[jl34J^ hayda tdza. 

Freshen, r. (make friesh), ifj\jji 
^amal tdm, t^Jo tarra\ 

Freshness, i^\Jb Uirdwat; (coolness) 
if Jjy Imr^dtd. 

Fxvt, f . (on the i&Bger board of a 

• • 

• • 

guitar, etc.), <U*^\.^ nu 
(fermentation of liquors) 
takhmir; (agitation of mind), 
L^SJcLa] idtirdh. 

Fret, V. (make angry), v. 
ghaddah \ (to be angry), 
yhedeb; (to be worn), mVt 5 T 
takatta^; (to eat away), J^ akal, 
^^^M^ lahoB. To fret (as liquors), 
jASj>.\ ikhtamar. 

Bori^ al ghadab. 

Fretfully, ^\}^\i h%%dt%rdh^\^ 
ghadabanj ^^ ^»An} hi ghadabtn. 

Fretfulness, i^^r ghadab, L^\Jb^\ 
idtirdb, A-c gham. 

Friable, ^JSik^Jb hath. Friability, 
^luJb hashdshaL 

Friar, $, c^ 

Friction, uX^ hak, lUk * C nr* 

tahklk, J^Ju tajrik, ^j^^ 

Friday, ^U^jpt^jj gawm ajjum^L 

Fried, ^^a^ mukll. 

Friend, «. c^%s^ muhub, c^>t»i.»f»- 
hahlhf ^j^j raflky JI^Ju^ zadlik^ 
JJl^ WuM, l.;..onU %dh\b. A 
sincere friend, jjl it^s^^ ir^ 
mMb iddik, ^jAJs^L^^m^ mtMb 
fmikhUt. An old friend, i^^«%.U 
Ai Ji 9dhib hailm. AdMxfm&ii) 

\j rdhib. 




• I • -• 

j-s^ *^-r^^ ^ «cZ Ai& ^<nslz. A false 
friend, c^jl^v^^-o-l^ «dAt& >^si^. 

^Friendless, TT^^^^'^^ mt^A/q;, l^/*<J^ 
muflU. See Destitute, helpless, 
poor, wretched. 

Friendly, ^U^:^ himuhahhat, JICj 
hikol suhhat. 

Friendship, <Us^ muhabhat, »Jy 
mufcaddat, <C3^Ju« saddkat. Inti- 
mate friendship, JlaJI «(/^a^, jla^l 
ittihdd. Mutual and sincere 
friendship, Z^jLa/* mutddaHtat, 
i^^^Jsr^ mukhdhsat, ^ ^.mr^ 
i^jJ^ muhabhat tnuihtarakat, 

muhabhat hahlhlat. 
Frigate, *. <Uliu J fregdta. 
Fright, Jy^ hawl, uJ^ khawf. 
Frighten, r. uJ[^ khawwaj^ y— ^&t 

ra^^a^. See Terrify. Frightened, 

• uJaIs^ mukhawwaf. 

Frightful, uJ^-ii^ iwuifeAtt/ A 
frightful figure, J^«^^j u^^/^ 

FrightfuUy, j^l-*-3;\j^<— i^ J^ 
^/J^o/ khatcfin wa irti^sh. 

Frightfulness, uJ^ khawf. 
Frigid (without warmth), J^U ^dru^; 

t</ muhabhat. Frigid in constitu- 
tion, ^\y^\jj\i bdrid al miiaj. 

Frigidity, fHgidness (want of heat), 
i*^^ji httrudat; (want of affec- 
tion), <U5:^i«jLC ^adammukabhiU; 
(frigidity of constitution), i*^^j» 
^]}^\ burHLdat al mttdj. 

Frigidly (coldly), i^^jJCj hikol 
hwndat; (unaffectionately), ^ 
^Ux^Vfti mm i^hayr muhahhai; 
(impotentiy), i^j^^^ mm 
ghayr kUwat. 

Fringe, J^Sj^ ka^hkash. The 
fHnges of a head-dress (also 
roond gannents),C^liLBr'«s^*di&d^. 

Fringe, v.ciJ Is Lp«*J^ ^ofnal tafdkdi. 
Fringed, (J^p"^ mmajjak. 

Frippery (old clothes), fjs^0^\m>^ 
hawdyej ^tak. 

Frisk, r, laj nati,jAi kamatL 
Frisldness, ^L«:u\ ihtisdm, ttV^^ 
ibtihdj, -^ farah. See Gaiety, 
liveliness. [moirHr. 

Frisky, ^jL.>yi farhdn, jfj/**^ 
Frith, 8, (of the sea), jU^ hughdt. 

See Straits. 
Fritter, «. ,J-«^jj«-^ lajln mukJa. 
Fritter, v. See Mince, cnimhle. 

Frivolous, _:j(^L hUd ma^na', jLli 
hdtU. Frivolousness, ^Ji li,j 

hUldn. FrivoloDslyy Jtb^cyj 

Etifidey 9. jAJll\kL^y^ ka^ak 

Frock, «. c3^>dib. 

Fiog, «. ^ ji«0 dafdM (plar. e jli.^ 

Frolic, «. •. U moat^ ff^ tahrlj; 
(frolicsome), /^yL^ IkwAiUA, 
y^ji^"^ mmkhm^ j^j^ muharrif. 

From, ^ ^an, ^ mVit. From 
me, lO-^ ^aiifil, ^^j^^ mtiiiil. 
From ^ee, CS>:^ minnak, uX^ 
^mmak. From him, ^U^ mtinaAo, 
A:^ ^aniuiAo. From her, If^^ 
mmhd, Ifx um^. From ns, 
\L« mtimd, llfi ^ofind. From 
yon, ^»^^ mmibmi, ^»^Lf ^aitJhim. 
From them, ft^ mmhum, m^ 
^arnkmn. From another, ij^^^^ 
minghayrdho. From all antiquity, 
fi^^J^ m«9i kadlm. From all 
eternity, i}J^^^J^ ^^^ alaaal. 
From the beginning, Ijcj^f^ 
Mtn al ibtidd. From top to 
bottom, k---*A«!'^'(jwy\^^ mill 
arrd,9 Ua^ al ^akb. From infanoy, 
A,j, \ysi\i U^ mm aUifiUiyat 
From that time, ^Uplul^ J^ 
mtn Mhk tuMomdn. From morn- 
ing till evening, L^t ^1 .LJl^ 
mm aanMk M t^huuA, From 

545 FHO 

remote ancestry, ^Jl^^ LjI 
o^^an ^on jiddin. From day to 

yoi^m. From above, J^^;^ 
min fawk. From below, ^ 
o%2^ mtn ^^. From without, 
^j\^\^ mm (Mh&rij. From 
wiihtn, J^l^^ mm ddkkH, 
From afar, Juju^ m«n ia^fJ. 
Front, V. (forehead, q. v.), ..•'m^- 
jabln, J^mP^jabhiU. The front or 
fore part (of anything), ^\jlJI 
kuddm. The front of an army, 

ajjay%ht ^LmjlJ 1^*1 Jul JbM^dm a/ 
^Mibr. The front of a building, 
^UjJ! ^j frof'A 0^ ^mdrat. In 
the front, JjU^ mttjto^7, ^\^ 
kuddm. In front and rear, ^ 
uJi s . j |»1jj mm ^tM^dm wa khalf. 
Having a bold front (impudent), 
J^ wakih. Front to front, JjU^ 

Front, V. (confront, oppose), JjIS 
kahal. To stand in front, Jj6 
JjU^ ka^ mukdM. 

Frontier, «. j^ had (plur. J^J^>- 
hudud). Beyond the frontiers, 
J^.xk.t\^j ioard al kudnd. 

Frontispiece, «. c^UU^jj kuddm 
al bdh, IjUaJ\^L^3 vmjk 9X 




^mdrat* The frontispieoe^ title, 
etc. to a book or letter (which in 
the East are in general highly 
ornamented), ^f^-Jwc ^moditf 
^Lj J dlhdjat 

Pronilet, $. 




ajjabln. A frontstall (of a bridle), 

j;L&U hdihluk. See Headstall. 
Frost, iXAs^jalld. 
Froth, ify raghwat. The froth or 

scum which runs over a boiling 

pot, ^UL tafdhat. 

Froward, ^yoi, ghadah, ^.Jlas^ 

mutkaUibi Juxc ^anld, jij^^ 
Frowardness, ^^-^r. ghadah, l,. -^ g-i 

takalluh, ij^*^j raddwat, jLjj: 

Frown, r. {j^^ ^hat, \_^ndd. 

Frown, «. <t.<.My,r ^hsat. 

Frowningly, a<ft^. (jw^^^L-rj-^ W 
wafhin ^U8, 

Frozen, jL^^fid^ munjamid. 

Fructiferous, fnictuous, frugiferous, 
jaL^ musmir, j^U sdmir. To 
fructify, ^;^«^-jf asmar; to bear 
fruit, jUj^Ji^«k>- hamal OBmdr. 

Frugal, J-^|juibJ %ahld id akl, 
.^Ju&-n^ mu^tadil. Frugally, 
UjiifkSJf JCj ^^/ takashakuf. 

i,r Frugality, J^ilJjLjbi ttiAdi2(>/ 

Fruit (product of a tree, etc), jAj 
samr, ijAJ »amaratf i^\i fdJnhat 
(plur. ^\^fawdki) ; (advantage), 
^Jo naf^ ijj\i fdgidat, ^jm^ 
manfa^ (plur. ^^ moMdJi^f 
iti\ia^\ titifddat. Fruits, lUjf 

Fruitage (fruits of various kinds), 

^yc^j\A»i\ asmdr mutanatowi^at. 
Fruiterer, «. ^i^cUj hayyd^ 

Fruitful,^^#«i2^ mwmir, [huilrat. 
Fruitfully, ij^Jui^ hi asmdrm 

FruitfnlnesSyjUjl ismdr. 

Fruition, c.J^..^2-j tasarra/f ^tjcj 
tana^^^itm, ^JuJ tamaitu^, Zl^L^ 

Fruitless, j^t^j^ ghayr muitnir ; 
(without advantage), JMti^t^ 
hild manfa^t, jjL.jLi]L^ Md 
fdyidat, Ji?b hdtil. Fruitlessly, 
^\j hdtilan, J^\/^fj^ mm 
ghayr amdr, ij^^^^^ mm 
dun tamarat. [Autumn. 

Fruit-time, (.Jj^^t alkharif. See 

Fruit-tree, «. ijAi^ijsr' a^'arat 

Frustrate, r. /^j^ haram, u»>J!s. 
khayyabf Jj^ khasuU, SeoDis- 
appoint,defeat, baulk. Frustrated, 
fjjS^ mahrumy J^iW* wuMmSiL 




Fry, p. ^Jl5 iala\ 

Frying, s. 2^35 tahUyat, ^ kail. 


Frying-pan, ^j^^ tdjin, AjLS^ 

Fuddle, 9. (make dmnk),^^^ askar; 

(to be drunk) ^^ teker, 
Foddled, ^\;^ M^dn. See Drunk. 
Fuel (for fire), iil^ hurdkat. 
Fugitive, j<-^ ^ridi, ijuolJ^ 

yAoyr «d^a^. See also Volatile, 

unsteady, wandering. 
Fugitive, *. lSj\;^ firdri. See 

Fugitiveness, cijI^H/^Jlc ^adam 

OMobdi. See Volatility, insta- 
bility, uncertainty. 
Fulfil, V. (accomplish) j^ tamtfum; 
(to fiU full), ^ ^ahha\ 


Fulfilled (completed), mas^ mutam' 

mam; (filled full, full firaught), 

, Jo^ mumtall. 

Fulfilling, parL ^Xc mumli, 

Fnlgency, fulgidity, fulgour. See 

Splendour. — ^Fulgent, fulgid. See 
Shining, glittering. 

Full, ^j)L« maldn, ^<W fnumtall. 
Full, fiill-fed (saturated with 
meat or drink), f^\»^ shah^n. 
Full weight, ^j^\J^\^ kdmil 
al tMtn. To be too full and over- 
flowing, J^ U^0k. Full of flesh. 

,jiiA>^ samin. Full of wisdom, 
<uX>.^Jc^ mumtatl hikmat, A 
heart full of envy, ^J-x^v^Ji 
^•Xu4>- kalh mumtdll hasadan. 
The fiill moon, aUj^ JEamor 
tamdm,jiX» hadr. The fuU of the 
moon,y4iJli«Uj tamdm al kamar. 
Fuller, «. jliaS kassdr. The fuller's 
art, ^^LJ kaadrat 

Fully, iliUW ^^"^ >t«//»y< ''UUj 

tamdman, dS4>- jimlatan, ^\^\) 
htttamdm, ^^\^aAJj^^ minghayr 
nokadn. See Wholly, totally, 
entirely, directly, exactly. 

Fulminate, v, ^^j harak, Fulmina- 
tion, JljLuJl inshi^dl. [mttbrtk. 

Fulminatory, fulminant, Jrt^^ 

Fulness, ^b^l mtild, .UL ti/dh; 
(repletion), «^^ «Aa^a^ ; (large- 
ness), <U^j t£^a«^a^ ; (abundance), 
ijJ^ wafrat. Fulness of flesh, 
«t«Lu5>- jaadmat, ^^^ sumn. 

Fulsome (nauseous), ^^j^j^ ghayr 
murdl, J^^j^ ghayr makhal, 
SjJ^ makruh; (obscene), (jfib>-li 

Fulsomeness (nauseousness), »\^\ 
tkrdh; (obscenity), ^Jij^ fah»h. 

Fumble, v. (attempt or manage 
awkwardly)^; Ua-l^^^^AJI J^ 
^amai athiky min ghayr tMArai. 




ashshatdrat. [shatdrat. 

Famblingly, J^lkSi^j^ 5» ^<3M2^im 
Fume, ^U^O (^wi^AJbAdii. SeeFumi- 

gatioD, smoke, vapor ; rage. 

Fume, V. fj^^ dakhkhan. See 
Fumigate, smoke, dry in smoke ; 

Fumigate, v, ^J^*^ dakhkhan, jo^, 

hakhkhar. Fumigated, j^^ mu- 
hakhkhar. See Perfumed. 
Fumigation, . ■> V^ 3 tahkhlr, A 

censer for fumigations, ijJ^L^ 

Furmitory (herb), *^j^^ thahatrqf. 

Function (office), ^J^ khtdmat, 
c,^»nv^ mamab; (performance), 
Jn^ ^amal; (power), i^ kuwat, 
ijji kudrat, ^LLlS kdUliyat. See 
Faculty, dut}-. [rd« al mal. 

Fund (stock, capital), JUll^jywJ; 

Fundament, (jmLi! Md« ; (backside), 
JuiL* mak^ad, [a<d«f. 

Fundamental, ^J-^^^ a<^{, ,<«i>L«al 

Fundamentally, LL^f adiyan, ^ 
ijtXJi] mm aiasdi. 

Funeral, «. ^jl:^ jan&zat ; (burial), 
^J i^yit, A funeral oration, 
ftmeral dirge, ^Jj nudbat, »\jj^ 
martdt. A female mourner hired 

to sing or cry at funerals, ^Ui 
rmudyai, 4^)jj nawwdha. 

Fungous, UCl Ji^ muil al kaoUL. 

Fungus, «. \a^ kamd. 

Funicular (like a rope), 4^^^ Jl^ 
misl al habl. 

Funnel, 8, ^^ kum^. 

Fur, ijji farwat. The fur of the 

martin, jy*^ %ammikr. The fur 

of the ermine, ^.-.^IrcUi sinjdh. 
Furbelow, 9, (J^ sajak. 
Furbish, 1;. (polish) J.^ sakal. 

Furbished, J^A«a^ moikulf ^Xs^ 

mujla\ A furbisher, ^Xs^ mujtl, 
Furfuraneous, jf^^^ laho ktuhnr. 

See Branny, husky, scaly. 
Furious (mad), f^^u^sf* majnUn; 

(enraged), *^ydc ghaduh. 
Furiously, ,^1^1^ J^ hikol junun, 

c,>^.rtrj^ hikol ghadah. 
Furiousness (madness), ^y^junikn^ 

(rage), y^f^*A^ ghadah. 
Furl, V. (a sail) e ^lLIU lam al 

kulUc, ^^^^1^^ ^tra' al ktdn^. 
Furlough «. (leave of absence from 

the army), Ls^Lj rukhsat, ijlsj-1 

Furnace, «. ^y fiim, ^yj\ a^on, 
jyj tannUr, A baker's furnace 
or oven, jyJ /anntir, jUsr\^^y 
fum al khabhdz. 

Furnish v. (give, supply, provide), 
/•jUWjJ kaddam aldtim, Jp^ 




jdkkag\ (aaabt), J^L» 9&^\ (to 
prepare), ■ ^ri -»■ haddar ; (to 

Famished (given, supplied, pro- 
vided), ^sL* mukaddam ; (assist- 
ed), J^Lu^ mm&^\ (prepared), 
jds^ muhaddar; (adomed),^J^ 

mtaayyan ; (as a house), ^jjSU9 
Furnisher, «. i*AL« muilac^r^m. 

Fomitiire, ^jifarsh. Household 

furniture, j:^^\^^^\ oiasalhayt 

Furrier, s. \j3 farrd. 

Furrow, t. kcL khatt 

Furrow, v. l^^Lr^^ J.^ ^mal khtUHt 

Further, furthermore, etc., J^l 
ab^ad. See Farther. 

Furuncle, XI». hahhat JlL« J dumlat. 

Fury (madness), ^ji^i-^j- /unUn; 

(rage), u,i>^r.^'r. gJmddb, 
Furze, «x>- Aoii. 
Fuse, V. c->^(.o <aiba^. v^^w.0 «a5. 
Fusible, fusile, i^X^nM^ yumakih. 
Fusibility, (^IL^jt irmkah, i^Vj<^ 

dawdbdn^ ^^^^^ Boyahan. 
Fusion, c >..(») «aib&,L..^ « JJ tadwib. 
Fustian (bombast), ^..s:'*^^^ ib^m 

Futile, JlL 5a^^/, ^^:^«^^ ^tZei 
Future, JA«,m>^ mustakhtl. The 
future tense of a verb, ^^^U^ | 

JmAImm«]\ samdn a/ nmitakbtl, 
ftyl .n >» H a/ miM^drt^. The 
future, futurity, JLu:;*.)! Utikbdl. 
Belonging to futurity, ^L2sm»\ 

Fy, ^^\jijG^\ Mtaghfir aXUh% 


O, in the English language, has two 

sounds; those of 4^ and ^ • 

The hard sound it generally retains be- 
fore 0, 0, m; as garment, governor, gum. 
It is rarely soft; as gaot. Before $ and 
t is often soft; as in gem, gingmri and 
often hard, as in get, give. When com- 
bined with h, it has sometimes the 
irregular sound of ^; as in rough, Umgh^ 
* (ruff, tuff), the sound being at other 
times entirely lost; aam though, tkrvugh, 
(thtf, thro'). 

Gabble, ^'J^jj ^^ *pm. 
Gabble, ij^Jj wag waaat. 
Gabion, «. (basket filled with earth), 
c-;|^ J^J 2anbll turdh. 

Gabriel, t^jf^ johrdyil. 

Gad, r. jl J ddr. [alftm* 

Gag, V. jiiUJi U A fL ^ hat ^Matfl 

Gage, 9. ^j rakn. See Pledge, 

Gage, V. ^^J rahan. [jturUr. 

Gaiety, gayness, -y farah, j^ja 
Gaily, -.^Jilj htkol farah. 

Gain, ^o naf^ Jmj^ manfa^t 
(plur. ^L^ mcNiaJl^^ ^kA 




inti/a^, tjAi fiyidai, ^.j raiih, 
fc_ ii>i>.< iM,1t»<A, '—iKutdSS iktttsb. 

Gfain, t?. ^j reheh, l^^^^ h$seb. 

Ghiined, <»,ay*X^ nudcBiih. 

Gainer^ «. ^jc:,^ muntafi^y ^V^ 

Gainful, Jui^ mf^id, ^\j ndfi^ 
Oainlessy ifjjliL hUafdyidat, 
Gainsay, r. i^Uw khdlaf, ^^U 

ndkad,jij nakar, k^tssTfJf ^mal 

hikhldff jjOjU ^drad. 

Gainsayer, s. See Adversary, 

Ghdnst, Ju^ didd. See Against. , 

Gait (walk, air in walking), cy 

^<A^1 nawc al mashi, 
Galangal (a medicinal root), 

Galaxy, b. (milky .way), U-wJ\^l 

umm assamd, [washk, 

Galbanum (gum), J^^jLS kand 
(Me, s. (of wind), \jib hawd, m^ 

Galiot, 8, (a kind of swift sailing 

ship), ^^li galiot, 
Gtell (bile),j^ BafrdyijSj^ mardrat. 
Gallant (gay, showy, well dressed), 

L^ftlC>^ mukallafy ^^~AlJo zarif; 

(magnificent), ^^Aia^L^;^^»^\00tdh(h 

^asmat; (polite), i^J\^^.>^s^\^ 

sdhib adah, ij\Jie\^^r^\>fi tdhtb 
%ardfai; (high-spirited, courage- 
ous, generous), ^l^ ^hujd^, ^JLj 
Gallant, «. (gay, splendid man), 
uijyl? %arlf, Jh^U ^skik. 

Gallantly (gaily, splendidly), J^ 
ii**\J^hikolshaamat; (generously) 
^Jij htkol karam. Gallantry 
(splendour of appearance), ii^Jio 
zardfdt, !^\jj nazdkat; (noble- 
ness of mind), i^ ghlrat ; (de- 
bauchery), ^4^ shahicat. 

Galled (excoriated), jj&«.* ma^^r; 

(vexed), ^^L.^ ghadbdn. 
Gallery, #. j!^^ rawdk, i^\^\ aywdn, 

^^ manuka^ (^^^la^dl tutuwdn, 
Galimatia, jjc^^UU/^K kaldm 

mdlaho ma^na\ 
Gallipot, B. M^f^ martabdn. 
Gallop, V, ^j ramah. To gallop a 

horse, ^Ldk.! jLa sdk al hisdn. 

Gallop, 8, d^si^j ramha. 

Galloper, «• ^^ rdtnih. 

Gallows, iAiJM^ moBhnaka. Deserv- 
ing the gallows, ^l\Ai,^\f^sc^m,^ 
muBtahik al mashnaka. 

Gambler. See Gamester, cheat. 

Gambol, r. See Dance, frisk, frolic. 

Game (sport), v.^ lu^h ; (animals 




hunted), Ju^ Mjfd. To make 
game of, \jjf^\ istakut*. 

Game, r. iUaJLjc^^wI le^ hil 
kimdr. [aUa^. 

Game cock, «. y— >.nlHcl^J dlk 

Gkunekeeper, «. ju^l,j^\ amin 

Gamester, t.^Uiv..^*^ /a^!& kimdr. 

Gaming, «.^UaJ1 v.^^ ^^^ a/ ^tmdr. 

Gander, '• i^<->;j f^<*z zo^or. 

Gkmg, 8, iytj zumrat. 

Gangrene, s^\ ahili. 

QwAf 8. fj»tf»^ hah8f ^jsr^ sajn. 
Confined to a gaol, (jm^ m t^ 
mahbiU. [sajfdn. 

Gaoler, «. (jwU^ hahhds, j^Vas** 

Gap, 8, ^jJ^ 8hak. 

Gape, r. (yawn), c^^bJ tasdwab; 
(to open in fiasares), ^j;^ 8hak. 

Chiper, s. (one who opens his mouth), 
ll:^ muUdwih. 

Garb, (jmU /i^d<, ^11? tdkim. 

Garbage, ^jIjX^a^sJLJl^ ^afshat 
f/tasdrin ; (offals), LA:S kund8at. 
See Kubbish, refuse, offal. 

Garble, r. Jj;i gharhah 

Garbler, «. J^^ ghirhdl. 

Garden, s. ^l:iw hwtdn. The gar- 
den of Eden or paradise, ^jJ^I 
al/ardaws, A garden house or 
yilla, i^Iofl^ ma$jfaf* 

Gardener, «. ^IloJ ^^ni. 

Gargarism or gargle, «. ^/^/^ ^^- 
gharat. To gargarize or gargle 
(wash the mouth with medicated 
liquors), yi^ taghar ghar. 

Garland, 8. Jll^l *kliL 

Garlic, ^y ^iZm. A dove of garlic, 
f^fij^ 9%n tarn, /^y^\j rd8 tUm. 

Garment, (jmU Ubd8, ^j*^ libs. An 
old or tattered garment, (^^ 
^atdgik. Mourning garments, 
jf Jo- hiddd. 

Gamer, jLj! anbdr. See Granary. 

Garnet, 8. JJ la^l. See Ruby. 

Garnish, v,Jiaj ndzzam, ^ J zayi/am. 

See Decorate, adorn, embellish; 

also to fetter. — Garnish, garniture. 

See Ornament, decoration. — Gar- 
niture. See Furniture. 
Garrison, «. (fortification), <LjJJ 

kal^t, ^j*ai^ him. Garrison 

soldiers, the garrison of any 

fortified place, JuLSJl Jjhl aU al 

kal^t. The commander of a 

garrison, ^Otlij \]a) L^ ddbit alkal^ 

Garrison, v, (i^L<xw«^j wada^ 

Garrulity. See Loquacity, prate. 

Garrulous. SeeTalkative, loquacious. 

Garter, 8. jL>\tbj ribdt oisdk. To 
garter, iiKJiaij robat iQikokA. 




Gash^ «. See Woand, scar, cicatrice. 

Gashi p. -^ jarah. See Wound, 

?. « 

Gasp, «. ^^iMj tanaffui, ^jJu nafoB, 
The last gasp, ^j^jD^ dkhar 

Gate, «. c^b hah\ (gate, gateway, 
or court), j1 jJlc^l; &d& a<^r. 
The gate of a castle or town, 
^LaJlXJIi^Ij hah al kal^L 

An open gate^ ^j,r>,i,^v,,;Lj 
bdh maftah. The Caspian gates, 
c^tyllc^l; hah al abwah. The 
folding-doors {oho side-posts) of 
a gate), ^^^l^^o^ mura^ln. One 
half of a folding gate, 9]/^^^ 
miira^. To knock at a gate, 
c^U\ JJ dak al hah. To shut a 
gate, c^UIJhLc ghalak al hah. 
To open a gate, c^UI^ fatah 

Gather, r. (accumulate) ^^a^jama^; 
(to come together, to be accumu- 
lated), ^'4bfl^\ injafna^. To gather 
flowerSy^^cJlai kataf %ahr. 

Gatherer, «• ciLli katif, ^^\>- 

Gaudily, ii\Jo^^ hikol %arafat, 

Chiudiness, ij\Jo tarOfat^ hjj tlnat. 

Gkudy, ^^Mji0 zartf. 
Gauge, p. (a barrel, etc.) J-^j^li 

kds harmll, ^}^j^\^\^^}a^ 

^amal hiyaa al harmil. 
Gaunt, u,aj>n^ da^f. See Thin, 

meagre, lean. 
Gauntlet, «. Jj Jo- uJ^ kufafhatM. 
Qay (merry), L^^am^ mabautf f^^ji 

Gaze, V. Jaj nanar. A gaze, i)oj 

nazrat. A gazer, i^U naur. 

Gear. See Furniture, harness, stuff. 

Geese, C^^j^ wa%Mat 

Geld, V. f^'^s>- kha8a\ 

Gelding, 8. {J^^ kidlsh. 

Gelt, ^<Ai^ muklul, ,^^-^»>- khasl. 

Gem, ijib^ jawharat {j^lvLT. jib\y^ 
jatcahar). A polisher of gems, 
yj^j^^ j<*^karjl. Adorned 
with gems, j^y^ mufawhar, 
^^j^ fnurassa^. To gem, or 
adom with gems, w«^ rasaa^ 
The gem or bud of a tree, ^-%c 
^ayn (plur. ^^ ^ayiln). 

Geminate, v. See Double. 
Gemini (constellation), ^j^^^^^ r^ 

^td^' ajjatoza, \)y^\ ajfawzd. 
Gammeous, J!by^\^^JL^ mul al 

Gander, ^ji*^ jifu, c y nawc, aauS 

kiim; (in grammar), (jm^\ alfins. 

Of the masculine gender^ jO^ 

GEN 553 

mutakia r. Of the feminine gender, 

«-^ V «»«««»««. [cause. 

Gender, v. See Engender, produce, 
Genealogical, ^^ fmdbl. 
Genealogist, u-)Ll; noMdh. 
Genealogy. J^ nasi, ^^.w nasdb 

(plur. lJL^\ amah\ J-^| ad 

(plur. J^l usiU). 
General (common), j*^ ^«wfl»i, ^U 

(flummary), J-4^ wij^Vmi/. 
General, b. JV^ ^.n^/, ^^^ 

Generalship (office), Jl^l^^ 
M^osH/a^ al general. [umard. 

Generalissimo, s. \j^'i\j^\ amir al 
GeneraUty, ^^ ^umum, L^^ 
^umiimiyaL The generality, or 
bulk of the people, (♦Ull a^m, 
<uU!l al^mmat, ^ n,rHfL<lx 
^dmmat arra^iyat, (jwUUIyi 
^wdm annde. 

Generally (univer8ally),^U4^ tttwil- 
man, <OVS kufatan, <uU ^amatan, 


out exception or specification), 

i»iVi yhayr ta^in. 
Generalness, ij^ kaerat; (gener- 

Generate, v. cjjjj iw^Wa^. See 

cause, create, propagate. 


Generated, Jjj^ mawm, jj^ 

muwaUid, *^y>-y mawfud. See 
Generation (begetting), jjy ^<w/i<f, 
ifjJj walddat; (race), Ju^l m/ 
(plur. J^l wfl^, ^.,^ ^aj 
(plur. u-)Lj1 aiwdi), ^ ^ - , j 
*fl^ifa^ (plur. JljLJ habdyU), 
(progeny, J-uJ ita«7 (plur. JLjI 
an«a/), ij J gttrrlo^ (pi. C^bJJ 

sttrrldO ; (an age),^^-^ ^cur (pi. 

jLoiil a^«5r), ^j dahr (plur. 

j^j <^fir). From generation 

to generation, Jss>^^Je^\J\ (Man 

^an jiddin. 

Generative, generant, jJ .^ muwaUid. 


Generator, jJlj trdW, jjj^ mv- 

Generetic, generical, ^^***i5>- y«irt. 
A genenc noun or name, ^^1* 

J ^- t 'J {jt*^\ %smalj%nB, 

hiwajk al fvmum; (frequently). 

Generosity (generousness), a_^ 

ij^^\j^marrathuirat; (with- j Jy^ jU, 50y>- J4d«t. 




fPji karim, ^^ wkhl, (>>^^^ 
mutakarrim. Generous actionB, 
/%jld tnakdrim. Generously, JX^ 
i^[sr* hihd aakh&waU 

Genesis, ^^^oi. See Generation. — 
(the first book of Moses), i^\:^ 
^ycJI Jcit&h al iahwln. 

Genitive (case, sign of), ij\^\ 
iddfat, A noun in the genitive 
case, ^li^iLa/t muddf ilayhi, 
A noun governing a genitive case, 
uJL^ muddf. 

Genius, ijf^ slrat, ^U-^ fnizdj, 
lUjJ^ tahUat ; (mental faculties), 
S^jiX^l^ kuwat mudrikat, CS\jt^\ 
idrdkf ^J %ihn, i^\^j zakdwat. 
A genius (man of superior abili- 
ties), \lj\jCi\^^^^^y»Xa Bdhib idrdky 
^J zakl. 

Genteel, fc-jLlaS latlf, ^^^^Jo Mrlf, 
L^c\ c^x^ L0 8dh%b adah, ii..^%»- L0 
^UjLjI idhih insdniyat. 

Genteelly, iJlLJ JG hikol latdfai. 

Genteelness, iSSji nazdkat, ^Ual 
Uttdfaty ij\Jo wtrdfat, c-^jl adah. 
See Elegance. 

Gentian (plant), \j\2a:^ jmtldnd. 

Gentile (Pagan), ^^ij^ wManl, 

G^ntilify (of birth), J^l mZ, 

Gentle (soft, tame, mild), a j\».i 
M^m, fc— fi«y ^lA |»*lg>" Ao^m ; 
well-bom, (^jby^ «Aar{/*, J-^^f 
Mi/, v^ ^jnc^ najlh. 

Gentleman, «. (^jb^ sharlf. Gen- 
tlemanly, gentlemanlike, J^f^ 
ujb J« ^* wajhin skarlf. 

Gentleness (of birth). See Gen- 
tility. — (softness of manners), 
cjt adb. 

Gentlewoman, «. ^^^ J^Ad^an. 

Gently (tenderly, meekly), <i[iu-ii Jiu 
Af'Ao/ shafakat; (smoothly, with- 
out violence), l*X>^j rawaydan, 

maUatin. [wal (uhrdf. 

Gtentry, 4-J|y-iill^^Lc3\ ala^ydn 
Genuflexion, ^y-^j ruku^. See 

Ejieeling, adoration. 
Genuine, ^^^L^ khdlis, >f^s^ 

$ahlh. See Pure, neat, true.— 

Genuineness, ^jJ^ khtdus, sjs^ 

sahhut, [Kind. 

(}enus, ^jtjj^jins, c y naw^. See 
GeodsBsia (measuring surfaces), 

A>>UMi4!1 aLc ^m al musdhat. 
Geographer, jLlll^Ub:^. khattdt al 

hUdd. [ra»m al hildd. 

Geographical, SiJi\ M^^j^joikZ yukhtu 
Geography, fjcji\j^~>^j roBm cdard, 
I ^V^ gaogrd/tfS. 




Geomanow, «• JU»; rammdl. See 

Portane-teller. — Geomancy, J^ 

i}^^\ ^Hm arraml. 
Geometer^ geometrician, «. (jmXi^ 

muhantUs, ^jwll-Uu/« mattOh al 

ard, ^ll« manah. 
Geometral, geometrical, geometric, 

_«i«Xij^ handagi, L^XJb handa- 

Geometry, i^XJb handasat, Ac 
AnjJ^! ^m (d handasat, 

^^rg^f W^j^ ^eor^^*. 
Georgia (province), ^; 

Qeorgian, ^jfrjf ^^KJ^- 
Germinate, v. Jj^ ^yyan, 

ndbat. See Sprout, bud, shoot. 

Gesticulate, v, ^^ wama\ J^«j: 
c:^l^,». c.amal harakdt. 


Gesture, <Lj^^-»- harahat (plur. 
d-^l^^ harakat). 

Get, r. (acquire), Ju^^ hassal; (to 
beget), J^^Lj tandsal. To get 
oyer (overcome), c^^Jx ghaldb. 
To get (or cross) over,^^ ^o^or, 
-^ mar. To get up (from a seat), 
Ji\i kdm. To get acquainted, 
uJ^ ^arraf. To get by heart, 

Getting, f^or^. Juoj^* muhauil. See 

Acquisition, gain, profit. 
Gewgaw, «. See Bauble, toy, trifle. 
Ghastliness (paleness), lU^ 9afdr, 
Ghastly (pale), y&>d/« musfar^ jiu>\ 

Ghost, «. Jlf^ khayal (pi. d^llLcL 

khay&lat). The Holy Ghost, -j,^ 

(jMtXsJ\ rawh al kudot. To give 

up the ghost, -j^tJuj M/^am 
Ghostliness, LjL^^^j rohaniyat. 
Ghostly, ciU-jj rohdnl, ijL»**i3 

Giant, *. c:^^^A-ii ^frlt (plur. 

l::^ jUc ^Jdrit), 
Gibberish, Lili yhalaL See Jargon. 
Gibe, 9. IjfLi.}! utihzdf Ijf^^UK 

^^/^m istiJad, 
Gibe, t;. t£^f^l %stahza\ [ihmdh 
Giddily (carelessly), JLJ^Lj W 
Giddiness (vertigo), ^^jJ dawkha; 

(inconstancy), CL^Ljj^tXz ^adam 

iohdt; (carelessness), JLUi^Ao/Kd/y 
Jl^t fAf9ia/. To be seized with 
a giddiness, Aj ddkh. 

Giddy, giddy-brained, giddy-headed, 
^\j ddyikh; (inconstant), ^U 
j)j^ fndlaho kardr; (careless), 
Jilc ghdJU, 

Gift, 9. \lat ^td, *\j6\ \iv^m^ 




f^^oitffS ihiin, ^Aft kidijfat, 
i^y mttohahat (plnr. •,_ -^U-r 
mawAhUi). A magnificent present, 
rf>»jhr^JJb hidiytU ^ImaU A 
small gifty I..fftA.£;^f> JJb hidiyat 
khaflfat; (facoltyi power), iy 
kUwiU, 5j^ kudratyj\iyzj\ iktidAr, 
LLIj l&hUiyat. 

Gig, «. (thing whirled round in 
play), ^1^ J dawdmat. 

Oigantic, v:u<OyAii!t Jl^^^ shymul 
al ^firit, {deh$k. 

Giggler, a. cl^li <teAiiifc, ^ma-^cl^ 

Gild, V. u^jJb it to^' hUtdhdb. 
Gilded, ^^^^ miUtl. 

Gilder, «. ^Jia^ mutaUi. 

Gilding, part. ^^ tdli. Gilding, 

«. i^ tild. 
Gillyflower, «. Ji3^ hurunfal. 
Gimlet, 8. c^JL\^ ma^ib^. 
Gimp, a. ^UsJ i^^n. 
Gin, 8. (trap), ijcMd^ nuuyadat; 

imeu(i}une)f^j>- eharkh; (spirit). 

Ginger, Jtr^j ^ihll. 
Gingerly, (jm^^^U hi%htir&8. See 

Cantioosly, nicely. 
(Kngle, r. LiliJl; J^ ^jba' M 

Gingle, «. JvlivU ta$Uanat, ^^j;*^ 

Gipsy, «. l^b^ kurhdtfjjj nawar. 

Giraffe, ^\jj wurdfa. 

Gird, V. (suiround), \ff\>-\ ahdt. 

Gird, «. ^jJf^jy ^ott^MM osstm- 
mo^. See Twitch, pang. 

Girded, girt, ^JyU*^ maahmul, 
yio^Ui munhastrf l^lsr^ tnuhdt 

Girdle, 8. jjS kamar, ^ ° ^ * ^ 
tnantakat, J^\ tunndr. The 
celestial girdle (the zodiac), 
«^j^\cijlj<?fl, Viv^ mantahU tdt 
al hurnj. 

Girl, «. <LI^ 8ahiyatfjCj hirk, uuoj 
^'n^, Jyij ^0^tl/. See Virgin, 
maid, maiden, daughter. A 
marriageahle girl, <LjLJbc:....oj 
hint hdlighat A slave girl,£»il>- 
jdriyat (plur. ^J^^ jawdri). 

Girlish, c:^:»JlJl^ mM/ aZ ^^. 

(Hrt, 17. See Gird, encircle. —Girt, 
See Girded. 

Girth, 8, girt, ^Ji^ kuldn. See 
Surcingle, helt. 

Give, V. jJac ^ta\ ^^JJbl o^iil^', 
k-^ u^aAo^, ^JuMjjkr h<M8ha8h, 
To give a present, ^1am\ anurm 
j^flii'. To give advice, ^ na8ah. 
To give up (abandon), CSp tarak. 
To give T>p, give over (resign. 




deliver), Jua ioUam. To give 
up, think no more of, JaiW^ai 
imta^ anmuar. To give np a 

town or castle, <ul£jlJu» scUlam 

«/ hd^t To give np the ghost, 

-.^^ \ aLi saHam arrawh. To give 

possession, clx \^ tnallak. To 
give ont (proclaim, publish)^ 
j^\ ashhar. To give out orders, 
j^\ amor. To give oat (pretend), 

jLftJ ta^Ial. To give out (dis- 
tribute), j^ koMom, To give 
an assault, ajst^ hajam. To give 
into (adopt), fjAJL..xJi ista^mal ; 
(to allow profit), ^Ju nefe^f jUl 
afdd. To give an answer, ^^^l^ \ 
^db. To give a denial, Sj\ 
ankar. To give credit (believe), 
,xscs\ i^takad; (to trust to), J^^cxf 
i^tamad; (to lend), ^3 karad. 
To give a blow, S-^ darab. To 
• give {or make) laws, ^\j^j^^ 
wada^ sharaye^. To give law 
(command), S.>^ hakam. To give 
leave, ijlr*-^ Jacl a^<a* ^'dsa^. 
To give strength, ^/^ h»wwa\ 
To give judgment, Jl^ hakam. 
To give, to understand, f^\ 
afham, ^-ov. khdbhar. To give 
thanks, ^^^ nhdkar. To give a 

categorical answer, c-^t^^ia^f 
(^U* a^to' jawdh ihdfl. 
Given, ,Jm^ f»u&to', <-5A-:>»^ 
mundafi^ Given as a hostage, 
^yb^ nuirAfin. To be given, 

Giver, #. ^J^lc ^d^l, jJla«^ mw^^f, 
<^Uj waKhdh, c^^^^j wdhib. 

The giver of existence, u-*^)^ 
J^j! \ wdhib al wujud. The giver 
of necessaries, C^l^-WfcJhU 

iffdhib al hdjdt. The giver of 

benefits, bll3«S\c^Uj wahhdb al 

Gizzard, «. iL^^ hawsalat. See 
Crop of a bird. 

Glad, gladsome, j^L*-^ farhdn, 
bftAM^ mabsuty j^T***^ tnasrHr, 
See Cheerful, exulting, contented, 
happy. To be glad, -^ fereh, 
j*uj\ ansar. To glad, make glad, 
gladden, ^ji farrah, Lwuj basat. 

Gladiator, «. uJIjLj sayydf. 

Gladly, j^j^^Ja^^^^jiJJj bikol 
farahin tea hauin tea surUr. 

Gladness, gladsomeness, ^-*m,^ 
masarrat, LLaJ^ inbisdt, ^j3 
farah, isfii bahfat See Cheer- 

Glance, $. (of the eye), Jii w^awr, 
i^ nazrai, ^jrnmV^ ^a^^ 





lamh al hasar, i^ lamhat, J^j 
fj^\ ramik al ^In. The first 
glance, IJiMJaiW anmarat al 

Olanoe, v, (shine), ^^ lama^. To 
glance (with the eye), ^ kmah, 

Olanoing, part. w«S l&mi^ See 
Flashing, glittering. 

Qland, «. tjL hMat. 

Glanduloos, ^^ haUiktl. 

Olans penis, ^JJ1(jm^ rdB auakar, 

Olare, i;. (shine dazzlingly), ^y^ 
dau!a\ ^^ lama^ See Shine. 

Olare, L.^ diyd, 

Olaring, w«ll lami^, \S^ fnud\\ 
(atrocious), JU? sa^'m, aJo^ ^%^ 
jwra/m ^osfm. See Crime. 

Olass, j|j3 ^tlBds. A glass maker, 

jlji i^assds. A building or frame 

work of glass, ^^\^jj>ai katr 

s^q;t. A glass (of wine, etc.), 

4^1^-. Jj kadah shardb. 

Olass, made of glass, glassy, 

Olaze, r. (windows, etc.), jj— ^ 
ibssos. To glaze (paper, cloth, 
etc.), Jla^ m^. a shell, etc. 
used in glazing paper, ^IlLo^ 
maskalat, A glazer of paper, 

iJ^iJ(^ saiidl tfforai. 

Olazed (with glass), jjA-i^^ mukoMsuu; 

(as linens, paper, etc.), J^&>a^ 

Glazier, *. ^^^^ ^if^fi- 
Gleam, «. c\xJ^ 8ha^^ L10 diyd. 
Gleam, v. ^%^ lama^ ^^yo dawc^. 

See Shine. 
Oleamy, gleaming, jpor^. ^^ Idmi^ 
Glean, v. (jli haih. A gleaner, 

^l£S kashhdsh. 
Gleet, «. L5^'<j;^j^ jarmfdn al 

mani. See Gonorrhoea. 
Glide, r. i^j>'J(ira\ 
Glimmer, r. {-^ lama^ 
Glimpse, s. (quick flashing light), 

^Ljt4i lama^n ; , (a transitory 

view), ^ lamh. 
Glister. See Clyster. — A glister 

bag or pipe, ^jA^:^ mahkan. 
Glitter, glister, glisten, i^. ^^ 

lama^, ^Ir'^ <^^fak, ^j) harak. 
Glitter, a glittering, ^\jt««l latna^n. 

See light. Splendor, lustre, 

Glittering, part, and adf. ^-^^ 

Idmt^. See Bright, shining, 

GHtteringly, iL&L..«JJiLj bikol 

lamd^at, U/tS Idmi^n. 
Globe, «. i^ kumU. The terrestrial 




€r4^4U. The celestial globe, 
J Jl J^MjiW al kurrat al falaktifiU, 
UmJ^S^ hurrat asMmd, The 
globe or orb of the moon^ ^^s*- 
j4jii\ j'irm al kamar. 

Qlobmlar, globose, c^j^ karatot. 

Globule, 8. ^U>- habbd. 

Glomerate, v, (gather into a ball), 

Gloom, gloominess, ^uil? zulmat 
See Darkness,obscarity . — Gloomi- 
ness of mind, ^.^liUii? zuknat 
td hiuar, M^ gham. 

Gloomily (obscurely), jyJjJi^ 
min ghayr nur\ (with a cloudy 
mind or aspect), ^JujCjJiLj 
h^l takdlr. 

Gloomy (obscure), /Jia^ muHim, 

Gloomy-minded, t JlC— ^..^ mu- 
Glorification, J^^ i^'ldl, 
tamfld, <^wJ tcuhih, [mUi 

Glorified,^^.ir^ mufakhkhar, 
Glorify, V. Jb«.»- hanutd, JusT* majjad, 

^«d sabhah. 
Glorious, J-l^ jcUil, Jl-ff'^J 
sil al jaldl, j-sf^ tnufakhkhar, 
Lj'^ ^zi%, Jc»-Lt maajad, Jujsr^ 
majid, m ^r^ mufdkhkham ; 
(proud), ylil::^^ tnutakabbir. Most 
glorious^ iJ-:>-^ ij^'// J-c) /i^<w. 


tXsB^\ amjad (pi. 4X>-U^ amdjid). 
The most glorious God, J^^t 
^Jl^j o/^A ya/20 t^a t^' '^^^ 
most glorious of the most honoured 
and most noble (used in address- 
ing great men), 
^jl^lj iftikMr al amdjid wal 

akdrtm. To render glorious, JJ^ 
Gloriously, ^ Ji>-lj hi qfldlin, Jil^ 

djc hikol ^xuU, jL-sOiLj &) 

Glory (praise, adoration), Xi^-rv. 

(grandeur, honour), JSbj- jo^/. 
iJilb^ jaldlat, jk.^ fakhr, j\^\ 
iftikhdrf i ',£ ^zzat. False glory, 
j^ takabhur. The glory of his 
cotemporaries, ^Jii\jS^ fakhr al 
akrdn. Glory to God, ^4X^4i^t 
al hamd Ulahi. The glory of re« 
ligion (a title), ^^,*^^Ji^ jaldl 
addin. The merchant (places) 
his glory in his purse, the learned 
man his glory in his writings 
(Arab, proverb), J^SiXfB^j>'\si\ 

aUdjir majdaho ft Insiho wal^Um 
vMJdaho fx kardrisiho. To con- 
tend for glory, tjj^Uj tamd^ 
jadn. Gontendm^ tot ^c^r] ^ ad.\ 




and part. js>^\k:^^utafakhir. To 

glory in (boast or be proud of), 

jsc\j\ tftakhar. 

Gloss, s. (commentaij),j^uiMlu ta/Ar, 

~jL shark, Jj^lJ tdwll, j^m 

ta^lr, ^Lj haydn; (a specions 

interpretation), jlb^j^^uJij tafslr 

Gloss, r. (comment), -^ sharah. 

Glossary, s. (interpretation of 
words), ikJi(^\z^ Utah hghat. 

Glossiness, Jbj- jUd, i^i>- Jilwat, 
To give a glossiness to paper, 
Ja^p sakah To give a glossiness 
to cloth, JJL^ sakal, 

Glossographor, glosser, glossator, a, 
j*uk^ mufamr, A glosser, JlLo 

Glossy, ^Jusr* mujll, Jyui^ nuukuL 
See Polished, smooth, shining. 

Glove, #. t-fi^ kaf (plur. 4-jy^ 
kufaf), A falconer's glove (on 
which the hawk perches), uji^ 
o\^\ kaf asBayydd. 

Glover, *. uJ^ii clJo hayyd^ kufuf. 

Olont, r. (look sullen), ^j**^ ^has. 

Glow, V. (be hot), ^^.sr* «(wfeAa» ; (to 
be bright), w^ lama^. To glow 
with anger, t^^^z ghedeh. To 
^low with zeal or courage, <)Lj 4X>.1 
mlfU a^Azataho n&r alghayrat. 

To glow with natural heat, 
Lju^J^\ij\j^\d3d^\ akhiatdho 
dk hardrat al tabt^at. 
Glow (shining heat), ij]j>' hardrat, 
(vehemence of passion), Xy4>» 
hamiyat, {^^,dr ghadah ; (ardour, 
zeal), ij\j>- hardrat, i^ ghayrat ; 
(brightness of colour),^^lfi^Jo- 
haddkat al lawn. A glowing coal, 
jamrat (plur. ol 

jamrdt). See Live coal (under 

Glow-worm, s, ii..^%»-L>> habdhih, 
Gloze, V, Flatter, gloss, comment. 
Glue, \j£. ghard. See Isinglass, 

cement, size. 
Glue, V, ^j£. gharra\ [maUuk, 
Glued, ^Jf^ mugharra\ \jy^^ 
Gluer, B, ^J^ mttgharri. 
Glut, V, (saturate, satiate), j-f^f 

ashha^; (to swallow), vJli bah^; 

(to overstock), j|j zdd. 
Glut, 8. (redundancy), 5 jb J %iyddat, 

L/^ Ay<^f c^^ fayaddn; 
(satiety), ^-^ sJuiha^; (obstruc- 
tion), Juj sadd. 

Glutinous, gluey, ^J dibek. Sec 
Viscous, tenacious. 

Glutinously, (J^Sj hidabak, 

Glutinousncss, J^jj dabak. 




OlaitonoaSy ^U^c^^^TwLg sdhib 

shardhai. [^shardhat, 

QhittaaoxxBLy, Lj^\j^JiC^ bikol 

Glattony, < 4> U tatna^, dLUb\jJ^ 

thardhat. [amdnaho. 

Gnash, t?. (the teeth), dGl:^K«0 sarr 

Gnat, «. (small fly), Layc ha^dat, 
<L£iLi^ harghmhat. 

Gnomon (hand or pin of a watch or 
dial), ^LJ 1 ^J^ f^Jcrab assdzah. 

Go, «?. ^\j rah, e-^%JbJ zahah. To 
go a walking for recreation, j\j 
ddr. To go on foot, ^<-i»Lt-.|^ 
rdh mdshl. To go on horsehack, 

c, "^ ^brb '^"^ ^"^*^' To go 
amblinglj, ^^y^J rahwan. To go 

a hunting, Ju^-.|^ raA Ul sayd. 
To go fast, c^?*^! istatfil. To 
go one after another, Jo-^jlU^l. 
,£>i.Stjuu rdhu at todhid hucd al 
akhar. To go to the necessary, 
— -jlsrl^J^^li? tele^ ila* al khdrij. 

To go aside (deviate from the 
right way), J-^ dall. To go on 
(make an attack), ms^ hajam. 
To go out (upon an expedition), 
Ju^\ ^ /tjc ^zam ^ala' assafar. 

To go out (to be extinguished), 

JLj \ intafa^ . To go through (to 

suffer, undeisroX J^^^^sdahammal, 

Goad, «. jUf« miAmds. To goad, 
jUfJb^ naghaa hH mihmdz. 

Goal, «. (any place of destination), 
Jj..^.,R 4. Ilj^g^l a/ mahaU al 
maksHd, The end to which a 
design tends, JyaMi\fjOjfi\ al 
gharad al maksUd. 

Goat, 8, (the goat species), Jx^ 
ma^s. A he goat, ^^a^j toga 
(plur. (jM^ ^uyti«). A she goat, 
i\K^ mu^L A goat herd, 

Gobbet, gob, «. <UiJ luhmat (plnr. 
JU lukanOf ^Ua». Ao^^ (plur. 
Cl^Ute. ha/ndt). To gobbet, 
gobble, *L! lakam. 

Go-between, «. 4iS J daUdkU. 

Goblet, s. -.JJ ^a<^. 

Goblin, «. J Ls^ khagdl, i^U? ^Sy(/^, 
^^i^ ymnl. See Demon, £Edry, 
elf, phantom. 

God, <dll allah. The following are 
among his numerous attributes: 
^j^^^\ji!i\L^j rahh ul ^dlamlnf 
j^ItjH arrahmdn, a-^1 arra- 
Aim, J>^9- a11 ^i--^\^ wdhih ul umfnd, 
^^L^i\L.^^Jtcdhihulamdl, God 
the piost high, most blessed, most 
glorious, etc., ^Uj^lUI aUah 
ta^dla', ^JUJ^C^LjUJI aUah 
tabdrah wa ta^dW ^ tjiW^^^^N 


Dusj J^JIidrt alkak jal wa ^Id, 
^JUj'j^iXAjAUt alkih tdkaddas 
wa ta^la\ <LfiL>-j5j-*lH allah 
jalla jalalaho, c-jbjUlc-^ rah id 
arhdh. Gfod the creator, j;Jli)l 
al khalik, jJjiJijLJU. kh&hlt 
al khalk. GK)d the omnipotent, 
^J^^Jx,jUH al kddir ^akC 
hoi shy. The just God, JjUll 
a/ ^dil, God the supreme avenger, 
^\JBaji\jlje. ^oafa al intiJc&m, God 
the most high king, uXJu4Jt 
JljCJiil al maUk al mutual. The 
God of worlds, ^^^-w«JIj«J1c^ 
rahh ul ^lamln, etc. Blessed God ! 
^^\(JL^LJ taharak allah. Blessed 
he God! or Good God! aDl^Usu» 
9uhhdn allah. God ! ^J\ Uahly 
^\ aUahumma, <dl!b f/d allah, 
i^Jj ydrah. God ! God ! 
^IdJt aUah alhh. May the 
hlessing of God he upon them all, 
(jt*^^ 1 a £ J x . <L . U \ ^ycj ridwdn 
aUah ^thim ajmaiXn, God knows, 
^ \ Jju yu^im allah. There is no 
God hut God, <dJ1)UlS /d tUah 
illd allah. God willing, idJlUjl 
^\juinshdallahia^dla\ By God's 
^race or assistance, <d]1Jul:ju hi 
^mdyat allah. Praised be God, 

562 GOL 

thanks to God, aUj^^^I al hamdu 
iUah. To swear hy God, ^b *mJ 
ka$am hOlah. By God! ^UJU 
hOlahu Godforhid! LlU.pU>U. 
hdihd summa hdshd, ^lUIjJja} 
nu^iUu hiUahi. God God! (in 
admiration), ^lU^^I^^j tuhhdn 
allah, ilA\cJj\j harai aUah, 
^dJlidJl aUah aUah. God ! 
<dl\l» yd aUah, J\ ilahl, f^\ 
aUahumma. For God's sake, ^ 

mahi, aUI J-^4/* «<»^^^ «^^*- 
Goddess, s. i^\ tlahat. 
Godhead, L^\ Uahiyat. See Deity, 

Godlike, ^\ ilahl. See Divine. 
Gk)dlines8, ^^^ takwa\ \^ takwd. 

See Piety. — Godly, ^^Jo^ mtfttaki. 

See Pious, piously. 
Gk)er, «. ^j rdyih. Comers and 

goers, ^^^^J<'^\^y^^'^J^yi^ al 

wdridin tool ahdridin. 
Gog and Magog, ^^Uj^^L 

ydjuj toa mdjuj. 
Goggle, V. (look asquint), ^l^ Ja^- 

hawal hdlaho. See Squint. 

Going, part. ,^U mddl, i^^^\ti 


Gold, c,.^»J saAo^. Pure gold, 

fjA\s^i^,^Jzahahkhdlli8. Gold 

\ wit^i^tll. Made of or covered 




with gold wire, ^Ju^jf* wiifiwr- 
ktuh. A mass, bar, or ingot of 
gold, ^^Cm«j sablkat (plnr. l1X^Um» 
sabdffik). A bit or particle of 
gold, ^J %ahahat. Gold and 
8ilyer,<C.a5jU;^Jh J zahdbwafaddaL 
An estate in gold and silver, 
ui^^UJL* fft^/ s&mat. The 
r^on of gold (the gold coast in 
Africa), ^^ j)b hildd attibr. A 
throne of gold, t.^ jJl^^ »arfr 
<isasaAfi&. Anything embroidered 
or covered with gold. ^JiiSjy% 
miaarkash. Adorned with gold 
and gems, ^t^J^ tarH^, %^j^ 

Golden, s^^^i^ mu%ahh^. 

Gk)ldsmith, 8. ^\^ sdyegh. Gold- 
smiths, 41^ tuijoagh and ^L.^ 

Golgotha, \3y^ gholghotd. 

Gbmorrah, Hjy^ ghomorra. 

Gone, ^c^t^ mddl, (Jh^L«i sdhik. 

Gone with child, JLL«l>- hdmUat, 

See Pregnant. [manl. 

Gonorrhoea, ^^^i^^j^ j<»ryan al 

Good, adj, j^ lihagr, ^j**'^^ ham, 

0f^ malih, c^^^J^ Uiyyiby J\^ 

sdlih. Good morning, j^\^\^ 

€ahdh al khagr. Good evening, 

''ILt^ masd aJ Jk^ayr ; (to 

which they answer)^ 0! good 
moming,^^^M-.lM0b ffd sahdh al 
khagr, 0! good evening, Im^^^ 
j^\ yd fnasd al khayr. With 
good faith, ^jliifb hi t^ikddm. 
With good fortunci Jljui^ILj 
hitdU^ sa^d. "With good man- 
ners, ^c^Jb hi adMn. Good 
humoured, jh{a^\j^fjB^ majhUr 
al khdtir. Good natured, u-iJol 
(^jJujjii\kUlfultna8hruh. A good 
work^^^^ ihayr^ <U.M*iv ^omiui^. 
Good works, ^j^^ khayrdt. 
Good qualities, <L,LM»g>'4,JLg^t 
atcsdfjamllat Good news, ^luj 
A>»ijkr ^' shdrat ^Imat. To do 

good, wAJ It^ff^, (2;M*>.t oAtOfl. 

See Benefit. 
Good, goodness, ^'jf^ khayr, ^^j^ae^- 

khayriat. The good and the bad, 
jj^\jU^\ al Jthayr walshar. The 

chief good (summum bonum), 

jiUj^ll al khayr al mutlak. 
Good, adv,j^ khayr. 
Goodness, see Good, «. 
Goods, JU m4/(plur. J^^f amwdl, 

^L^J kimdsh (plur. iLJli-^Jt 

akmiihat), CJ^ \ ^ mulk (plur. 

cJLtS anddk. 
Gk>ose, i. i)^ wasauU. 
Gooseberry I «. yS/\S g^9hvf\. 


<>^'^ /,s.s. ^ '^ 

°^ See Blood- ^^^\ te8tr«»- 

-'•^t^M. Bee Pi-- 

Gorgeo^'' *^j^ ^««»«t. 8«« \ ^«fca««.t, _c^ ^^j«t. Bee 


Gory, ^?r - «,«»t .-i?""^^ \ ^^^^. j^5 « j^\^V 

0<«--^' "^ . \ Gourd, .. 1/ "^'^ ^ 

^1^ haif'ak* 




uuck. See Taste. 
Goat, 8. Jyitfli^l^s*-^ toaja^ al 

mufiita, CJ^V\j da almulU. 

Gouty, Ll^l't J^ bihidd almulilk. 

Gown, 8. (woman's), ^^\sauj JUtan ; 
(man's), jLJ kunhd%, ^IimJ. 

Grace (favor), iA:^ ^mdi^at, Lmj 
m^mat, i-A^Z" himdyat. See 
Assistance, help, aid, kindness. — 
(a benefit), ^Lo^l ihtdn, J«d5 
faHf ^^ karam; (yirtue, excel- 
lence), <tL.di fadilat, JLa saldh; 
(pardon), ^ ^afa, sjjt^ magh- 
faraty ^J^ ghufrdn\ (beauty, 
elegance), JWj- jatndl, Li\j0 
zardfat, ^LiUa! latdfat, ^^;m*»- 
husn. A grace said at meals, 
lcfc> du^d. To say grace, jL^ 
shakar. The grace of God, (J^^^y 
^\ tawfik allah, ^1<Ua; nt^mat 
aUah. By the grace of GK>d, 
^UjaUI J-jjij hi tawfik aUah 

Grace, v. ^^JUJ^ ha88an, ^j tayyan, 
jieij ruttam. 

Gracefol, u.ij^ sarf/, cjLlal latif, 

J;:i4J>- Jamil. See Beantiftil, 

dignified. Gracefolly, u.p 1^1 J^ 

^iXo/ ^(Z*. To walk gracefully, 

isSJ^JlCj ^JL^ miihi hikol sard/at. 

Gracefulness, ii\Jff tardfat, v qU 
^tf(^y JUk^/amd^ (^;^»*'^>' AtMM. 

Graceless, j{^ tharir^ i^Jj rail. 
See Wicked, dissolute. 

Gracious, ^ fc,g' j Vil latlf, L,ft.l»l^ 
muldti/f f^i^ karim, m^^ muhrim, 
^Lo-^t^^ ib«fr «/ ihsdn, (Jjlm^ 
muihfik, A ,g f»»« raAijft. Most 
gracious, A^t dhram, JU^]/*^ 
ibtffr «/ fUftrd/, ^^1 JU ^S/l dl 
hmmat, [Udfan. 

Graciously, t«^ i^oroifum, LJJaii 

Graciousness, ^.lii lutf. 

Gradation, ^j<^ darajat, ff^j*^ 

Gradual, ^^fZj<^ tadriji. 
Gradually, ^JcJb hittadnj, 
Graff, «. graft, or graff stock, Ji 

Graff, V. M ta^m. See Ingraff. 

Grain (com), iXs. yhaUat, <.»»^^ 
huhuh. To sow grain, c j^j sora^. 
A grain of barley ,.jt^ <U »» habhat 
8ha^r. A grain (berry, etc.), 
iLIo- ;Ui^^ (pL^jr^^ ;kf^&ftd), 
CL^L^- Aoi&d^. A grain or bead 
of a coral, ^l5^-^^U». A<i^^^ 

Grammar, j;JfU]^t a/ yhrdmdtlk, 




oiBarf ufol nahn. A grammarian, 


nahn, (Grammatical, (J^ sarfi, 
k^^asT nahawl. Grammatioally, 


annaki^. To inflect, conjugate, 

or decline grammatically, uJ^ 
sarraf. [nuMsum. 

Granary, «. .LjI anhdr, ^yi^ 

Grand, aJsl^ ^lm,j^ kablr. 

Grandchild, «. jiU*. hdfid. Grand 
children, j\i>-\ ah/dd. A grand 
daughter, SjjI>> h&fidat. 

Grandee, 9. cJ^^ 9harlfy isi 

^mdat. Grandees, il^ii\\i^\}j\ 

'arhah addawlat, 4:JaLJt^L^t 

arkdn ul iaitanat, ^iXil^^Uxl 

a^dn ul malahtU, v^\J^\ ashrdf. 

Grandeur, i.4>hr. ^mat, J^^ 
t;%t/, J^I^Jusr^ ma;<i[ wa ifldl, 
JLUlj^jJ dawUU tea tkhdl, i^y^ 
ihawkatf j^ kuhr or kibr. See 
Magniflcence, state, sublimity. 

Grandfather, grandsire, «. ti^jadd; 
(paternal), J^/tk^; (maternal). 

Grandmother, «. djU ndnat. 
Grandson, «• JjI>. hdjid, ^jii^(j^\ 
ibn al ihn; (a daughter's son), 
l::^jJI^ I ihn al Hnt 

Grange, 9. ^jj^ mawra^. See 

Grant, r. (admit), J»^ Mel, S-'U*-^ 

JjaaSU q;a5 hil kubul, ^\^ wdfak ; 

(to bestow), _1l&^^ an^am ^la* ; 

To grant permission, ij\^\^^a£.\ 

Ghnnt, 9, aLjuJ\ tn^dm; (con- 
cession), li\^\ ijdhat, i^\y 
mUwdfakat, ij\pr^ tfd%at, J^ 
kubul, \^j ridd. See Permission. 

Giantable, ^y^K^ mamnah, c^^^lj 

L»^f mu9UMJ%b cU ridd. 

Granted, ^<1m^ mu^ia' ; (allowed), 
^jas>^j^^ murakhkhas, Jj » A^ 
makhul, [ilayhi. 

Grantee, 9, ^..^f^^Mus^ muh9an 

Grantor, s. ^UM>.j(t^L« mdnih ul 
ih9dn, M'UAi^^ muhsin. See Giver. 

Granulary, granulated, granulous, 
S^^\<uk.t Jl.^ tnisl al Jiahhai 
asBoghlrat. To granulate (form 
into the resemblance of small 
grains), Jju ^ l ^ } ^ . " "^ J^ ^mal 
hubah iogkdr. 

Granule, 9. <u»- habbat. 

Grape, s, L^^»rr ^eneh. Sour or 




unripe grapes, /^/^^ husrum. 
Dried grapes, raisins, or oorinths, 
C-.WJ teHhf (jMy«yu«^ kishmish. 
A grape-seller, c-..c^ellj hayy&^ 
^«M&. Fox's grapes (nigbtshade), 

Grapnel, 8. (small anchor), \;y^^ 
S^JLtf ankard sagMrat. 

Orapple, grapnel,or grappling iron, «. 
J.x:^ ehangal, uJUafi^ khatidf 
(pi. v..Jj9li2^ khattatlf). See 
Hook; oZso contest, fight, conflict. 

Grapple, 9. (seize), '*_^-^ mesek; 
(to seize with a hook), '1^- — 

uJlk^V ^^^ ^'^ i&^^^4/; (to 
contend), L£jl:J foiuSSfril. To 

grapple a ship, i,^jA^\fjAx> 
(Jxkjs)lj ^oZ^^ a/ markab hil 
Grasshopper, «. iS^jp^ jarcida. 
Grasp, V, LaJ ^^a^, ^JLX^ kamash. 

See Catch, seize ; also stride, en- 
Ghrasp (of the hand), ^jo^j hahdat ; 

(possession, hold), imJj»aJi to- 


Grass (jnst sprouting aboYe gronnd), 

Grate, s. (lattice), ^iyd^ Bha^riyat. 
A fire-grate, ^.^^ «a>^ miModda^, 
Jjj^ mawkad. See Pire. 

* A 

Grate, 9. (rub or wear), CS^ hak\ 
(to make a harsh noise), ^fti^ J^ 

Grated (mbbed), ^^/^ mafrikh\ 
(latticed), cllCZm^ muBhahhah 
A grated window, CS\ f A 

Grateful, wci|^^ t^AJMr fJna^am; 
(agreeable), ^^y marghilb, 
J^«A^ maj^fi/. Gratefully, JCj 
i^mJL^jjLii hikol shikrm wa 

ma^f. Gratefdlness, c^yi^ 
ifMi^rft/. See Gratitude. — (plea- 
santness), f^^j^ Jamil. 

Grater, «. LmX« tnakshat 

Gratification, jj^y^j turHr. See Be- 
light, pleasure.— (reward), ^\mj\ 
in^m, fjoye^ ^awad, \j^ jiwSL^ 
^Um^\ ihi&nt jp^S qfr. See 

Gratify, 9. ]aM*j haaat, ^jJ^ sharah. 
See DeUght, please, indulge, 

Gratis, \j\sf mi^VXiMm. To give 
gratis, \p^^}ac\ a^* jabd. 

Gratitude, ^C A thukr, uJ^^a-^ 

Gratuitous, L«5>- /a^d. Anjthing 
one is compelled to do gra- 
tuitouslj (especially for the king), 




(withoat proof), J^j)b hila 

Gratuity, ^Ujf tn^dm. 

Grave, «.^ hthr^ hy turhat, ij^ 

maJtharat. A grave-digger, jU>- 

j)fSl\ haffdr al kuhur. One who 

digs up graves to rob the dead, 

i^^^^ijlr' ^orrdk al haffan. 

Grave, v, (engrave), ^J^ taha^ 
^JU3j tMka$h. [wakdr. 

Grave (solemn), jlijCy^rwl^ sdhtb 

Graved, graven, ^^a;^ mankmh. 

Gravel, J^ rami, Litf>. ^<S, or 
^^•d>-. The gravel or stone in 
the bladder, iya>^ haawat. 

Gravely, jli^ hi wakdr, <UJbJ^ 
hikol hayhat. 

Graver, «. ^U3 nakkdsh ; (an en- 
graving instrument), Ji ibZom. 

Graving (sculpture),^^/aAr, (jiij 
nai^A. [fn;utd5. 

Gravitation, J^ mail, l^\j^\ 

Gravity (seriousness, solemnity), 
<UJ^ hayhat, j\i^ wakdr ; (weight), 

Gravy, ^J^ maraka. 

Gray (or ash color), ^IscLi Binjdht, 

^jl^ ramddl. Gray-eyed, ^ jj^ 

azra^ (fern. IS ij sarito). Growing 

gray (becoming old), 4^L^ »Aa&. 

-4 £^raj-'haircd man, 

shdyih. A gray-haired woman, 
^^LJ« shayhat. Gray-haired, 
1,1^1^ Bhdyih. A gray-beard, 
^^^ shaykh. 8ee Old man. 

Graze, r. (feed as cattle on grass), 
^j re^ ; (to feed cattle on pas- 
ture grounds), ^^J r^\ See 

Grazier, *. (feeder of cattle), ^c^]j 
rd^; (a seller of cattle), &Lj 
^1^ hayyd^ ghanam. 

Grease, ^ J duhn. See Fat, tallow. 
Bear's grease, ^Jks)\^ «AaAi7i 
al khamlr. \jhdhm. 

Grease, v, ^i^e^U^J dahhan hil 

Greasy, ^J^ mudhin. 

Great, (illustrious, distinguished), 
jjflfi ^azlm, jJ» kahxr, J-L>; 
yo/l^. See Grand, noble, mag- 
nanimous, eminent, glorious. — 
(powerful), jwj- jahhdr, jjli 
kddir. See Omnipotent. — (large 
of size), ^gVif ^astm, ^^ kahir, 
A-MA^ joBlm, See Large, big, 
corpulent, immense. — (principal), 
^j;lii^ mutlak, ^X^^ ^1^9 (great 
bellied), ^Jt/tl^. hdmilat ; (vehe- 
ment, violent), Jj Ju^ shadid. An 
affair of great moment, ^^ mu- 
him, |»M/«^ (^^T muhim. Great 
in number, 0^,0^ ^adld, A 




great misfortune, f^t^"^, ^^^ 
^osfm. To become great, jJ^ 
keher. To make great, J^ kdb' 
bar. To assume great airs, aIsaJ 
ia^aaam. Causing great loss, 
fc V*^ t.ri_ -y"^ muiobhib darar 



Greater, greatest, j^\ akhoTf Jlae. 
a^m, «Xsr«\ amjad. The greatest 
admiration, m jhr.L,^^^^ ^jab 

Greatly (in a great degree, ex- 
tremely), ij\kj hi ff hay at, fjc»- 
jtddan; (illustriously), ^cy^— j 
t«fuLi^ hinaw^in mashhur. See 
Nobly, magnanimously, gene- 
rously. — (bravely), icLc*^ J^ 
bikol shajd^t. 

Greatness (illustriousness), uJ^ 
9haraf, Jil^l ijldl, ^^hwam\ 
(largeness of quantity, extent, 
number, etc.) i^ liawai ; (dig- 
nity), h\p^ jdh, i^/* martahat, 
il^J dawlat, L^^»^\^ mansab', 
(power, potency), ijj kawat, 
S • jj hudrat ; (swelling pride, af- 
fected pomp), \jjS kabriydyJSj 
takahhwr, j^jS. ghwrilr ; (famili- 
arity), <L>-lid/« muidhabaL 

Greece, ^^^IjJb btldd arrHm. 
Grecian, ^^^^rfl«?if,ciU^^ yundnh 

Greedily (eagerly), ^4^JiCj bikol 


Greedine8s,^j<9^ haras, ^^ tama^ 
lib\jJ^ shardhat. See Voracious- 
ness, gluttony. 

Greedy, ^UL tammd^, ^^U? tdmi^, 
^l^L-c^ ja^n al ^ayn. 
See Voracious, rapacious, rayen- 
ous, hungry, covetous. 

Green (in color), -a>-l akhdar; 
(fresh), »\\j tdza, A green herb, 
Sj^ds>^ khudrat. Greens, green 
herbs, LZj\j\j,a:>- khadrdwdt A 
green old age, jJ^ khtdd. To 
make green, yd^ khaddar. To 
become green, -ii>.\ ikhdar, A 
green (grassy plain), ^^^i^swlj^ 
sahl akhdar. See Meadow. — A 
green color, ^^-^ar^l^^jl laum akh- 
dar. [al khaddr. 

Greenish, ^Liir^j^lJjU mdyil xUi 

Greenly,jLiiC^*"*^«^«'; (freshly), 
^l3^<ib^^ hi wajhin tdza; (with- 
out experience), «jysr)b bild 

Greenness, ij»a:>^ khudrat (plur. 

j^!>. kkudar) ; (freshness), ij^\Jo 

Greet, v. ^X^J^ saUum ^M,CS;\» 
_!i bdrak ila\ See Salute, 
congratulate. — Greeting, ^jW^ 




muhdrakai, A greeting, i^j^ 

mubdrakat, /A^ saldm. See 

Salute, congratalation. 

Grey. See Gray. [toifel. 

Greyhonnd, 8, (J^v..^ l^^ '*- 

Grief, ^i gham, («J.«d*\j taasauf, 

f^yj^ hu9t^ Mlb ham, ^fr^ waja^. 

Grief for the absence of any 

perdon, Hjjmi^ hoirat, ^3ji Jurkai. 

To cause grief, mc gham. 

Grievance, «. Jd? tiidm,j^ jawr. 
Grieve, r. (vex) Jl? sa^m, g^gham. 
See Afflict. — (to mourn), ^j^\ 
ahMn. [Afflicted. 

Grieved, (^y^ maghmUm. See 
Grieving, part Ju% mughum. 
Grievingly, ^^J^, hikol ghatnin. 
Grievous, Jut mughum. See Pain- 
ful, oppressive. 
Grievously, J^ J^ hiiol %ulm, J^ 
^ hiiol gham. See Painfully^ 
Griffin, griffon, 9, Uu£ ^ankd. 
Gbim, ^'**i^ muhlh, (jm^ ^Hs, 
^^U^d^w. A grim countenance, 
^^d^j iffofh ^il8. 

Grimace, ij^ ka$hrat, [See Gat. 
Grimalkin, sjys^^iai htUta ^'Um. 

Grime, t^.k^troMoM. See Begrime. 
Onmly, (j^j^^^iL^yj ti vsajhin 

^ah^. See Horribly, hideously ; 
also grim. 

GrimnesB, \j»*^ ^8. [Mir. 

Grin, «. (ji^ tahoik^ jJiSj tat- 

Grin, ^.jLi kashahar. 

Grind, v. J^-fi^ M^ait, c^^ ^tiAan ; 
(to pulverize), J^^^ sahak; (to 
sharpen), ^ «ann ; (to oppress), 
Jd? %alam. To grind or be grind- 
^& ij'^ ^Aon. Any place 
where they grind, Ll^^^ mat- 

Grinder, s. ^^^ tahhdn; (a back 
tooth), ^->LJ ndh,x^j^ dtra. 
The grinders, (jwjj^ duriUf (jm\j^\ 

Grindstone, «. ^j^*^ musan. 

Gripe, r. yioc ^Mor. See Grasp, 


Gripe (grasp) uXuub^ m^M. Gripes, 

^U^ mughds. See Belly-ache, 

Grisly, J^ muhuL See DreadM, 

horrible, hideous. 
Grist, J-J J dakik, ^jr?^ ^^f»- 
Gristle, uJjy^ ghadrdf. 
Grit, J^ ram/. See Gravel, sand. 

Gritty, J.^ murmul. 
Grizzle, grizzly. See Gray. 
Groan, v. ^\i ndh, Jj haka\ 
Groan, «. 2(T dh, Mj hukd, ^yj nawh, 




^^ ^au^lf ^yj %afrat (plar. 

CL>5^J furfrat). 
Grocer, «. Jlii hMMyJ^ ^Udr, 

i^w4mi aunmdtn. 
Grocery, c:^\;l^ ^o^rd^. 
Groin, «. ^r^ls^l a/ khdiira. 
Groom, s, ^ju^\^ idyes, ^^j-^ M/rr&j. 

\jiJ}^ 9ayes, A groom of the 

bedchamber, c^^^U. h&jib. See 


Groove, b.jJu naklr, J^ hufnU, 

Groove, v. iji^fji ^mal hufrat. 

Grope, r. ^Ju^J dasdas, ^^/Jii 

Groper, 8, {jmJ^^X^ mudasdis. 

Gross (thick, bulky), ^h;**^ jaHrn, 

satnln. See Large, corpulent, fat. 
— (coarse), IJ kaha, laJii ghallz. 
See Thick, dense. — (not pure), 
^\^j^ ghayr khds, JL^^-j^ 
ghat/r toft, ^jJ \s>y^ ghayr khdHs ; 
(indelicate), ^Ji:»^\i fahtsh ; (dull, 
stupid), jJj haltd, Jh^^^-I ahmak. 

Gross, «. (bulk or chief part), c M^ic^ 
maJmHoj Ij^ kasrat; (a collective 
body), ^4J>- jam^. 

Grossly (bulkily), d^L«f>- J^ hikol 

jasdmat ; (without delicacy or 

good manners), UoLiJCi hikol 

GroBsnesB (coarseness), iLl^lc gha- 
IdsuU; (unwieldy fatness), ^Lm>- 
jasdmat, ^^a^ nmn ; (want of 




Grot, grotto, «. ij\k^ mughdrai, 
cji^ ^^ (plur. uJ^ kuhnf). 
See Gave. 

Grove, «. c-^lc y^&, ^U ghdhat. 

Grovel, v, (creep) Ailaj^lx 
%ahaf ^M hatniho. 

Ground, fjOj\ ard^'jL halad^ ^-')/ 
trdh. See Earth, land, country, 
region, territory. — The surface of 

the ground, iJoji\ ^j w<i^ ul ard. 
A race ground, ^Iju^ mlddn; (a 
land estate or farm), cl^)U\ 
amldk. The ground or founda- 
tion of anything, 9 ji^ shurn^ 
\jsj\ ibtidd ; (cause), C^%cb ^S^m, 
i,,,>^,i»Mi «a3a3, iLia^jlj wdsitat See 
Eeason, motive. — ^The ground or 
field of battle, ^f Ju^ «»f(^ii. To 
fall upon the ground, ^J^^j 
ijoJi\ wdka^ ^la' id ard. The 
ground plan of a building, ^j 
roam ; aUo the vestiges of a ruined 
house on the ground. — ^Anchoring 
ground for shipping, L^ mind. 
To ground or Ikj ^<^ i<(s\ai^^3S^its^^ 




of knowledge, A^J^^jwH^^ 
tarah oi&i ul ^Im. 

Ground (parL of grind), ^y-**^ 

Ground-plot, s, (space which a build- 
ing occupies, \L\\m^j rasm at hind. 

Grounded, ^j**^y muassaSf^jiM^*\:^ 

mtUaassii. Well grounded, ,J^\ 

(jM\Ji\'^\j asl rdsikh ul asds, 

^LxJ^^I^ rdsikh ul hunydn, 

. f^^ji^ 'f^\f rdsikh ul arhdn. 

Groundedly, (jwLJI^c-^^^ Jl-c 
fraZff' mUjib (d Msds, 

Groundless, c »i^mA) hUd sdbah, L 

cl-^b hUd hd^, JJjL hild 
dalll, J^\)b hUd asl. Ground- 
lessness, c>^ > .1. i\i»J>-& ^dam 

Groundwork, i*\£\i kd^at, ^\J\ 
asdSf fj^\ asL 

Group, *. {-"•^^ majma^, f*^ 

jam<., d£\AS>- jamd^at. To group, 

w«j^l ijtama^ Grouped, c ^^^-sr^ 

Grow, r. (vegetate) j^^ nama\ 
(ju^ na3a^ ; (increase), jljjl 
tt<^(^, ^J) tarakJ:a\ To cause 
to grow, u:.^3 futhhat. To grow 
in years, y4jJlj/«<^fiJ takaddam 
hil ^omr. 

Growing, |?ar^ i<«U fiajwf ; (as a 

tooib), ijL^lj ndhit. 

Growl, V, ^u^ takamkam. See 

Snarl, grumble. [manhut. 

Grown, /« jJb^ mtUakcLddim, c:^*^^^ 

Growth, i^k>l—£j ziyddat^ ^^<^^ 
izdiydd, _^-J tarakkl. See 
Vegetation ; increase, advance- 
ment, improvement. 

Grub, t'. ^li jb/a&. 

Grub, *. (worm), if J. J dudat (plur. 

Grudge, r. *L«Ju takamkam. See 
Grumble, murmur. — (to be en- 
vious), Juu»- hasad. See Envy. 
— (to be reluctant), Jcx ^nad. 

Grudge, «. s^\j£. ^addwat, ^^aju 
huyhd, JuM gfc . hasad, J^ ^^i7/. 
See Eancour, enmity, envy, ma- 
lice. — (censure), /%L» maldm ; 
(reluctance), JJ^—j taraddud, 
cl:c^l imtind^ jL^ ctnac^. To 
entertain a grudge, ^UJiLillato. 

* A^az a/ hughida. 

Grudgingly, jLcJJu ^t'M ^««d(f, 
JuM>- J^ 5»^o/ hasad. 

Gruel, Vj^ shorbd. 

Gruff (grum), ^^^L? «drm. See 
Austere, harsh, sour, morose. — 
Grufihcss, Lt^j.^ sdrdmat. To 
look with grufi&iess, ^i^y^jkaj 
^jm^ax^ nazar hi wajhin mu^is. 




Grumble, v, j^*y3 tadammar, JUa3 

Gfnunbler, <. ySu^ fmUadammir, 
j^AA^XL^ mutakamkim, 

GmmbliDg, 8. ^Aasl^ takamkum. 

Guarantee, *. J-i^ kafil (plur. Is^ 
ka/ald), ^j^L-i ddmin, ^^;-^ 

Guaranty, v. ^jA^ demen, Ji^ kefel. 

Guard, s. (sentinel, watch), )ai\s^ 
muhafiz, laiL.^- hafiti, (jk«,L.^ 
harts. An advanced or picket 
guard, <uJJi» tall^t, ^jJL« mu- 
kaddamat (plur. Cl^Uj^L* i»w- 

Guard, v. (defend), ^^^s^ Aomo', 
laijv. A^i/ax. To guard against, 
^^Jc>>-\ ihtazar mm. 

Guarded, b^isr* mahfoz. See De- 
fended. — (attended), ^-?^— sT'^ 

Guardian, *. ^j^\ amln^ )aj\>- hafa 
(pi. lalte- Aw/az), (j--j^ A^W*, 
lailsr^ mahafAy ^<^^ Mini. A 
guardian to orphans, ^^^ wa%i. 
A guardian angel, (jbw;l^*v.liX« 
ma/di& al harts. 

Guardianship, guardship, iloiU^ 
muha/azat, Li\j^ htrdiat, i>U&- 
himuyat, Lli^ wdkayat, [hafi^* 

Guarding, jpor^. <^^ ^^^' ^^ 

Guardless, ^U^^U ma laho 
muhdml. See Defenceless. 

Guess; (jwLi A»'yd«, Jlo- *Aayd/, 
^j «?fl^, ^^;*^i»fl^ toA^wfw. By 

guess, ^LjAir- '^^ 8^®®®' >lJ^ 

Guest, «. t-ij-? (%/ (plur. uJ^ 
<%«/)» J:5>^- To receive or ac- 
commodate a guest, v-jU <^/. 

Guggle, I?, (as a bottle when decant- 
ing, or water from a pipe), JaIs 
kalkal, Ji^ ghalghal. 

Guidance, ij^JuJb hiddyat, ijU 
kiyadat. See Government, direc- 

Guide, *. (for the road), Ji^^ J-S^ 
dahl attariky JJt»j^ murshid. A 
guide to the road of salvation, 
^jU hddl, J^^^lJ^^ ^^ 

assahll, J^-i^'s^*^^ ^^ 
attarik, JJ^^ murshid. [rashad. 

Guide, v. v/JJb hada', J J <^^ »>-^j 
Guideless, ^/^Vfij^^J^^ mm <?an 

Guided, Jj^i^ mwiwW, c^«>:4-^ 
Guile, iLs^ hllat,j^ ghadr. See 

Gunning, firaud, treachery. 
Guileful, jlL« »MiJU5r,^\ Ai ghadddr. 

See Cunning, deceitful, [^ghadr. 
GuilelesBi j^j-j^vU"^ «^^'«^ ^^^^*>^ 




Guilt, l!afi>- khatd, m^ jirmy Ji\ 

iim, d>.Lj hah&hat. See Grime. 
Guiltily, IoXjX> ^^ hMhat. 

See Criminallj. [Guilt. 

Guiltineesy d>.L^ iabdhai. See 
Guiltless, i^j) hari. See Innocent. 
GuilUesslj. See Innocently. — 

Guiltlessness. See Innocence. 
Guilty, fij^ mufrm. 
Guise, ijya mrat, JC^ thaU, i^^ 

wqfh, M^j roitn. See Appearance, 

fashion, manner, mien, dress, 
Guitar, s.j\s^ kitdr. 

Gulf, 8. ,^d>. khahj; (abyss), ^ 

^mk, Jusr lijfaL 
Gull, f^. jiX^ ghadar. A gull 

(trick), <LLgfc> hllatf jiXc ghadr. 

See Praud. [hanjur. 

Gullet, B, ^^A-^ halkutn, jj^^ 
Gulp, V. ^b hala^. See Devour, 

Gulp, «. ^J^ shurhat. 
Gum (fleshy covering of the teeth), 

^IiaJ\^^ ^Aiii assundn. 
Gum (vegetable substance), ji 

mtngh. Gum Arabic, 

Mim^A ^ra5f. Gum ammoniac, 

j;^jl:i kand woihak. A Persian 

gum used in dressing wounds, etc. 
(sAToocoUa), (jMj \if\sS hM f&rx%. 

The gum or resin of a pine or 
jumper tree, Ui^Jic ^Hk, GKim 
titigacanth, Vjf^ katlra. Gum 
sandaracha,. {jM^jtX>^ iondariU. 
One lump of gum, a gum-drop, 
ijfA,,^ iatnghai. 

Gum, f^. (dose or fasten with gum), 
^-J^ sammagh, J-^j tcasal, 
fj^A huak. 

Gummy, ^4^\fjL^ misl assamgh. 

Gun, «. (cannon), ^x« imM^a^, 
-jr^ totr3. To fire a gun, 
<^a3 imM^/b^. 

Gunner, *. ^^aC^ tawhjl. 
Gunpowder, C^jjV ^^^^y ^^ 

hdrHd. {tnadfa^. 

GKin-shot, «. ^Ji^<U^ (2tir3e>^ 
Gurgle, r. (as water from a pipe, or 

a bottle when decanting), ^Jm 

hakbak. See Giggle. 
Gust, «. (of wind), ^<s^ nafhaL 
Gust, g^sto, j^ J sat£7^. See Taste ; 

liking, relish. 
Ghit, j-*/t ma^a' (plur. U^l am^d). 

See Intestines. 

Gutter, ». ^^jy» fnizrah, 

Gattle, guzzle, v. See Gormandize, 
drink, swallow. 

Guttler, guzzler, «. See Glutton, 

epicure, drunkard. 

QuUuTal (pronounced in the throat), 




^_gSl tfc . kalii; (belonging 
throat, a gattund letter), 
^^^aU. harfkaUa. 

Gymnastic (ezercue), ^L^ 
vhu&ra^at. A gymnasinm (place 
for athletic exercisee), ^Sm..^ 
mldan. A gymnio (athletic 
man), fjl*^^ tnusdri^. 

Gyration (turning round), i^\j^*^ 
dawardn, A gyre. See Circle. 

€^yvc8. See Fetters. To gyve. 
See Fetter. 


H is expressed in Arabic by -. and 8, 
The English alphabet having no 
simple character to express the 

powers 0^ r^y f^9 c^d ^9 ^ ^ 
subjoined to others to represent 
them ; as iA for ^ , gh for i, and 
th for iP . 

Ha ! (interjection of surprise), ^\ 
^\ allah allah. 

Haberdasher, 8, (vender of small 
wares), »Jjy.^ i}"^ hayifd^ 

Habit, ijU ^dat, iseXi kd^idat; 
(apparel), (jmL^ hbdt, iytS 
kiswat. Habit of body, 4--)/« 
mizdj, wJ? iab^f rt.iLj.Je> tablet. 

Habitable, ^^;^^ ymian. One of 

the four habitable quarters of the 
globe, ^yLuy«]\^i^l arrub^ al 
Habitation (dwelling in a place), 
kS^ iiktuUy i^\3\ Htdmat; (a 
place of abode), ^jLiu^ nuubm, 
^lL« tnakdm, ^IC« makdn^ ^a*^ 

bayt. To fix a habitation, ^y 
Habitual, J4n ■r.i-M.>^ muita^nuUg 
,^jLpx.\ i^iydil. 

Habituate one's-self, v. ^U-4)^ 

^towad kdlaho, ^Jl-cJ^IjcJ 

ta^wwad uila\ [relation. 

Habitude. See Habit, respect^ 

Hack, V. t^tLSjiai kattaf^hOa^ 

hUa^. See Chop. — ^Hacked ^loA^ 

Hackney, 9. (pacing horse), ^^y^j 

Had {part, of have); (also the 

preterite), I had a book, ^J^\ 

c->\i^i^jux and kdn ^andU hUdh. 

Hag, Sj\js:f^ijj£Bp' ^jilM eahhdra, 

tjo^Li sdkira. See Witch, en- 
Haggard, haggish, ^ ftj ^ r da^f; 
(ugly)i '^^ kabihy ^mJ beehi^ 
Haggard (untamed), iJ**^^ 
u>aUk\. doe ^*ii^.-^&^5Ga^ 




(deformedly), ^UjJX^ btkol 

Hail, hailstone, Jj) harad. Violdm. 
Hail (a term of salutation), f!La 

Hail, t;. _Lc Jlmj sallam ^ala\ 
MaiT,jxJii sha^. One hair, ijitJ^ 
tha^at. A curling look of hair, 
i Aa>- ja^t. Hair of the puhes, 

Hair-hrained, ^Jj)b hild tadblr^ 
jy$^ mutahawwir, .c'^^j toahshl. 
See Wild, rash. 

Haircloth, jt^^jM^ khaysh sha^. 

Hairless, t/*^j|^^ ajrUdi. 

Hairy (very), tj^y^ aha^dni. 

Halberd, «. ^j rumh, <U^ harhat, 
y^jj^ tnizrdk. See Battle-axe. 

Halberdier, i. JC%j rammdh. 

Halcyon. See Placid, quiet, stiU. 

Hale. See Healthy, sound, hearty. 

Half, ^,0*^3 nasf (plur. uJLajf 
ansdf). The half of anything 
split, 4JLI shikhat Half-moon, 
JIj^ ^/<3/. Half-way, ^i«rt3 
j;j^l na«/ attarik. Half-raw, 
(ill-dressed meat), ^j iwiyy. To 

look through half-shut eyes, ^Jd? 
^■,;. ji,Pu-i^ci ^a//a^ fl taraf 

Hall, «. i^\j kd^t ; (of audience), 
i^IjJ^ divdn; (a court of justice), 

ij^Ls^ mahkamai ; (the principal 

room in a house), ^uJt dUcd^t, 
Hallelujah, ^yii^ haUelUyah, 
Halloo, r. (to encourage hunting 

dogs), Ju«J\(-^K^JU^ hawwash 

kaldh assayd. 
Hallow, V, (jm3j kaddas. See Con- 

secrate. — ^Hallowed, ^^*xL« mu- 

Halo, *. (circle round the son or 

moon), iJLto hdlat (plur. C1?SU 

Halt, V. (limp), -.y: ^orfl/. To 
cause to halt, — ^ ^rraj. To 
halt (stop), t^Jjj toakkaf; (to 
hesitate, to be irresolute), JJ^ 

Halt, halting, «. -.y: cflf/. The 
halt of an army, ^\j\ ikdmat, 
iLwjJ\ Jtlj nuzul al ^kar. 

Halter, *. J-.s^ hahL See Cord, rope. 

Halve, V, fc— p-^'JU^juJ? kassam hil 

Ham, JL^^^k^.^ ma^taf arrikbatf 

jLJI^^^ hatnassdk; (the salted 

leg of a hog), ^^:^:^ jambUn. 
Hame, 9. (horse collar). jjUj ztna^. 
Hamlet, *. ^jj^ mazra^at, 9j\y^ 

'ELammGT,8.^^\s»^chdkuj\ A smith's 
\ hLammei) oJL^ matrakat. 




Hammer, v. ^jjb tarak^ JJ dak, 
t^jc darah. Bee Forge. 

Hamper, s. J^^J fumhll (plnr. 
JljUj zandhll), Uj kuffitt. See 
Basket, pannier. 

Hamper, v, (to embarrass), ulio^ 

iharhak, jl»^ kayyar. See Per- 
plex, entangle. — (to enchain), 
jy»s>^ jantar. 
Hand, «. Jj yadd (pi. (^jM ayddl). 

The right hand, ^^^Jm^JI jJt o/yai 
a/ yamna* . The two hands, ^1 Jul 1 
a/ yaddtif ^t^«xJ1 a/ yoi^fn. The 
palm of the hand, uji^l alkaf. A 
tendon of the hand, 9\j^^i}^>^ 
habl azzird c . To make a sign with 
the hand, iJuj»j\j^\^ ^amal 
iahdrckh hi yaddiho. To consign or 

deliver into one's hands, dJu; Ju^ 
sallam hiyaddiho. Hand writing, 

Jjisrw X'Aa^^ yoi^. Hand in hand. 
Jujjj yaef liyad. From hand to 
hand, O^iJ'j^ij^ win yew? i7a' 
yad. The hand of a watch, clock, 
or dial, <1.£UJ1^.^^ ^akrah 
Msdcah, Beforehand, iji awwalan. 
Oat of hand (presently), ^l>. 
hdlan, Athand(noar)i,^^ ^karih. 
Hand, r. (give from hand to hand), 

Jj JLvJjj.^ J-j sallam min yad 
ila* i/ad. 

Hand-basket, s, Jj J^J zanhll yad. 
Hand-bell, *. j^^Ju^ijMj^ jaras 
saghlr. See Small bell. 

Hand-breadth, s, jJ1i.>-tj rdhat 

Handed (from one to another), Ju*^ 

Jj J f ^ J^ ^ musaUam min yaddin 

ila* yad. 
Handful, «. dju*^ kam$hat, 4du5 

kahdat. A handful (small qoan- 

titj), <0^ ahuwayyaL 

Hand gun, «. ^(^jV ^^^f^^^* 

Handicraft, JullajCMi^ Bon^t alyad, 
ii^ hirfat. 

Handily, ijc^Jij hikol $an^t. 
Handiness, ijc^ san^h, sJiaJ^ 

Handiwork, jJ \ fJxJ^ shaghdl al yad. 
See Manufacture. 

Handkerchief, b. ^jS^ mahranU. 

Handle, b. <UdLj kahdat, c^L^ nisdh. 
A handle (cause, pretence), 
\^^>^ymuj%b. Without a handle 
(pretence), c^c*^^^ hild tniijih. 

Handle, v. vIS^^m^ tMBek, ^/*M«i lamoi. 

Handled, ^m^mu4^ mamBiiB, 

Handless, ^j^^fj^ min ghayr yad. 

Handmaid, b. <U^1^ khadddme. 

Handmill, dj^lt tdhUne, <U«^ 
mathani. The handle of a hand- 
mill, Ajk^^\»i^^\ja4 aUo^>i.ts». 




Handsaw, «. JjJJLi^ munthdrpad. 

Handsel (the first money a seller 
receives in a morning ; earnest), 
-.1:u1m}\ utiftdh. To handsel, 
,,^<x:^\ iitaftah. 

Handsome, ^ j^'^T j<'^^^^- 3^ 
BeantiM, graceful, elegant — 
A handsome fortune, ^Jts^ Jt« 
fndl ^asfm. A handsome or 

generous action, Jt*'^^ J^ fi^ 

Handsomely (beautifully), (J-^ 

JUbS»-^^^^^AM>- hikol kuMtn wa 

jamdL See Elegantly, gracefully . 

— (liberally), i^^^ijli.-'J^ hikol 

tdkh&watin wakaram. See Gene- 
Handsomeness, JU^s^yamd/, ^jm*»- 

husn» See Beauty, grace. 

Hand writing, ^^2:^ khatt yadd. 

Handy, ^»^ «tin»^, Jo\Ji» shdtir. 
See Dextrous. — (convenient), j;jjS 
Idf/ik, ^^%i.aL:^ fnundsib; (at 
hand), jJU^U- hddir hU f/add, 
*^^y fnaiofudf c^^ karih; 
(performed by the hand), J^ Ja^ 
ihughl if ad. 

Hang, V. (up), J^ ^aHak ; (to kill 

by suspending by the neck), Jh^I 

shanak ; (to be suspended), j;]ju 

^^aUa^; (to be delayed or sus- 

pended, to drag or linger),^^'b 

taakhkhar, imMy tawakkaf. To 

hang upon the neck, ^U ^nak. 

See Embrace. 

Hanged (strangled), j^-j^-juL^ 

mashnuk. Deserving to be hanged, 

Ji '-"^ \ L.^^^y.Tn^Mk^ mustawfib 

Hanger, $. (one who suspends), 

fj^JL/9 mu^ik. A pot-hanger, 

Ljk kuUdh. 

Hanging (suspended), part, and adj,, 

j;1a<« mu^aUik, (^jc^ tnut^lik. 

Hanging up, $. (J^^ ta^lik. 

Hanging (strangulation), Jh^ 

Hanging, hangings (tapestry), 

C^l)\ J^« harddydt. Sec Curtain. 

Hangman, 9. j)L>- jaUdd. See 

Hanker, r. (have an inclination for), 
jli-ii\ iihtdky JU md/. See 
Desire. A hankering, J^ may^, 
<Uc^ rughbatf ^yJL ahatok. 

Hap, hap-hazard, (^iLa ^drtV/, 
jUj\ ittifdk, ^jU- hddisat, 
<lw4>-^ kismat Sec Chance, 
accident, fortune. To hap, C.\V^ 

Haply (by chance), UUjf itti/dkan; 
I (perhaps'), Jx] la^la. 

HAB 579 

mdlaio hakhi. See TJnfortimate, 
Happen, r. jJ-^>- hasal, j w sdr, 

jXfi sadar, ^jOjC ^ad, C->A'». 
Happily (fortunately), JjU-»J^ 
hikol ta^dat, i\J\^ \sx^ sa^n 

wa ikbdlan, JV^|^^0^«-» J^ ^»*^^ 
§a^n wa ikhdl; (in a state of 
felicity), Jju**^ mus^; (with 
address), fjUxlJ^ hikol shatdrai; 
(not laboured), *X^^j^J^^ i^'to 
jaddin waldjaM. 

Happiness, JjU-j $a^dat, Ju5i 
♦;t3d/, ii;J harakat, v^-^w-w newlJ, 
«JU? ^dZi^. See Felicity, pros- 

Happy, Jujuj «a^frf, J^***^ mas^ild. 
See Prosperous. Happy tidings, 
j^j^ hhdbar hhayr. A happy 
omen, cl^L* JU /a^ wwifira*. 
Having a happy manner or fine 
address, i-i5^c^^^>-l---» ««lA*& 

Harangue, *. ^ kaldm, c-^UarS- 
khttah, L^2£>^ khuihat or khutbah. 
To harangue, <i^.»VT-^-4j>4^ ^onto/ 
khutbat A haranguer, J^ 



Harass, «. ^^jJ lawwaih, 
at^. See Fatigue, vex. 

Harbinger, «. ^j^Arf W'****^^- 
See Forerunner. 

Harbour, <• (for shipping), L^ 
mfnd ; (asylum), Lsr* «ia^*d. 

Harbour, r. (shelter), ^^^^\ iltafa*, 

Hard (firm, solid), (^y ^u^ ; (op- 
pressive), *^'^ ihadid, JU? sd- 
;»m ; (difficult),j;MMi: ^a^r, L^^ n ^ 
sa^. See Arduous. — (unfeeling), 
_M>l3 kdsl. See Insensible. — 
(stingy), J-a^ hakhlL See Ava- 
ricious. — ^Hard conditions, ^\jJ^ 
JuU^\S^;MML& shardyet ^asirat 
arracdyat. Hard to be under- 
stood, JiLuL^ nuuhkdl. Hard 
bound, j^^dJu/* munkabidjfjo^mLt 
nuMnd. Hard, hard by, v.^^ 

Harden, v. y^j^ kaunca^ To har- 
den the heart, c-^J^t^^MA3 kassa* 
al kalh, [mamar. 

Hard-favored, Ja:^\ij^ karih al 

Hard-hearted, c^J^^^U kdH 
al kalh. ^4»»y4!f ^«Xc adim al 
marhamat, ^^ kdtX. See Cruel, 

Hard-heartedness, ^jSUj^ ^tuUm 
orrahnHU, £jLj katdwtU. See 




Hardiness, ^Lu>- jasdrat. See 

Bravery, courage. — (vigour), ijj 

kuwat; (efi&ontery), \^i^killat 
hay a. See Impudence. 
Hardly (with severity), i«\^ Jij 

hihol sar&mat. See Scarcely. — 
(with difficulty), J^fr Jij hikol 
jahd. See Rigorously, unfavor- 
ably, harshly. 
Hardness, iSLa saldhat; (rigid- 

ness), S Ju4 shiddat, L^o*f» cun/, 
(difficulty), ^yt^ m^bai. 

Hardship, Jd? zulm, ^5^^ ta^addl, 
j^ y^M^r. See Oppression, in- 
jury. — (difficulty,inconvenience), 
^yua sudu.hat. 

Hardy (bold, brave), jy*^ jasur ; 
(stout), 4^ J kawi. 

Hare, 8. c— ^jl amah, c— ^U ardnih. 

Hark, r. (hearken), ^4.:..^^) M^ama^. 

See Listen. — Hark ! w«^l ii»ma^. 
Harlot, 8, <LJ|; zdniyat, <Lgu>.li 

fdhi8hat, ^i^li fd8ikat, <Usr ^A- 
Ja^ See Whore. 
Harm, c;. ^ (^ar, Ji? %alam,jXz 

ghadr. See Injure, oppress, 
Harm, j^ darar, iOJi isf^a^ See 
Injury, hurt, damage. — (oppres- 
sion), jjp^ jawr, f^Sfu ta^addi, 
A]a ssidm, — (fault, crime), r^»^' 
iakslr. See Crime, wickedness. 

Harmful, j»a^ mudiir. See Hurt- 
ful, injurious. — ^Harmfully, Jw 
jj>o hikol darar. 

Harmless, j^d^j^ ghayr mttdirr. 

Harmonious, harmonical, harmonic 
(concordant), ^UjuL^^-o-Ltf sSh^ 
naghmat ; (sweet sounding), JLt 
mtUdgm; (well adapted), ^\y 
muwdfik. Harmoniously (mu- 
sically) <Uju J^ hikol naghmat. 

Harmoniousness, harmony, <Uju 
naghmat. Harmony (proportion) 
iJu\y^ mttwd/akat, <U^l:^ mu- 
nd8ahat ; (concord of sentiment), 
jlij\ ittifdk. 

Harness (for horses, etc.) l::*^^^ 

Harp, 8. clxuc^- jank, Jyz ^ui. 

Harpoon, 8. (^lLi:>- khattdf. To 

harpoon, «,JlixgU(^\...^ mesek 

hil khattdf. [Gun. 

Harquebuss, 8. *43^jlj hdrude. See 

Harrow, «. <LiLyM^ masla/at, 

Harrow, v. cflLa sa/a/l To harrow 

up the soul (disturb the mind), 

JUt/J^Jll 8hawwa8h albdl. 

Harsh (to the taste), •/• murr, *X^ 
hadd. See Sour, sharp, acrid, 
pungent, salt, bitter. — (in dis- 
position), JjJw) shadld, L<*i^ 

ff Ao 



^m^f; (violeiit), g?;-^ jabri, 
i^j^ kahri. See Eigoroos, 
Harahuess (of taste), ij\^ mardrat. 

See Bittemeas, sourness. — (vio- 
lence), t^Jii: e**/, jfsr J(^' 

Hart, #. Jj\ ayo/, Jj .1 afya^ See 
Back, deer. 

Harvest, J^«Asr^ mahsiU, jIia>. 

Aiide^. In harvest (or reaping 
time), jLas:)li^::^jv^/l t^oit^ 0/ 
Amo^^. a harvest (opportunity 
or season of gain), if jjUit 

wakt al fdyidat, A most plenti* 
ful harvest, ^ZJ^jA\ ^ ^^ya£sr^ 
mahsiU ^mlm al barakdt. 

Hash, v,^ai katta^. To hash meat, 
iu^Aj3 faram Mma, A hash, 

Hassock, #. xj\s^ sajf&de, 9j^»ae^ 

Haste, 4LLs^ ^ajalat, ij^^s^ ta^l, 
Jljc*^\ uti^'dl, ift-rf M«r^a^. 
See Hurry, speed, quickness, 
celerity, nimbleness, precipita- 
tion. — Making haste, Jjs*^\ 

Haste, hasten, make haste, v. 9j^^ 
a#ra^, JjS*^\ Mto^a/. To haste, 
hasten, cause to make haste, J^ 
^ajlfal. A hastener, ^J^s*^***^ 

Hastily (in a huny), ils^\^ 

^aU al ^'alat, \ssj»^ tur^atan, 

\juj^sa/i^^\ (with vehemence 

or passion), Sj^lj^iJ^JO hikol 

hidatin wa ihiddat. 

Hastiness (passion, vehemence), 
ijLl ihtddaty S«x>. Mddat See 
Haste, precipitation. 

Hasty, J^ ^ajul, J^ ^ih 
^^j-^ «arl^; (vehement, pas- 
sionate), r ^-U\a ^.vA shadid 
attab^; (rash, precipitate), j^f^ 

Hat, 8. ^^kJ^ hamita. 

Hatch, V. (eggs), vji-^ei^ farrakhat, 
tja^i^^^ae*^ hadanat bat/d; (to 
contrive), f/^^ ikhtara^, ^Jcj\ 
ibtada^. [tafrikh. 

Hatch, #. (brood of chickens), -^T^AJ' 

Hatchel, v. (beat flax), ^lsi3\,^/iii 
n/i/oJ al kiUidn. 

Hatchet, «. (or axe), ^jwli /<l«. 

Hate, r. ^^^ak) baghad. See Abhor, 
detest. — ^To hate one another, 
\y^\3 tabdghada. 

Hate, hatred, i^]/ kardhiyat, 
h\^z>Ji iitikrdh, ^^ bughd, 
ifjljic ^addwatf J^a»- AaA<^ (plur. 
jU»>\ aAAd<7, J^ Ad;i2i, Jj\a». 
hakdyed). See Hatred, malignity, 
detestation, enmity. 




HatefiQ, *j X« mahrnhf c. 
maghdikh^ y^f^ mahghikdy j^ 
i^y-^i^ ghayr makbiU. See 
Malignant, maleyolent. — Hate- 
fully, LojUjJ^ hikol bughdat. 

Hater, «• ^joiu^ mubghid. 

Have, r. (possess), ifX^ ^ndaho. 
See Hold, possess, enjoy, obtain, 
receive, contain. — ^To have con- 
fidence, ^ySsx] i^had. To have 
doubts, uXl ihak. To have 
malice, Jum>- hasad. To have 
possession, (.J^ tasarraf. I 
have, jj li. Thou hast, tj^ 
/ait (fern. ^tlO liki). He has, &! 
/fl^o (fern, l^ Uh&). We have, 
U /tna. Ye have, ^ lahum. 
They have, >^ lihum. 

Haughtily, ^JmJ^J^ ^Xo/ ta^zzum, 
<uli& Jio 5t^'oZ ^zmat. To be- 
have haughtily, J^ ^a^^szam, 
^IC tdkdbhar. 

Haughtiness, JSj iakahbur, ^j^ 
kibrigclf Jaxi ta^zzum. See 
Arrogance, pride. 

Haughty, t^^^^ mutakabbir. See 
Proud, contemptuous. 

Having, part. 2rjcj: ^ndaho. 

Saul, V. L^..^>s!^ sahah. See Full, 
drag:, draw. 

Haunch, «. CJ;^ ^oirk. C^^' 

Haunt, V, (frequent), ^^^^^ lafd 
Havoc, v^^,..air takhrib, UjLj 

gaghmd. See Waste, devastation. 

— ^To make havoc, L-^,£>- kharab. 

See Waste, spoil, destroy, injure. 
Haw, «. (web or cataract in the eye), 

(jt?«l^ciu^W hayadfil^yn. 
Hawk, «. jV ^"2, ^^ 8akr, A 

sparrow hawk, J^b hdshik. 
Hawk or hunt with hawks, v. 

^Jj^ L-^ 1 iSj^ >^*»^ 3 tasayyad 

tuyur fil hdshik. 
Hay, ^.jAM-w hashish (pi. ^^lu*^ 

hashdyish), c— g . l r . ^a/a/. 
Hazard (accident), CjjI>> Aa(^t«, 

<JiJw? ««?/ff< ; (danger), »ia^ 

khatar. [Risk. 

Hazard, v. jilr^ khdtarfi. See 
Hazardous, uJ^^ mukhuf. 
He, ^ Aii. 
Head, «. ^|^ rd«. The head or 

chief part of anything, j^j royM. 

The crown of the head, ^^y V^ 

umm arrds, A head or head man, 

fjj\j rds. Headmen (grandees), 

^Lc^ a^an, «-J|y-2»l ashrdf, 

A*5»-« tcujuh. Head (intellect), 

fV^ai^, J--L /aJ^, l^\j3 fardsai. 
\ 8eo T5Tv^ei«.\»xidva^» — (source) , 




^^\ Oily ImO^ manshd, tjw« 
tndbdd. See Spring. — To make 
bead agamst, ^^ kdtoam. To be 
head and ears in love, Jh^ 
cei^. Head and sbonlden, \j^ 
kahran. See Force. — ^From head 

to foot, (^*^^^^^^J^\}^^J^ ««m 
arrda ila* al hadam. The heads 
of a discourse, c-^Lksr\J^«^ 
fiMl (d hhitah. To be at the 

head, to take the head of a table 

or other place of honor, jJ^Ujuu 

kai,ad hil sadr. It came into his 

head, iJ'j J^^Ll>- khatirfl haliho. 
Headache, «. ^jwl^l wsj-j waj^arrds. 
Headed (having a head), (j*i\j^ 

laho TUB. Bare-headed, <— i^m.(^ 

iP'^y^ makihaf arrd%, 
Headiness, i;Lu>- jasdrat. See 

Eashness, stabbomness. 
Headland, 8, J-^'(jw|j rds ajfahal, 

J^ \ u^ \ anfajjabal. See Cape. 
Headless, ^]^<lIL« mdlaho rds ; 

(inconsiderate), --^^.^jJuL hdu 

Headlong (head foremost), jjf:^ 

mutahawwir. See Rash, thonght- 


Head-quarters (of an army, etc.), 
X«^ mukar al^askar, 
^^jy\ urdf. 

Headship, ^U-Jj riydsat. See 
Dignity, authority. 

Headsman, Jip^jaUdd. See Exe- 
cutioner. [rd« «/ /t/'i^m. 

Headstall, <.(of a bridle), ^W^S^j^^j 

Headstrong, heady (ungovernable), 
^^pb^j^ ghayr mutl^ Heady 
(intoxicating), ^;L(yw^ muskir. 

Heal,r. inirans. ^JJ^thefl] {tram,) 
JUi» 8hafa\ To heal dissensions, 
p\^ sdlah. See Beconcile. 

Healed, ,^^\^^C-?lt tdh mi'n 
almarad, [fnushfl 

Healer, «. jL-i shdji, ^^lJl^ 

Healing, part, jl-ii Bhdfl, See 
Assuasive, gentle, mild, molli- 

Health (of body), iLs-^ sahhaf, 
^Ic f^dfiyaty <Li)L) saldmat, \slJL 
shafd. To recover health, l^^ 
tdh. Health to you, here is your 
health . (when drinking), <Ls-^ 
^Icj sakhat wa ^fiyat ; (salva- 
tion), ^i^ khalds, JIskT fuyd^ 
Healthfulness of climate, J\ Jcx\ 
\^\ ii^idal al hatad. See Salu- 
brity, health. 
Healthy, 4^*^^ mut^fl, 
^U^L.^ sdhib ^fiyat. 
healthy, S^ fa^fa*. 

I Heap, 8. L«^ 1;au^\at^ 

To be 




majma^, cU&>»\ ijtimd^, IAap^ 

jamd^t. See Pile, hillock, ac- 

camulation, duster, crowd. 

Heap, V. ^i^jama^ mi^ kawwam. 

Heaped, /^j^ mukawwmn, ^asjs^ 

mujtami^ See Acoomolated, 

Hear, v. (with the ears), ^^a-sI 
%%tama^f w^^^ii ieme^ See losten, 
hearken. — ^To hear judicially (to 
try causes), 4^^Lf«xJtwik-s«^^ 
istama^ adda^wl. 

Heard, part. &^-.4-rfM^ miMma^. 
Heard, pr^, wc>»i\ iatama^* 

Hearer, «. w«Li sdmi^, ^■■j4wi 
iarnl^f ^j^*MA^ mustami^ 

Hearing, part, ^m.^^ tnustami^, 
w«L) 8dmi^. The sense; also 
t^e organs of hearing, w^oJI 
assama^, ^U^UJli^y kUwat assd- 
tna^t. A hearing or audience, 
^^Jj5i^\jiiks^ hudddr al majlas. 
Within hearing (near), v_.-*.* 
ibrf 3, jox: ^nd. See 19'ear. 

Hearken, r. ^^c^l ittama^ See 
Hear, listen. [mfi^. 

Hearsay, z y^^*,^/^ haldm mat- 

Heart, ». u^^ i^& (plur. c-j»^ 
ktduh). Eejoicing the hearty 
1^ ^ lii W^yu^ mufrih al kalb. 

Pure of heart, ^LJ\^L6^ 

kkdlii %U jandn. Heart-hroken, 
jy»(^\^Ai kalb maksHr. From 
the hottom (inside) of the heart, 
L^*\i \\jt^^A>^^ ^an tamlm al 
kalh. Black at the heart, c\y^ 
cJlaJI iatffdd al kalb. Hard- 
hearted, ^^XJJI^Ij kdA al 

Hearten, v. ^uJuJ^^^^ kawwa* 
kalbaho. See Animate, encourage. 

Heartily (sincerely), Ui kalhan, 
jAiJU bUsidk, Eagerly, J^ 
j^ bikolahawk. 

Heartiness (sincerity), <L ■&■>_&» «» - 
haklkat, ij\j^ 8addkat ; (ardour), 
LJ!k»- htmmiat, ij^ ghayrat. 

Heartless, c^>^\i<JU< mdlako kalb. 
See Timid. 

Hearty (sincere), JjL? iddik; (in 
full health), JLiC^ mut^dfl. 
See Healthy, strong, vigorous. 

Heat, *^5/*" kardraty j^ harr ; 
(passion), i^^^nar ghadab; (ar- 
dour, zeal), ij^ ghlrat. 

Heat, V. ^^^^^ kavMM^ \ (to make 
feverish), ^ ^ '^ hammam; (to 
enrage), (,^>.»fir.\ aghddb. 

Heated (warmed), (^y^^^^ mahmum, 
fnushawwib ; (enraged), 
maghdub, c^ a^ ghad^ b . 




HeaiheD, a&j. J^^ hafir, ^^ 

Heave, «. (lift, ndse), ^j rafa^ 
Heaven (paradise), UmJI assamd, 
(jm^J^-LJI alfardawa ; (sky), 
L.4^MbJ! assamd. The hea- 
vens, d^tjUkMJl (usamdwdt. The 
highest heaven (the residence of 
Omnipotence), cl/liHl 4j.Ai ^a^^ 
al ofldk. The heaven or sphere 
of the mwm)^ jAAl\f,L^falak ul 
kamar. The starry heavens, /*! 

Heavenly, t^jl"*^ aamdwi. The 
heavenly luminaries, ^jLjsr* 

Heavily (ponderously), ]Lij«a^20n, 
ZiU; J^ ^lib/ sakdlat. 

Heaviness (ponderousness), ^JaJj 

tiki; (dejection), ^ ^ham. See 

Sadness, oppression. — (dullness, 

stupidity), Ja«!1/*J^ ^dam al 

Heavy, J^ sakll^^l. JUj takdl) ; 

(oppressive), JU? sd/tm. 
Hehdomadal, ^<^^^ (uhn^. See 

Hebrew, <J]^ ^li^diif . A Hebrew 

(Jew), i^^y^, yahudl. 
Hectic, jy«3^ madkak. A hectic 

fever, j jJl^ hmmat addak. 

Hector, s. See Braggadocio, bully. 

Heed, v. See Attend, mind, re- 
gard. — ^Heed. See Care, atten- 
tion, caution, observation, notice, 
regard.— Heedful. See Attentive, 
watchful, careftil, cautious. — 
Heedfully. See Attentively, etc. 
— ^needfulness. See Vigilance, 
caution. — Heedless. ' See In- 
caution, careless. — ^Heedlessness. 
See Inattention, negligence. 

Heel, 8, c^^mC ka^. The tendon of 
the heel, S-V/^ ^kah. A cook 
who sells cow-heel, or the feet of 
cattle in general, AjlL«fil;»-j 
hayyd^ makddam. 

Hejra, #. (Muhammadan era), iyfff] 
alhefrat. The year of the hejra, 
iySirMl^ taimat al hejrat 

Heifer, a. iLs^ ^jlat. 

w mm 

Heigh ho ! <OJ\aU\ allah dOah. 

Height, f ^j^ irtifd^,^ ^H, See 
Elevation, ascent, dignity. — 
Buildings of a conspicuous height, 
^\iuJiMjb^L^\ aimiyat tdkirat 
ul irtifd^. The height of the 
tide, J^ mad. The height (full, 
completion), f\Aj\ itrndm^ JU!^ 
kamdl. The height of exertion, 
i*U:J\«Xf<ptjJur\ ajfad wal jahd 
ul iamdm. 




Heighten, v. _Lc ^la\ ^See Ele- 
vate. — (to meliorate), J^ saUah. 
See Improve. — (to aggravate), 
jju sakkal; (to embellish by 
decorations), ^ j tayyan. 

Heinous, JjJb& ihadtd, i^yjut 
ma^ahf jijJ^ sharir, ^JJi» ihali. 
See Atrocious, wicked. — ^A heinous 
crime, ^^Jocu^ J zanb ^osfm. 

Heinousness, jLJ ftudd, J^ $har. 

See Wickedness. 
Heir, «. ci-?;\j «^flr« (plur. iJ^j 

warasat). Heirapparent, J^! Jj 


wah al^hd. To appoint an heir, 

CJ;j tvarraa. 
Heiress, «. ^Lj^lj wdriiot. 
Heirless, C^ljAJt* mdlaho wdrU, 

Heirship, ^\j^ wardsat, (^lAj^ 

Heliotrope (sunflower), j^jJ^i 
^juAm^\ zahar dawwdr ashshanu. 

Hell, a:^^ jahannam, Hell-flre, 
M^p^j^ ndr jahannam. The 
lowest pit of hell, ^jJiLJl Ji*^\ 
asfal asBdflin, Tho inhabitants 
of hell (the damned, the infernal 
powers), A^»^ Jjbl ahl jahannam. 

Hellish, ^^Ui^ jahannaml, Hel- 
lishly. See Infernally, wickedly. 

— MclUabnesa. See WickodneBB. 

Helm (of a ship), ^.^jj^MsJ daffat 
al markab. 

Helmet, «. (helm), J^ khud, or 
i(iy>^ khawdaL A texture of iron 
rings hanging from the back of a 
helmet, ^^4^ taradiyat. 

Help, ^jLj(^ ma^wanat, JJ^ 

maddad, ^^ ^um, ^UUl i^nat, 

ij»aj nasrat. By God's help, 

^JIl^jj^JU hil^um al ilahi. To 

beg for help, ^U:;«j\ ista^n, 
t,V»Sw)l isiamad. 
Help, V. JlcLi sd^ad, ^^l^ ^tcan, 

^Ic ^an. See Assist, succour, 

cure, remedy. 
Helper, «.^U ndsir. See Assistant. 
Helpful, (j>^^ mM^dt^^tn, «X;^ 

mufJd, See Useful, salutary. 

Helpless, ^j^yb^4^L« mdlaho mu^n. 

Helplessly, ij\s\jJo highayr i^nat. 

Helplessness, j1x«^1/%Jlc: ^<im al 

Helter-skelter, A-Jaj^J^ hikol 

kharhatah. See Pell-mell, con- 

Helve, 9, (handle of an axe), Ju 
^daiJl yad al halta. See Handle. 

Hem (of a garment), j\:S kandrj 
^U^l>> hdshiyat. 

Hem, r. (a garment), A-J*U.Js;r 
^mal hdshiyat. See Border, 
edge, fringe. 




Hemisphere, «. ^Ji\^i.M nasftd 
ard, ijA3i\f^^ natf uddayrat. 

Hemistichi «. ^^/^^ miira^ The 
first part of the first hemistich of 
a poem, jS^a sadr. The last part 
of the hemistich, ^^j^ ^wHid, 

Hemlock, ^^y^ ahawkarun. 

Hemorrhage, s. /^ji\ J^ sayl addam, 
«-jUj rt^a/. See Flux. 

Hemorrhoids, j^^y, hudsir. See 

Hemp, c..^;/? kinnib. 

HempeD, ^^^-jJ ktnnibl. 

Hen, 8. (domestic), i^\^J dajctjat 
(plur. CL?U-l5>-J dajajat). 

Hence (firom this place), lL/La^ 
fnin hundk, Ujb^ min hand ; (in 
another place, absent), c^^ 
ghdytb 'y (for this reason), J^ \ ^ 
clxJ J mtn ajl zalik. Henceforth, 
henceforward, ljicL>j^i!^^j./imfn 
<ildn ioaad^an, [azzawdyd. 

Heptagon, 8. \A^\]\^m^ tnmahha^ 

Her, U A^, as l^l::^ kitdhihd, her 

Herald, «. i^jl:^^ munddi. See 
Harbinger, Foremnner. 

Herb, herbage, CuLj nahdi. 

Herbaceous, (JLJ ndbdtl. 

Herbalist, herbarist, «. c-^Lj^^ 

Herb-woman, 8,ij0a:>^l£\^hayyd^ 

Herd, «. J^Ub>- jamd^. See 
Flock, troop, crowd. 

Here, Ujb AancI, LibU AdA^ma. Here 
and there, CS^'Jb^\:Jb hand 
wahundk. Here comes Peter, 
^jMjii)\iJt\ib hdhand Butroa. Here 
comes Paul, ^^J^Liblib hdhand 

Hereabouts, \:^Km^j3 karib lihiand. 

Hereafter (a future state), lA 
fJJa^j^\ fil mastakhil; (from 
this time forward), ^Ji^^J^ mm 
aldn. [Hereon. 

Hereat, l!J3jjcx ^nd zalik. See 

Hereby, ^JL>iJ^J^ min zalik. 

Hereditable, i^jjy mawrHs. 

Hereditament, ^^^Ajt^ mtrda. See 

Hereditary, JJ/^• mlrdA, Here- 
ditary possessions, ^^jj^J^ 
mdl mawrH8. By hereditary 
right, hereditarily, cijJ^^^JjJiaj 
hitarlk al mlrdi. 

Herein, ^ j^ hi hazd. [hazd. 

Hereof or herefrom, iJJb^ min 

Hereon, \ jjb Jx ^la^ hazd, J^jJ 
\JJb li ajl hazd. 

Hereout, bjb^ min hand. 

Heremeticai. §>eft ^VlVwtj , 




Heresy, Jlcjj had^, isisjlb har- 
takat (plur. isJ\j^yb hartakdt). 
Heretical^ S^j^ hartah. Here* 
ideally, JEaI^ J^ hUul hartaikat. 

Hereto, hereunto, iJ^O^t ila* 

Heretofore, Uji^ fnukaddaman, 

wJj^^ min kadltn, UjLi ad- 

hikarif ^^\ aunpalan, Li kahlan, 

Ujji hadlman. As heretofore, 

Herewith, U! lafan, ^Jb tayyaho. 
Heritable, Vil^j^t^^ mwnhin al 

mlrd8, kUjjy mawrHs. 
Heritage, ^^lAj^^ tnJrdi, d^\ ara, 

^\j^ foardiot, ISy iaraiat. 
Hermaphrodite, «. ^A^^^ khansa*. 
Hermes, yj»^^jib h&niMi. 
Hermetical. See Chemical. 
Hermit, «. JJb|j %dhid^ cICaU ndnik^ 

,^\^ 8dy%h. A hermitage, ijL^ya 

Hernia, «. jlii fiidk. See Rupture. 

Hero, «. (brave man), ^Is^ ahqjd^^ 
^j\^ ffhdzl, JJj bdsil. The hero 
of theage,^t«pf ^U^ kahramdn 
aszamdn. Heroic, heroical, j^ 
j\^\ iasir ajjahdd, A heroic 
achieyement, U^ ghazd (plur. 

Heroism, JuL-c^ shafdoU, i*\jP^ 
jaraat. See Brayery. 

Heron, «. ^UiuJ dunytde, JLj^t 
lIX^mJI oibto/ a$$amak. 

Hers, lfel:L« mtf^^oAd. — ^Herself, 

Hesitate, v. uJ5y tawatkaf, f^yi 
tawahham, tl^J^ ahak. 

Hesitation, JJ^ taraddud, ^j 
f^aAm. See Doubt, irresolution. 
— (stammering), J; ra<?. With- 
out hesitation, i^J^h hUd ahibhat, 

Heteroclite. See Irregular. 

Heterodox, ^j^y^jt^ ghayr mUmin, 

Heterogeneous, heterogeneal, 

ujUlsr^ mukhdltff ^j^\ytj^ 

ghayr muwdfiky Jplk.*^ ghayr 

tnutdhik. See Dissimilar. 

Hew, v.jsf^ najjar. See Cut, fell, 

plane. — A hewer, jlacT no^/'dr. 

Hexagon, a, ^^J^-***.^ muaaddaa. 
Hexagonal, hexangular, (jmJum/* 
Llalll muaaddaa azzawdyd, 

Hexaped, a. (animal with six feet), 
Jc>-j\JL«9^f abu aiitat arjal. 

Hey! heyday! ^dlldUt a/2fl(A aUah, 

A heyday. See Frolic. 
Hiatus. See Aperture, gap, breach. 
Hibernal, i^y^ ahaiam» 
Hid, hidden, ,<Ai^ mukhftf 




mtMtafif jfiM,yt mattir, ^psL* 
nmktatm. See Concealed. 

Hide, V. (conoeal), iJuiA akh/a' ; 
(to conceal one's-self, or be con- 
cealed), Jaii.\ mta/a'. 

Hide, i. A>-pld{^ha. J^^jalild). 
A hide of fine leather (morocco), 
^Lkcr* nkktijfdn. See Leather, 

Hideons, .^i^lJ kabih. «-^jJ^ shanie,, 
JN|yC« fnahrHhf uJ^^r^ mukhnff 
fj^^ muhul, s^'^»i^ muhlh. See 
Ugly, deformed, horrible, dread- 
ful. — ^Hideous in countenance, 
■Vi'-^iU^^uj kdblh al manzaTf ^^ 
ijy^\ karlh assHrat, A hideous 
monster, (^:^jA£. ^frit. 

Hideously, s^S^cyj hi naw^n 

Hideousness, Jl^L^ thand^t. See 
Ugliness, deformity, Rightfulness. 

Hider, «. (one who conceals any- 
thing), ij\=>- khafi; (one who 
conceals himself), ^a:;^ mwM- 
tafl. See Hide. 

Higgledy-piggledy, ^jS>^JCj hikol 
kharhata. See Confusedly. 

High, ^^7^ mvrtafi^ _IU ^dft, 

#dmi, ^J^ Mftl, k^L& shdmtkh 
(plur. ^\^ «AatrdmiiibA). Most 

High, ^\ oM. The Most 

High, ^U;^^UuijH^t o/Aoib 

«a^^mi^ ira ta^la\ See Gk>d. 

— ^High-bom, wi ^y^ 9karlf, 

High-minded, ^;<X:^ mutakabbir. 

High in price, ^U yAdil. A 

high mountain, k^L& Jucf- /oM 

«^mtfA. Higher, ^5^\ orfa^, 

^le\ a^\ Highest, ^^j^^ 

idarfa^ ^Jifllt aia^. Selling 

to the highest bidder (by auction), 

jl^U wJ\ al hay^ M nuudd. 

Highland, Ju9^ yo^aft. See Moun- 

Highly, j/^i)Cj hikol ^u/d ; (in a 
high degree), i)\ki hi gh&yat. 
See GFreatly — (proudly), JS^ hi 
takabhur, jjj^JCj hikol yhurUr ; 
(with esteem), jLs^\JCi hikol 
iaihdr, Cl^Uilf^ hikol atif&t. 

Highness (elevation), ^>i'2j\ irtifd^; 
(a royal title), ij.a>^ hadrai, 
c-^l:^ jandh. See Exalted in 

Highway, «. (^^(JiJ^ tarik ^dm. 
See Boad, way. — ^A toll paid for 
guarding the roads against high- 
waymen,^^ ghafa/r. 

Hill, «. Jj te» (plur. Jib tiua\ 

Hilt, LiJ kabdaty Jjyadd, 
W kabdat oucMff. 




Him (preceded by a preposition or 
the sign of the genitive case), s, 
as : J^y^ ^^ nasMra, he saw, 
sjaj^ h^ tuuarhu, he saw him. 
Himself, ^uuij nafouhu. An ad- 
mirer of himself, ^1»-Jh^\x 
^dshik hdlaho. Master of him- 
self, ddU-LU ddhit hdlaho. He 
himself, A^avj hi nafnhu, Cl^\ jJb 
hisBUit. The boy throw himself 
into the riyer, A*uAJ ^^^^^^--aH 

jfi^iS M9ahl rama* nafsaho fVl 
nahr. [_ffhazdJat. See Deer. 

Hind 8. (female of a stag), iljji 
Hinder,^TdM»r. See Posterior. 
— ^The hinder part,y:>-31 alalchir. 
On the hinder part, ^j^^ *nin 
icard, Hindermost, hindmost, 
-^T dkhir. See Last. 

Hinder, v. «^ mana^ Jup sadd, 
fjoju ta^rrad. See Obstruct, 

Hinderance, <ujUw« mumdna^t, 
Laj\jL^ mu^radat, ^:w« man^ 
fjoju ta^arrudf t^^ fndni^ 
jc^ sad. See Impediment, stop. 
— A hinderer, ^^ mdni^ 

Hindoo, v^JaJi> Hindi. 

Hindostan, ^^^c^^d^J^ Hindusfdn, 
JUL hUad ul hind. 

Hinge, «. <^U^j«.L>-ydrflr ul baby 
c^UHt— "^gr. cakb ul bdb. 

Hint, V. (give a signal), .^^ wama\ 
U^ ghama%, j\JU\ ashdr. 

Hint, «. (signal), ij\JL\ ithdrat, 

iA:^ hindyat,y*j ramtfJAs. ghamz, 

'Uj\ fma, ,^i£^ khabar. See Sug- 

gestion, intimation. 
Hip, t. (bone), CS;^ wirk (plar. 

c)\j^ awrdk). 
Hip (dejection of spirits, \jy^ sawdd . 

Hippish, hipped, ^^^Ij^ mit- 

Hippopotamus (river horse), (jny »J 

bamlk, j^^\fjMji faras al bahr. 

Hire, v, (take on hire), j>'\s^\ «- 
%V>r. To let on hire ^^ kara\ 
— (let in farm), j^\ ajar. To 
hire or bribe, ^Jl?^ bartaL 

Hire, 1^ Xirci, J^"^ <!/"'"> ^/^^ ^/V*. 
See Wages, recompense, reward. 
— ^A broker's hire or commission, 
^^ J dildlat, ij*M^ samsarat. 

Hired, i^J^ mukra\ 

Hireling, -5J-1 ajir. See Mercenary. 

Hirer, «. ^^J^ kdrl, i^J^ mukrl. 

A hirer of horses, mules, etc. 

4_^IC« tnukdri. A camel hirer, 

J Lis*- jammdL 

His is denoted by i hu subjoined 




to the preceding word, as : His 

book, <j\s^ kitdbuku. 

Hissy v.jLa safar, 

Hissy 9, j^iu^ waflr. Hissmg or 

whistHng as the wind, \^M^ 

Historian, historiographer, rjy 
mU'Orriih. Historians, i^y^-jy 
mu-warrikhun, ^^^^jy mu- 

Hbtorical, ^jsrj\j tdrikhh His- 
torically, ^jlill^jj^ hi tartk 

History, ^^U tMkh (plur. <^^\y 

tawdrikh)f i[Vi^ hikdt/at, lA^j 
riwdyatf j^ khdbar (pi. jLc^l 
dkhhdr). A true history, i>l^ 
ij\^JM^>^ hikdyat sahlhat td 
riwdyat. A poetical or fabulous 

history, i>l^^ hikdyat, ^^^j ri- 
wdyat. See Fable. 
Hit, V. ^i^ darah. See Strike, 

beat. — To hit the mark or butt, 
im^\^ 8dh. 
Hit, s, <u^ darhat, Ju jt^ui musd" 

datnat. See Blow, stroke. — 
(chance), jUJl ittifdk. 

Hither, hitherward, Lib^^f ila* 
hand. Hither and thither. Lib 
CJ\iJb^ hand wa hundk. 

Hitherto, Ji\J\ Ha' aldn, \sitj\ 
^Ji\ tV haad aldn. 

Hive, ». (swarm of bees), Ja^ij\^ 
kuwdrat nahl. 

Ho ! hoa ! b yd. 

Hoar, hoar-frost, jy^^Ji kurs buz. 

Hoard, «. ij^^lx^ matmHrat. Bee 
Treasure. — To hoard, J^^^^^ sam- 
mad. See Store, lay up. 

Hoariness, l^^^j.^Si shayhy A > .jA 
shayhat. See Gray hairs. 

Hoarse, ^^^V« mo^AtiA. Hoarse- 
ness, <Sar3aM<i^. To grow hoarse, 
^\ anhah. 

Hoary, c^l^ shdyih. See White, 
gray, mouldy. — ^Hoary hairs. See 
G^ay hairs. [limp. 

Hobble, ^jS' ^qf. See Halt, 

Hobblingly. See Awkwardly, un- 
skilfully, [hisdn aaghlr. 

Hobby, «. (small horse), ^^*«^^lid»^ 

Hobgoblin, «. i5*>- y»imi. See Elf, 
fairy, demon. 

Hobnail, «. jUmu.^ mismdr. 

Hodge-podge, \^j^ khalt, ^^Ls^ 
mukUuia. See Medley. 

Hodiernal, ,#^j£ yawml. 

Hoe, «. ^Li^fi^ majrafat. 

Hog, «. jiy^ khamlr. Hogs, 
^jlic^ khandzir. Hog's lard, 
y ;i£;-/^^ «Aa^ii i^Aonsir. Hog- 
gish, ^jt,}"^ hhawtlri, A hogs- 
head, vi^/. ^<*nnill. 




See Orasp ; 

Hoist, t^. hoise, wi^ *^t* ^^^^^i 
— To hoist sail, 
$ahdb al hdn^. 

Hold, V. (contain), ^j^^^-^ ihtawd* ; 
(possess, keep), 
^>u toiorraf. 
seize; retain; possess, enjoy. — 
To hold fast, (JjCu^ m&sei. To 
hold in (a horse, etc.), iw dabai. 
See Bestrain, stop, check. — ^To 
hold in (restrain one's-self)t la^ 
ij\^^ dabai shahtcdiaho. To 
hold off (keep one at a distance), 
^J dafa^f ^>^ mana^. To 
hold on (continae), /^^\j ddwam, 
jAS>J\ utamar; (to continae to 
bear or suffer), f^Ac^ tahammal ; 
(to offer, propose), fjOj& ^ad; 

(to last), ^\ii ddm, ^\j kdm ; (to 
remain in union), jlA3^t_lc>*^t J 
ddioam ^la* al ittif&h. To hold 
a conference, ^jJ^j^\dAs- ^akad 

Hold, imperat, iL^^^*^ imM, 

Hold (grasp). dLt*^ mashat ; (a 
prison), ^z**^ haha; (power, 
influence), ijX^ kudrat, S^ 
kutpat; (a lurking place), ^j^^a^ 
kammJn; (a stronghold or for- 
tressj, Zdi ial^at. See Fort, 

castle. — ^The hold of a ship, ^^ 
\,^yi^ khun al markdb. 
Holder, t. uXiU mdtik. 

ILomBAt,$.i^kkiaidh. See Hook. 

Holding, pari. uX^U mdsik. 

Hole, s, {Jujkr^ bukhskf c«-^ sakb. 
A hole under the ground, tie 
ffhdr. A hole in the ground made 
by rabbits, moles, etc., 
nakb. To make a hole, 


sakab. See Bore, dig. — ^To stop 

up a hole, Jui sadd. 
Holily, LJjJjCi hikol kaddsai, 

ijX^JCj hikol iahdrai. 
Holiness, ZmiIjj kaddsai, » X^ [^ 

iahdrai. See Purity, piety, 

Holloa, \j yd, l^\ ayyuhd. 

Hollow, uJj^ mu^awijoaf. Hol- 
low (insincere), jjL?^ ghayr 

Hollow, B. (cavity), jUa^! thU/dr, 


V— flJ^air iajwif (plur. v-jb^lasr 

iajdtolf), jk^ hafr. 
Hollow or make hollow, v. uJS>- 

jawwaf,ji^ hafar,jsc.>^\ ihtafar. 

Hollowed, j^isr* mahfur, yc^'^ 

muhtafar, ^ysr^ mujawwaf. 
HoUowness, uJ^ jawf\ (insince- 

Holme (tree), ^^I'o J^:*-: Bindiydn, 

HOM 598 

HblocaoBty s. i^j^s^ muhrikat, 

^^ j3 iaddUi. See Porey good, 

piouBy sacied. 
Holydajy Ju^ ^. 
Holy Ghoety «. (^^^^tr*^^ ^"vntA o/ 

Homage, Zcltt Ud^ai, /^^^ A- 

ttrdtn. See ObeiBanoe. — To do 

homage, /^/^>^^ Maram, 
Home, v:u«^ 3ay^, ^U^ maildm, 

^IC« makdnf ^ (m^ moikan, 

^^ watan. 
Homeliness, f^^US lahdwiyaL See 

Badeness, inelegance, rosticiiy. 

Homely in oountenance, <^ui 

Ja:»jii\ iahlh al manzar, 
Home-made,liome-6pnn v^>^.*J ^ JjL2i 

See Homely, coarse. 
Homestall, homestead, s. <LxJL» 

wkfuU. [ila' hlttho. 

Homeward, homewards, ^^^^ 
Homicide, ^.JurJJjfU kdtil katll, 

Jlsj kattdl. See Murderer. — 

Homicide, JuiJ ib^f/, JiJ ^atf. 

See Harder — ^Homicidal. See 

Homogeneal, homogeneous (of the 

same kind), ^j*jjj- J^ ford jins, 


(Ji^y muwdfik, JI^^Ux^ muidhikf 
Homogeneonsnees, iiiSy muwd- 
Jiiat, iJbUx^ mtMbikat, JJU3 

Homologoiis, i,,.^L; ^ mundM, 
(ji^y muwdfik. See Congruous, 

Hone, «• ^^jm^ muam. 

Honest, JU idlih (fern. i^L> sd- 
Uhat), jjU «d<fo'ik (fern. £ijU 
sddikai), JjU ^d<;»7. See Up- 
right, just, sincere. — ^Honestly, 
-XtfJ^ Mb/ m/^^ ^Uru-s! J^ 
hikol iitikdmai. 

Honesty, i^^*^ diifdnat, JLa saldh, 
jJup Mk, ^jtfSU-f ikUds, JiXc 
^ai//. See Virtue, justice, truth, 

Honied (covered with honey), Jmui^ 
mticouo/. See Sweet, luscious. 

Honey, Jyuux ^a$al. Purified honey, 
^JLa^fJ^^ ^a$almu9affa\ Pre- 
served in honey, Jy^jJUjAt^ 
mu^akkad h%l ^omI. 

Honorary, ^y skarafl, ly)^^ 

Honor, J)b^ jaldl, i^jJit sharaf, 

j\ss^\ iftiihdr, js.^ fakhr. See 

Dignity, glory. — (chastity), iske. 

ijffat'y (reverence) Ap^ Mirdm, 

^Jj iakrim^ ^*^^ \^\b<lT^^^ 




tifSLt See Bespeot, veneratioii. 
— (reputation^ good name), ^jC- 
^wrdf (jMj^U n&miU (pL ^/wM^ly 
nawdmli. See Fame, renown. — 
Held in honor/ ^^z^\i^^\^ 
iodjih td takrimy fS^ mukarram. 
See Honorable, honored. — ^With 
great honor and extraordinary 
magnifioence, ^>*]^\^*JacLjl^ 

A<MM^ 3t^t28»ii ^oafffi ioa ihrdmm 


Honor, v.jC- ^os, fj>\ akram, (^jS^>-\ 
ihtaram. See Dignify, reverence. 

Honorable, ^^,^f».U sdhib ^usat, 
^^Ls^ muhtaramfjfSJut mu^iahar. 

Honorablene88, a^ karam, i^\^ 
kardmat, Jl^jaldl. See Honor, 
eminence, magnificence, generos- 

Honorably, jLi^fJ^ hikol i^ibdr, 

a\ju^\JiCj hikol Mirdm, Jfi-JC> 

a\S\j hikol ^nsstn loa ikrdm. See 

Magnanimously, reputably. 

Honored, f^J>^ mukarram, Um^ 

mti^oasam, f^a^ mufakhkham^ 

3y9 muioakkar, [mu^. 

Honorer, «. f^^^ mvkrim, J-«^ 

Hoof,y U. hafir (pl.^!^ hatodjir), 

Jju na^L A cloven hoof, c-tt lb 

Mul^(plur, i^Jtkt add/). The 

hoof of a camel or ostrich, 
kJUf, The interior part of the 
hoof, ^;«<3^ Amu. 
Hook, «. ^% kuUdh, iik kidldhat, 

uJlia::^ khattdf (plur. cXtlk^;^ 
khatdtlf), A fish-hook, c^b 
fttfte^. A hook on which meat 

is hung, i^^ kulldh. A reap- 
ing hook, (J^^ manjal. A 
sheep hook, ^-gj^lL^ar. ^<Md 

Hooked (catchcd with a hook), 
c^)li3b^j]ji^ mu^allak hil kulldh. 

Hoop, «. <L ftL » . halakat. See King, 
circle. — (of a barrel, etc.), i^lb 

Hoop, r. (a barrel), cH-^l^lLj^f 
J.^.^^ ^ama/ ^drd^ lU harmil. 
See Encircle. [«^aAAdA». 

Hooping-cough, «. ^\sf^ i\jL^ sa^i 

Hop, «. if^ kafzat. See Skip, 
jump. — A hop or place for a 
dance, ^^Ji^^J^^ mahall arraks. 

Hop, r. (skip), ^^^ raJfca*, Jaj 

Hope, J/i^ flma/ (plur. JUl aiwd/), 
Ip*j rfl/d, ^llscj\ tWisdr. See 
Expectation, desire, confidence. 
— ^To cut off, or blast one's hopes, 
»\p^j^ai kata^ rajdh. 


Hope, V. iVry ^"^^33'^) J^^ ammal, 
^^m^J^ taraikah. See Expect. 

Hoped, J^'tt nuumlilf^j^ marfu. 

Hopeful, ^\j rdjl, ^j^^^ 
muia/rajjii ^j^^^C^ mu^amanni. 
Hopefully, J^t J^ ^'i^^ omo/. 

Hopeless (having no hope), ^U 
Is^t li^ti^ arrajd, J^t^L^ 
mdlo^ amo/ ; (promising no- 
thing good), J^t^l« md 5»A» 

Hoper, B, i^j^ mutarojlfh 

Hoping, part and <m^'., J^j^ 
mu^miL See Hopeful. — Hopinglj, 

J^\ (JCj hikol amal. See Hope- 
Hopper (of a mill), ^ J dalu, ^jm^jIB 

Horal, horary, L^UJb hiaad^i, 
^ImJlJ(^^*amJ^ mansUh lil 


Horde, «. /*y ibtrm. See Tribe. 

Horizon, jil u/fe, jli\ «/fiife, jiU. 
khdfik. The two horizons (the 
east and west), ^Uilfi>. khdfkdn, 
^jm\:>- khdfil^n. Horizontal, 

Horn, «. j^y ibm (pi. ^jj^y iwrttn). 
Two-homed, ^^ysJ 1^ J tulkamtn. 
To butt with the horns, ^^ na^. 
Butting one another with their 

595 HOB 

horns, I^^Lj tandtahu. Butted 
or killed by the horns of a bull, 
ram, etc., ^^^^^^^ mantuk, A 
horn (musical instrument), J|^ 
hUkfjJu naflr. An ink-horn, 
Jbt^J dawdyai^ ij^sf* mahharat. 

Homed, (jj^^^ ^^^ kuriin. 

Homy (made of horn), ^yf kaml. 
(banging to hom), ^iy kaml. 
See Callous. 

Homet, 9.jyJj %anhilr. 

Horologe, s. 4cLs sd^t. 
Horoscope (configuration of planets 

at the hour of birth), ^U? tdlt^ 

(plur. ^^^ tawdli^. 
Horrible, uJ^ir* muMa/, ^^^^ 

mahikh^ JjU Adyt7, J^f« miiAo/, 

Cy'*j('^ muAld. See Dreadful, 

terrible, frightful. 
Horribleness, ^L^ «Aaiid^0^. See 


Horribly, ^ j'^yf^ ^* natr^m 

Horrid, dj|yC« rnoib^. Hj ( ."..m^^ 
nittf^aib'aA, '^H^ ib^iA, %-^ 
«^»i^. See Horrible, hideous, 
enormous. — Horridness, ^L.;J* 
»hand^. See Hideousness. — 
(enormity), h%\u^ jcudmat. 

Horror, ieScJ^ »hand^, ^)r^ 
kardMyat. To confi«\\^ Vi^Ti^st^ 




iatakrak. Held in horror^ i^J^ 

Hone, $. ^ld»> Msdn; (mare), (j^y 
faros, A blood hone, a hone of 
noble pedigree, Jli0^^Ld»^ Midn 
oHL a piebald boney^^l^^ld^- 
hitdn abroih. An Arabian bone, 
jfjX^ltfft^AMdn ^oroM. ATaridah 
horse, i^y^j^^-^^- hudn Tkirkl. 
A barb borse, ^yL«^lid»> hisdn 
maghrahl, A led horse, a horse 
of state or parade, C/jj yaddk. 
A lame horse, -.^l^l^^- hU&n 
a^aj. Post horses, aho relays of 
horses, ^JaM}^f^lid»> Aiivdit a7 
posta. To dress or onrry a horse, 
^1.0^1 JmuJ kashthak al hiadn. 
The master of the horse, jf^]^t 
Mfifr aMilr. A groom who leads 
horses of state, ^j^*^ yadahjl. 
Horse (cavalry), ^L^ hhayydlat, 
J^ May/, J^-^ ifeAnyfl/. 

Horse, v. (mount a horse), t^--^ 

Horseback, mounted on horseback, 
^^\j rdkih, {jMj\i farts. To 
mount or ride on horseback, u^^^ 

Horse-boat, «. ^ 



^^li shdkhtHra kdhiri mastuJiai 
lihaml al ^rdhdndt tnin shot 
annahr ila* tdti^. 
Horse-breaker, s. (^V-«a sdyss, 

J^\y^j raJtklh al hkayl. 
Horse-dealer, Ja^cLjI-j hayyd^ 

khayl. Horse-courser, jULs*- 

Horse emmet, s. (a large winged 

ant), -.Us^-I^J^lLij natnlat Uhd 

Horseflesh, J^\ A^. lahm al khayl. 
Horse-fly, s. SJ^\ij[iJ dihbant al 

Horse-guards, iA\ * "^^^jW*^^ 

tcardiydn al khayydlat. 
Horse-hair, ^j\ »n<\jxJ^ sha^ al 

hisdn, [^addihk hi kahkahaL 

Horse-laugh, s. ^ »( 5 tcl^'^l 
Horse-leach, iAc> ^akat (plur. 

CL^UL: ^akikdi). 
Horse-litter, s. (for travelling), 

Horseman, s, JIJ^ khayydl, yMj\i 
fdris, ^~^\; rdktb. Horsemen, 
jjLj^ fiirsdn. See Equestrian. 

Horse-meat, u-jLlc ^a/a/. See Hay, 
grass, bean. 

Horse-mill, s.J\j^ maddr. 

Horse-pond, s, jiS£, yhadlr, Jjy 
mawradffjo^ hawd,fJ^:^manhaL 

HOS 597 

Hone-raoe, s. ^J^^JLajLu/* matd- 
hakai al hhtnfl. See Conrse, race, 
raoe-groimd. — ^A wager at a horse 
moey^Sj^mwrdhin. SeeWager, 

Horae-shoe, s. Jju na^. [bet. 

Horae-atealer, «. J-^^f j|/n« iorrdk 
al khayh [See Highway. 

Horseway, vJILLjJ;£^ tarikiultdnl. 

Hose, ^^j^ jUrdh. 

Hospitable, m w Vi^ mui^m. A 
hospitable man, ^»(L^^ mudif. 
Hospitably, ^^L>^ ht diffdfiin. 

Hospital, i. (for the sick), ^j^\j\ti 
ddr al marad, Li-uuiJUtj ddr 
oihihafd; (a public building for 
the reception of the poor and 
travellers), »\aj[^ khdnkdh. See 
Carayansera, inn, hostel. 

Hospitality, ^Lj diydfatt ii\^\ 
K^^yil\ iidfat al ghartb. 

Hospitaller, b. \^L,nd^ mudif. See 
Host. — ^The knights Hospitallers 

{or knights of Malta), jls^l 

Host, g. (landlord), ^LiLdltw^U 

»dh%b addiydfdt, i^Ju^a^ muilj. 
Hostage, «. ^^Jh; rahlnat (plur. 

^^^U; rdhdyin). To give a 

hostage, ^U^^Ja^f a^to' rahlnat. 
Hostel or hotel, )jjl(^ lokdndd, 


Hostess, <. tjj\(^\iL».U sdhibat 
al lokdndd. 

Hostile, (.jUlc^ mukhdhf, ^j^ 
harH. See Adverse. — A hostile 
excursion, ^^^j.,^^ f^ys^ hufUm 

Hostility, i^Sse^ ^addwat, Ltyot^ 

khuBUmatf JlaJI^*^ mukhdla/at, 

^j~>- karb, ^;|5J^ ^adwdnf 

i\j\»^ mu^dddt To commit 

hostilities, Sj^Jl^J^ ^mal 

Hostler, #. ^/mJ Li tdyes. See Oroom. 

Hot, jW hdrr, ^^ hdmi, ^jsif^ 
9ukhm. A hot bath, AUfr- 
AajfimSm. Hot (vehement, ivai' 
oxia\ ^J!i^\d>>- hadd attah^. See 
Fierce, vehement, violent, eager, 
keen, precipitate. — Lascivious, 
i^-fiiic,,^-fwl— g <dAA thahwai. 
Somewhat hot, J Jcj^ tnu^tadil. 

Hot-brained, hot-headed, '^]/^^> 
hadd al m%%dj. See Rash, violent, 
passionate. — ^To be hot, ^jr hmnl. 

Hotly, ^«|/a^ bi kardrat; (vio- 
lently), Hjumj b* ihaddat, L»s»- 
jabran, [fury. 

Hotness, ij\^ hardrdt See Heat, 

Hotch-potch. See Hodge-podge, 
farrago. [hut, shed. 

Hovel, f . ijA>^ IbKu, ^j^ ^>^»^ 




HoTor, V. (over head, as a bird, etc.), 

^Jij rofraf, «l>> ham . 
Hound, «. t<Ji«.«^t_.K kdtb taydl. 


See Dog. 

Hoar, 9. ^Li 8d^, From hour to 
hour, ^LfLyj^Li sd^t hi td^t. 
In a happy hour, ijyL^y^^\j^ 
hi sd^ttn nuu^dat. Every hour 
(hourly), I^Lj J^ kol sd^t. 

House, «. v:u«^ bai/t (plur. cl:U^ 
huyut), jl J rfflr, j^l^ makdn, 
^^^Cm^ iTUM^an, J^ tnanzal ; 
(descendants from one ancestor), 
JyuJ nasi, J^f cm/. See Family, 
race. — A winter house, ^<s^*t^ 
inashta\ A summer, country, or 
garden house, i^i^^ masi/af. A 

royalhouse, u-nUIj^ J (i^r al malek. 
See Palace. — ^A store-house, 4J^ 
«Aiina^. See Magazine, ware- 
house. — ^A work-house (workshop) 
4J t <»Hci'w»,.t 5ay^ a/ shaghl) 

(shop), ^l^ J dukkdn. The house 
or station of a planet, -p.^ ^uiy, 

u.^y3\-.^ hurj al kawkahy ^y^ 

manzaL See Constellation. — The 
house of perdition (hell), a^*^^ 
ya^»»am,^\^t^\j ddr albawdr. 
A religious house, ^ J dayr. See 
Abbey, monaatery. 

Housebreaker, «. i*-^)^ Aoramf. 

See Thief, robber. 

House-dog, <• 1^^ i^^^hM ndtur. 
Household, a. «j:>^,JlJjb\ aAa/ a/ 

5ay^. See Family, domestic. — 

Household furniture, household 

stuff, v.::^\c:^bl atdt al hayt. 

A householder, housekeeper, 

Houseless, uu^^t* mdlaho hayL 
Housemaid, «. ^Iji^ khadddmat. 
House-room, J>-s^ mahaU, dji^j 

was^t, <U>-1::^ mu/tdhiyaL 
Housewife, lil^IS^ mor^ aZ 3ay^ 

See Hostess. 
Housen (houses), (JLJy^^^ hiyut, 

j\jj diydr, j^O dur. 
Housings (for horses), fJL^jildl, 

See Saddle-doth. 
How (in what manner), ujL^ kayf, 

Ui^ kayfamd. How long? ^\ 

^^>^ ila* mata\ How many ? 

^^ X'am marrat. How then.^ 

cfljO fakayf. How do you do ? 

how d'ye? cjLJU-t-i-^ iby/ 

hdlak. How many children ? 

jj^^ kam icalad. How much? 

how great ? S kam. 
However, ^^ lakin, ^j waldkin, 

^0/ ha»d ; (in whatever manner), 




Ui-^ kai/famd, (^^^^jciV ^y 
wajhinkdn; (at least), ^j[) hdrf, 
y^ waiaw, ^^uUlit akallamd 

^owl, V. Jjlj tPolufaL 

Howl, 8, ^y^^ iffalioalatf J^^^ 
walwdly Jj^ ^awH. 

Howsoever. See However, although. 

Huhbub, <iL^ ^yta^ 4joy karka^a, 

Huckle-backed, c-^Jk».t ahdah. 

Huddle, V. (to do anything pre- 
cipitately), laj^ karhat. 

Huddle, 9. ^^^jam^. See Crowd, 
tumnlt, confusion. 

Hue, ^Wc;>^ ^^'^^ Bah&gh. See 
Colour, dye. To make hue and 
cry, dlauc J^ ^mal ^ta. 

Huff, r. ^^L-LJ taf&khar. See 
Boast, bluster; (to swell with 

self-importance), JoiC ^o^assffm. 
A huff (sudden swell of arrogance 
or anger), <GU^»- hamdka, Huf- 
fishness, j^jC, ffkurHr. See Arro- 
gance. [kiyd8» 
Huge, M^ia^- ^azfm, ^jmLjL hUd 
Hulk (hull ar body of a ship), ^^^ 
w^^f ytm a/ markab. A hulk 
(anything bulky), >»^^t>-la^ 
^oslm ajjirm. 
Human, i^j*^, hathairi, 4JL^imJ) 

ifudnl. Human nature, Awu^UH 
JLjLjSt attabl^ ul inadniyat. 

Humane, ^ j 1 f»> halltn, l^1«<« 
muldtif, (^Jjy latif. See Be- 
nevolent, kind. [tafat. 

Humanely, ^^J^ hikol mtUd- 

Humanity, J.>- hilm, <U^ rahtnat, 
Jla^L* muldtafat. See Benevo- 
lence, kindness ; aUo human na- 
ture, [imdn. 

Humanise, v, ^jLjlid^ ^malaho 

Humanly,^ Lj\J^ hikol ttudniif at. 

See Humanely. 
Humble(8ubmis8ive, low, depressed), 

jt^ kaklr, «^1y;^ mutawddi^, 

^^J dun. See Low, base, poor, 

abject, mean. 
Humble, v. jA^^\ iBtakkdr, y^ 

hukar. To humble one's-self, 

«^ty tatadda^f JliJ tatalldl. 
Humbled, ^J^y^^ mutawddt^. To 

be humbled, ^^^y tawdda^ 
Humbly, ^jt^J^ hikol tawddu^. 

To beg humbly, ^^^m^I iltamas. 
Humid, u^'^ r^M. See Wet, 

moist, watery. 
Humidity, i^j^j rutabat, ^^J^ 

tardwat. See Moisture, wetness. 
Humiliation, Zf!^ dard^t, ^LaJl 

ittidd^, t^V ^''f^^'^- 
HumilityY J<J^\ iflfxAXy kJ^m^ 





HxiinoriBt, i. ^jir^ fnuskkin, ^ 
HmnorouB (capridous), c^^^p-v— ^ 
sdhib kayf; (joc^^l^)' 
Ic^jLLS Utlf al nmhrab. 

Humorously (capriciously), ^^-^^ 
^j^W^ ^M hawd annafii 
(jocosely), ^iS^^^^Xi >»^^ 
1%^ tea dikk. 
Humorsome, JCi*-^L-.J^Ui<i 
^Maho kol »d^h «*«**^- ^^ 
Peevish, humorous. 
Humor (moisture), Lj^j rutuhat. 
The four humors in the human 
hody, laU* ihidt (plur. \A^\ 
akhlat). The humor or temper 
of the mind, ^j^ mwdj, ^IsS- 
khdtir, S-y*^ maahrab, ^}\y^ 
manwdl; (jocularity), Jj^ Aas^- 
A man of humor, ^ j ^ 
muskhin, ^j^ muharrij\ ^^^^J^j 
tahrdwl. Humor (caprice), 
^_o/ kayf»Jio\^'S>' khdi^' See 
Petulance, peevishness, whim.— 
Morhid humors, LjJ;J\ti:5.^^ 
d akUdt arradiyat. 
Humor, v. Uu^^^^-^^^ ^'^ 

kMi^^, ^\y I tab^aho. See Gratify, soothe, 

comply, fit. 
Hump, «. (hump-backed or hunch- 

\ ahdah, (fem. 


b J^ hadbd. See Crook-backed. 
—To hunch or crook the back, 
^U-^^ ham' hdlaho. 
Hundred, «. i>U mdyat. A hun- 
dred thousand, ujLl^LU i»fiya< 
iii[/l About a hundred, a hundred 

more or less, k^^j^'^^^J^J^^^^ 
^\ mikddr mdyat yd amffod yd 
ankai. The hundred-leaved rose, 
u-fl^Ui* J;) wa/rad mudd^f. 
ffung, jU* mu^lak, jLc^ «»«*- 
to^aCtifc. Anything hung up (as 
fruit, etc., to dry), jU* mu^al- 
lak. A provender sack hung round 
a horse's neck, hls^ mikhldyat. 
Hunger, ^fr j'^f ^o bunger, 
c\prJdi' See starve, to behungry. 
—To make hungry, ^Jsr jatotffa^. 
Hungrily, JtJ^J^ t^' ^'^^' 

Hungry, ^^jU^^y^t"^' T^^J^V^l: 
See Starving.— To be hungry. 

Hunt, i;. J\lx^\ «^^, t;^»=^^ i^^aJWM. 

Hunt, hunting, «. .Xm^ <«y<^- S®® 

Chase, pursuit.— Anything be- 

,a/a' ii^tmko, ^Ji\3 ^m \ l°«R«8 ^ ^""*'''« ^" ^''''^"' 




dogs, hanes, etc.), lS*^^ M^fdi. 

To go a hunting, J^\^\m^J 

rdh M assay d. 
Hnnted, ^joisJU muktanas. 
Hunter, huntsman, s, jlJL^ sayydd. 

A hunter or hunting dog, l^ J^ 

i^S^ kM saydl: A hunter's net 

or other implement, i Ju«d/t maS' 


Huntress, s. ic\l^ sayyddat. 

Huntsmanship, o\l*a^i^ji\i^\^Ji\ 
al iUdf aUdzimat lU sayydd. 

Hurl, f^. uJj^>. hadaf^ ^j ramti , 
See Throw, shoot, fling. 

Hurled, ,<^/« mwirma\ uJ^tXfe^ 
nuthdaf. " See Thrown. 

Hurly-hurlj, ^da^ ^ayta, ^l^U 
hayafdn. See Tumult, commotion. 

Hurricane, s. JjjJ^^^j rih shadid, 
^^j uHoha^at See Whirlwind, 

Hurry, v. 9y-»' asra^, Jjc*^\ 
ista^jal. See Haste, hasten. — 
'HuTTjfdAjs^^qfakU. See Tumult, 
commotion,, haste, precipitation. 

Hurt, r. jj*^(^ ^amal darar^ jc 
dor. See Harm, pain, injure, 
wound. — Superfluity hurts, a 
little does good (Arabic proyerb), 
jjj J-UJl^y^^l al kasir dor 
wal kaiil nafa^. 

Hurt (injured or wounded) jyj>d^ 

madrHr, cfj\s>^ mutaasalf Juc^ 

mun^akir. To be hurt, jaJ\ 

Hurt, <• j/^ darar, f^ j! iziyat. See 

Wound, harm, injury. 
'S.uit£ul,j0a^ mudirr. See Harmful, 

pernicious. — ^Very hurtful, j^ 

jj^ lukslr al darar, Hurtftilly, 

jj^i)Cj bikol darar, 
KuxrleaB,j,A^j^ yhayr mudkr. See 

Harmless, innocent. 
Husband, -,jy %a%of (plur. ^^jj\ 

asMdj)f Jju ha^. 
Husband, f'.^ijjsatrfrq;'. See Marry. 

— (to manage frugally),^^ waffar. 

Husbandless, '^JlI/^^cT* ^^^ ghayr 

Husbandman, s. -JU faUdh, ^j\j 

%dri^. See Farmer. 

Husbandry, i£\jj %ard^, i^li 

faldhat; (frugality), cJL**^l 

Hush ! inUrjection, kz.S^\ ishU ; 
(silent), ic^Li sdhii. To hush 

(make still or silent), ui^X^ sakkat, 

i^JJbhadda'; (to be still or silent), 
>w>*Cj sakat 
Husk, s. J^ kishr, ^^/>- kharrub. 
Husk, r. (strip off the outward in- 
teguments), yuui kashshar. See 



Husked (ooyered with a husk), 

jyuiil^ laho hushthnr. 
Hat, 9, ^^ Hkh. See Hovel, cottage. 
Hatch, «. (com chest) ^^•^l j^jLi-^ 

iandalt al iamh. See Granary. 
Hyacinth, s. (flower), J-o-a sunhtd ; 

(gem), f^y^ ydlut, 
Hyades (constellation), ^f^Juit 

Hydra, «. Ulf^U!^. hayyat aknd. 

Hydraulics, L«Jlj-J;^ fan raf^ 
alma, A hydraulic musical in- 
strument, ij^\j nd^rat. 

Hydrocele (watery rupture), <lJlJj 
U!l Mat almd, ^}jijj nuznL 

Hydromel, J-wyjJ^U md ul cosaL 

Hydrophobia, vj^l^lv-^^Jiilllb 
US \ ^ dd al kalab aw al hhawfmin 
almd, [Dropsical. 

Hydropical, ^LmJUm^ mtutaskl. See 

Hyena, «. w«^ dah^. 

Hymen (membrane), i^^yLllc—^Ls*" 
hijdbulhukuriyat. See Marriage, 
virginity. — Hymeneal (pertaining 
to marriage), i^sfZy^t^y**:^ 
maMHh Ul zljat, KJ**j^ ^r%. See 
Matrimonial; epithalamium. 

Hymn, %, ia^*^ madihat (plur. 

^!ji-^ maddyeh. Hymns, 

CuI^UmmJ tashihdt. \_dan, 

-Hjp, r, ^tJ^MCJifh>- khaUdh yiUaw- 

Hyperbole, «. ^^L^ mvhdlaghat. 
Hyperbolical, hyperbolic, c,,^>-U? 
djil\^8dhihmubdl(i^hat. To speak 
hyperbolically, ^L/«J^ ^mdl 

mubdlayhat, (*^^vi^V ^^^^ 
fil kaldm. 
Hyperborean, ^U^ ahamdll, 

Hypercritic, s. X^UIl fj:,S^^ munakkit 
Ul ghdyat. See Critic. 

Hypochondriacal, hypochondriac, 
^^^\j^ Bowddwl. See Melan- 
choly, insane. 

Hypocrisy, \jj riyd, *IjU^ murdydh, 

diJb\j^ muddhanatf jUi nafdh 
See Dissimulation. 

Hypocritic, «. hypocritical, hypo- 
critic, tlCt makkdr, ^l:*-^ mund- 
fiky \^f mardyi, Hypocriti- 

<^y> (3^ J^ ^*^^ nafdk, J^ 
^UJbt Jl« bikol muddhanat. 

Hypothetical, ^j^ ahartl. See 

Hyssop, li.; %ufd. 


I, in English, has two powers, as in 

the words hit and hite, the former 

of which, in Arabic, is noted by 

juJ^ (J, and the latter by ,^, 

preceded by ^ ( ), expressed or 

I understood; as in the words c-^l:;^ 




kitdb, * a book,' and i^»^ batt, 
a house/ 
ly ptTB. pron. \j\ and, I myseif, 

i^\j\j\ ami zdti, ^^mJu\j\ and 
Ice» jy) has, xlp^jalld. 

Ichnenmon, s. ^Jt*AJ nanu. 

Idmographj, a^ roam, \iJ\M^j 
rasm al hind. 

Icicle, s.JylAai kit^t hil%. 

lay (fiill of ice), J^ «d^ kolaho bUz. 

ldea,s.jjf^ tasaunaur, ^^\^[khaydl 
(plor. CL^SL^ khaydldt), ^^ 
tcahm. See Imagination. — An 
absurd idea, jUjJL^ khaydl 
IdtiL Foolish ideas, cz^jiL^ 
^<:j<^1 I Jl< khaydldt md lahd 
ma^na\ To entertain an idea, 
jy^ tatawwur. 

Ideal, j^yaCL^ mutasawwar, ^l^jw 
khaydll, ^^ tvahmlf J-i^ 
mutakhayydl. Ideally, L^« 
tcahman, JL^^te-y hi wajhin 
khiyali. [tdtihi. 

Identical (the same), ^Ljf jj hi 

Identity. ^^^Id^l j %dt ashshay. 

Idiocy, idiotism, i^^jaU^ Jix a»x& 
codam cokl. Bee Folly, stupidity. 

Idiom, «. J!iia^\ istildh, ^UJ li$dn, 
iil loyhat. Idiomatical, J^^.^ 
mustalih, ^^>-^ ^t «^^ istildhi, 
4^Lb^ majdzl. 

Idiot, i, ^^\p^jdhil. ' 

Idle (lazy), ^JL*^ tasldn, JILj 
haUdl; (unemployed), J li n^ 
mu^ttai. See Indolent, lazy, 
inactivci useless, worthless. 

Idleness, J^m^ kasal, ^iUaj batdJat. 
See Laziness, indolence, sloth, 
triflingness, usdessness. 

Idler, 8, fji^i kasldn. 

Idly (inactively), iLU hdiHan. 

Idol, «. ^i^Mtf Mikim (plur. aL^! 

(Mndm), ^^ looidn (plur. ^\jj) 
Idolater, idolist, a. ^^^ waaanl. 

See Infidel, Pagan. [asndm. 

Idolatry, ^Li^^lifjLc ^ddat ul 
Idolize, r. Ju£ ^^i^i. See Love, 

adore, reverence. 
If, ^ in, l« md, ^ law. And if, 

^^ icalaw. But if, |^\ in, U\ 

ammd. If not, J^\ m /tim. 
Igneous, v^U ndri. See Fiery. 
Ignoble, J J; rnel, jn^^ hakir. 

See Mean, worthless. 
Ignominious, .^y^ /<m^A, ^i^Vyi^ 

ma^uh. See -Base, mean. — 

Ignominiously, dj^udjjw &iib/ 

Ignominy, A'^yi f fadrlhat, tf^^ 
tafdlh, ^ kahh, c-^ ^«yJ. 
See I)iBgny(»^, te^t^^O^i^ ^i^ssa.^^ 




baseneM, meannen. — To be 

branded with ignominy, ,^^^\ 

infadah. [Fool. 

IgnoramoSi «. Jjbl>- j&kil. See 

Ignorance, J | *>• jahlf ZJL|f^ 

jahdJai, Gross ignorance, J^^ 

i^^j^ jM murakiah. Pretended 

ignorance, Jjb W" tajdhtd. 

Ignorant, Jjb\>-jdh$l. Ignorantly, 

niac. passion, ^y kulanf, 
HI (bad), ^J ibMA, Ju^li /d«i^; 
(indisposed), ^j^j^ marid, J^ljt^ 
ma^aJ, [ference. 

niation, <^cu:J natijai. See In- 
niaudable, ^Jl-^^JIj^-^Uj) Id 

IfOitahuk al madh. 
Ill-bred, ^^V\^^^j radl al akhldk, 
lUegal, iUicit, ^yJ^uJL:;^ khitdf 

(^)j-^ hardm. Illegality, ^^ 
^jJ^j^^^^jILJ1\ hawn athshay 
ghayr shoTfJ. Illegally, ^^ 
J^ min ghayr hak, j^cy^ 
y^f-j^ ^» naw^n ghayr shar^. 
Illegible (writing), ^j ■^■wil Id 
Illegitimacy, (^^jij^\ atl radi. 

Illegitimate, J^J^ hand^. See 

ni-fitvoured, ij^ »n W*^^ hahlh 

(utnrat. See Deformed. 
Illiberal (parsimonious), ^y^k^^asT 

IcMll. See Avaricious. 
Illicit, /i\j^ hardm, 
lUimitable, JJ^^S Id yutahaddad, 

Illimited, JJusr^^.*^ ghayr mu- 

Illiterate, As^L btld ^1m, Jli^l^ 
jdhU, miterateness, illiterature, 
JlxSI AhXfi ^adam al ^Um, 

Illness, (j<0/^ fiMrad, See Disease, 
sickness.— (badness), jLyi/a««ai^. 
^Li kahdhat. See Wickedness. 

m-natore, ^LL^tJLf^ ahardsat 
alatbd^ See Malevolence. — 
Ul-natored, cLJ^jif^j; radl al 

Ill-timed, iXs^j^^^J^ thy ft 
ghayr mahalliho, See Unseason- 

Illuminate, v, illume, illumine, 

jy natcwar, j^J^f ^mal nur. 

See Enlighten, decorate, illustrate. 
Illuminated, j^n^ munatcwarf kJ\j^ 

nurdnl, j^ munir, jy^\^\^ 

tdti^ annUr, 
Illumination, L*^ diyd, j^ 1^ur 

(plur. j^y\ ant^Ar). 




XUnminator, «. j*^ mwMr^ jy^ 

Illiiaion (&lse appearance), Jl^ 

kkayalfjyau taaawtour. See De- 
ception, error, mockery. — The 
illusions of dreams, ^l^'i\ C^^l^ 
khay&ldt al Mdm. The illusions 
of the devil, ^lJIL^CLi^IjmmJ 
ioiwlldt shaytaniyat, ^^m^^LuJ 
d^LJoJa tasdwis Bhaytaniyatf 

ZjIL^CI^Li^^ wastffa8dt shay- 

niosiye, JLs*- hhiydU, ^ 

IllQ8trate,r. (elucidate), ^j tcaddah, 
^jSj bayyan, juJ fassar. j^\ 
iuhar. See Explain ; also illu- 
minate, brighten. — lUuotrated, 

Illustration, f^^ tawdih, ^L^-> 

baydn, J^\ izhdr, j^^ ta^ir, 

— -i* shark, j0^Ai ta/slrf Jj^lj* 

ididl, i^Juju ta^f, i^^L^y 

UivoAf, ij^y^ tafall. See Ex- 
planation, exposition. 

Illustrative, (^ji^^^t^j^ sharhl 
wa tafslrl. Illustratively, Jio 
j^l--bj^^— ^ hikol sharhin wa 

Ulnstrions, JL,ylv,,,>%r>-Ltf idhtb 

al jaldl, fjA^jallL His illus- 
trious ancestors, #\h wl^jfjljo-l 
ajdddaho al ^mdm. 

Illustriously, jjfu*^^f^ binaw^in 

Image^ ijya tUrat, Jd shaklf 
jlyAi taswlr, ^y^ ayhiinaU See 
Idol, statue, picture ; copy, like- 
ness ; idea. Images, imagery 
(statues, pictures, etc.),^^ iuwoTi 
tZj\jiyaLi taswirdtf J-tJUj ia- 

Imaginable, jj.onr» ^ mutasawwar, 
^IJjIj kdbUalfikr. 

Imaginary, imaginative, ^ mA • i 
kiyd9i, ^^\^if^ khiydU, jL».ic:u 
muUMayyal, ^^ wahml. See 
Ideal. — ^The imaginative powers, 
JLLidullifJli kHioat al mutahhay- 

Imagination, Jl^*^ kkaydl, (jmI^ 
kiydSf Jy^^ toiowumr, ^}^^ 
takhayyuly *Jhj wahmy ^yi ta- 
toahhum, ^ fihtf iJiao^l^ muld- 
ha%at, ^ %ann, aX) m^. Imagi- 
nations, Cl^L^ssT takhayyaldt. 
See Conception, idea, fancy, con- 

Imagine, v. jyoj t4tawicar, >cj 
sa^am, ^ zann. See Fancy, 
figure, contrive, think. 

Imagined, ^^j^i^::^ mutasawwar, 

Imaginer, ». jJi^ khdyil, jj'^sa^ 




Imbedky J^ hahM. See I'eeble, 

.weak of mind. 
Imbeoility, JJuJ^cant.^ du^f al 

^l. See Eeebleness, weakness. 

^^Imbecxlity of mind, J&Jf^ 

MM ail ^M. 
Imbibe^ v, 


jtnai, L^jjMJi 

^jJ^ tWtfft. Imbib- 
ing, an imbiber, . JlmA^ muta- 

y^sj^^ urd 

MJM. Grottnd which does not 
imbibe rain, itL^ 

Imbitter, embitter, is^^^ffffiaiiiAo 

Lnbody, embody, v. (bring together 

into one mass), ^*^ Jama^, 

See Incorporate. — (to coalesce), 

Imbolden, embolden, v. Am 1, ^i^J^ 

kawwa' kalbnko. See Encourage. 
Imbosom, embosom, r. j;3l— & 

^dnak. See Embrace. 
Imbonnd, embound, «. See Xnolose. 

— ^To embow. See Arch. 
Imbrown, embrown, 9. jA^\iJLi' 

^malaho astnar. See Darken. 
Imboe, V. ^^^ sabagh. See Dye. 
Imitable (possible to be imitated), 

\^'i\^JL4,^ mumkm al ikMd, 

jJiallJjli idhil attdklid, Ji} 


^Joil McM ; (to counterfeit), 
j^j Mwwar, jJj kMad. Imi- 
tated, i^jci^ mukiada\ jiL« 

Imitation (copying), jASj takhd, 
Ijcj^ iktida. 

Imitative, i^JuliU takltdi. 

Imitator, i. ,^Jci^ muktadl. 

Immaculate, ^jdJjJ^^jJbU^ tdhir 
min addanas, ^JblL tdhir. See 
Pure, spotless. 

Immaterial, immaterialized, im- 
materiate, Jum^)Lj Wd jascul, 
JuM^V*-^ ghayr mtUafassid. See 
Incorporeal. — Immateriality,, im- 
materialness, Juu^p^/^J^fi ^adam 


Immature (not ripe), ^ fqf; (not 
perfect), J^l^^ ghagr hdmU, 

Immeasurable, d^^i^^jtJ^ lay 9 laho 
hadd. See Immense. 

Immediate, j«^l— »- hddir. See 
Instant, present. {_fll hdU 

Immediately, 5IU- hdHan, J'^'s^ 

Immemorial, ^JJ kadlm, ^\yi\j^j3 
iadim al ayydm. Seo Ancient. 

Immense, immensurable, (j^LiL 

bild kiyds, S>-L hUd hadd, 

i\^\i Id intihd laho, jyos^j^ 

ghayr mahBur. See Excessive, 

Imitate, v. (oopj), 4JJU nakal^ \ unbounded, infiuito, huge. 




Immeoselj, j^^^^ mm ghiyr 
hadd. SeelmmeiiBe. — Immennty, 
immenwirability, J^Sas^j^ e Ljl 
Miad^ghayr mahdad, 

Immeigey immerse, v. (put imder 
water), ^jJaa ghatUu, See Sink. 

Immersed, (jij^ gharik, ^Jc^*^ 
muttaghrik, Immersed in wicked- 
ness, j^^\jJ.MiJ\j jjkJiM^ 
miutaghrik hilJUk walfujur. 

Immersion, ^jS. ghark, ^jJaz ghaU. 

Immethodical, A h j^^^ min 
ghofr nhdm, J^f)b hUa usUl. 
See Gonfosed. — ^Immethodically, 
/•Ua}^ bild m%dm. 

Imminent, uJ^A^ mtuhrif, J^ 
nmtiL Imminent danger, iirw 
aJo^ hhatar caslm. 

Immission, J^(3 dukhul, Jlc>-jl 
idkhal ladkhal. 

Inmiit, V, Jij dakhkhal, J&-j\ 

Immobility, ^j^ sukun, i^jat\/^Sc 
^adam al harakat. 

Immoderate, J!jcx!)b bild i^iddl, 
J^jL^tjjlrdU mutajdwiz alhudnd. 
See Excessive, immense. — Im- 
moderately. See Ezcessiyely. — 
Immoderation, J \ Jljl^^I a ju.£ 
^adam al i^iiddl. See Excess. 

Immodest, \jBf\JJj kahl al haydy 

(j«k>-li fdhith. See Obseone, im* 

pndeni. — ^Immodesty, L»-^^ 

mm ghagr kayd. See Impudence, 

Immolate, r« ^J %ahah. 
Immolation, ^O nahk, \*^ /id. 

See Saorifloe. 
Immoral, ^/jk>-U fahM, See Bad, 

wicked, dishonest* 
Immorality, ^^/*/afaA, ^J^juk. 

See Dishonesty, wickedness. 
Immortal, C^^^ Id gamiU, ^j^- 

hag. See Eternal. 
Immortality, \h hakd, ^jtJ;i\ApJ 

dawdm annafi. 

Immortalise, p. »^i^j\^ khaUad 
9ikraho, See Eternalise, cele- 
brate. — (to become immortal), j U0 
(j:Jy^^f^\j adr ddgm Id gtmni. 

Immortally, ^ J\y^^f yj bifMw^n 
Id tawdl laho. See Eternally. 

ImmoTcable, cl^ ■ ^^^j^^* gkayr 
mutaharrik. Immoyeable effects 
(real estates), Cj\j\iC' ^kdrdt, 
cl^lw«\ amldk. Immoveably, 
iSj^l) hUd harakat. 

Immunity, iLjLa^ mu^fdh. A 
privilege or charter of immunity, 
c:.?!^ haraai. See Freedom, 
privil^e. [fine. 

Immure, v. 1 >m.«>> koboA* ^n^^^t^s^^- 




Immutability, jlkxJ\AJke. ^adam 
attoffhaifyur, vi^lJ sabdi, Im- 
mutablei^^joej^ Id yutaghayyar. 

Impair, v, (diminish or wear), 
^jo^ nakJtas, cJJ tuna^, ^j^ 
kharab. See Injure, hurt, spoil. 

Impair, impairment, ^/Oj nah, 
c JJ naz^. See Diminution, de- 
crease. — Impaired, fjai\j ndUs, 
See Diminished. — ^To be impaired, 

Impalpable, ^Ji^\^^J^ ghayr 
mumkin al lams, ^jAtj^JLSi Id 
yuhnas, [equality. 

Imparity. See Disproportion, in- 

Impart, v. (oommunicate), ^-^^.^^ 
khahhar. See Eereal, inform.— 
(to grant), ,^^ manah. See GIto. 

Impartial, JjU ^dil, \j^J^^^^ 
khdh al ffharad, ^«.a; ^ mumif, 
Jju(^ mu^dH, Jfjltf 9ddik. See 
Equitable, just, disinterested. 

Impartiality, d}t Jie (.addkU, uJLo;) 
i'nadf. See Justice, equity. 

Impartially, fjOj.JLJj^^j^^ mm 
ghayr tagharrud, ^Ij^Jij hikdl 
^addlat, c^*\^U hd sawdb. 

Impartible. See Communicable. 

Impassable, j^^jLA\^ji^j^ ghofr 
mumkin al ^yhur, 
Itapaasioaed, See Passionate. 

Impatienoe,^^^l^«X£ ^adam aaabr. 
See Vehemence, eagerness. 

Impatient, J.4^^u«^ ghayr muta- 
hammil, [sahr. 

Impatiently, .^M^^^ mtn ghayr 

Impawn, v. ^j rahan. See Pledge, 
pawn. [^aho impede, hinder. 

Impeach, v. ^ff taham. See Accuse ; 

Impeachable, *fj yutham. Im- 
peached. See Indicted, accused. 
-^Impeacher. See Accuser. 

Impeachment, if^L^ shakwah. See 
Complaint, accusation; also im- 
pediment, hindrance. 

Impede, v, ^x« mana^, o^j^ ^' 
^arrad. See Hinder, obstruct. 

Impediment, ^j^ man^ lA/^ ^~ 
^arrud, ^^ mdni^ (pi. ^\y 
mawdni^). See Obstruction, op- 

Impel, V, ^j]\ aham, jLi idk. See 
Driye, compel, urge, press. 

Impellent or impelling power, s. 
<Ui\jJUj3 kuwat adddfi^t. See 

Impenetrable, dJl J^JJ1^JC^^ 

ghayr mumkin addukhul ilayhi. 

Impenitence, <L^-iJ\aA«c ^adam 

Impenitent, /♦jU-.x ghayr nddim, 
^\^j^ qha^ tdlb. 




Impenitently, 4^! jj]b btld naddmat. 

Imperative, i^j^ amri. The 
affinnative imperative of a verb, 
j^\ amr. The n^;ative impera- 
tive, ^ nahh 

Imperceptible, ^^m^st^j^ ghayr 
mahtiUy j^ai^^j^ ghayr manigilr. 
Imperceptibly, j|^Ja:w^^^4p-j«^ 
hi wajhin ghayr mansur. 

Imperfect, J^l^^ ghayr kdmtl, 
^^\j ndkia. 

Imperfection, ijuasu nukadn, l^.^j* 
^b, j^^ takslr, JUflUj^ 
^adam ai hamdl. See Defect. 

Imperfectly, JLJL hOd kamdl. 

Imperforate, c,^fi \^:,.<^j^ ghayr 
munsakih. [kaysari. 

Imperial, (JILLj iultdnl, 

Imperious, jZx:l^ mutahabhir, 
mutqfabbir, cjL:^ t^!/; yblii 
iJAir, Jib %alm. See Haughty, 
arrogant, tyrannical. — Imperi- 
ously, cjLc Jjo iiM ^nf. Im- 
periousness, c-ix ^«»/,^ hahr. 

Impertinence, hb[L» sa/dhat. See 

Impertinent, ^Ua^ «a/^A (plur. [^i^ 

tufahu). See Foolish, trifling, 

importunate, troublesome, intru- 

Impervious, <Uy^jJl^j^J Id \ 

yamkin addukhul ilayhi. See im- 
passable, impenetrable. 
Impetuosity, impetuousness, ^ys^ 
hujum, if*xJ^ shiddat, jmp^ jdbr. 

See Violence, fury, rapidity, force, 

Impetuous, JjJlI thadid, . t^i^\r 

^ofii/. See Violent, fiirious, rapid, 

Impetuously, ^i*XmJ bi shiddattn. 
See Violently. 

Impetus, jjj %awr, iy kuwat. 

Impiety, jUj nafdk.Ji kufr. 

Impious, j;ili^ mundfikfj!^ kdfir. 

See Wicked, pro&me. — Impiously, 

jsSj bihrfrin. 

Implacable, ^L^t^ ghayr mmd^ 
mih. See Inexorable, malicious, 
irreconcileable. — Implacably, i%Occ 
^^t^Lm^JI ^adam at musdmakah, 

Imphmt, f^. k-^wa; naiab. See 
Plant, insert, place. 

Implement, «• iS\ dlat See In- 
strument, tool, utensil. — ^Tomake 
great provision of the implements 
of war, CL>5ll^j^jJu^^^ 
c-i^^t khoMn mablagh ^im min 
aldi al harb. 

Implication, ij\j^\ uhdrat, iA:^ 
kandyatf i^f^ natljat. See 


Implioit, J^^ kOmil, Ai idm. 
See Complioated.—Implieit confi- 
dence^ J^\iAA&c\ i^timdd kama. 
Implicit obedience, iL^UJleLtt 
iia^ tdmmai. 

Implore, v. ^j^ tadarra^ ^.Jjy 
taiab. Bee Beseech, ask, beg, 
solicit.*— To implote the interces- 
sion of another, ^iuiXirft iiia$hfa^ 
An implorer, ^L^ da^, gjr-^^ 
mutadarri^. See Solicitor. 

Imply, 9. (comprise as a conse- 

Mtatnal ^aU nat&yy. See De- 
note, signify ; infold, involve. 
Impoison, r. ^a^ iomnunn, 

Impolitic, impolitical, c^jcit aj»«xc 

^adltn attadorrub. See Impru- 
Import, «. (bring into any country), 

To import goods, 
jalab haddf4^; (to be of moment), 
iiJb h4mm. What does that im- 
port? ^c^loU m(Ud ffa^U 
Import, importance (consequence), 
^j^j^ dttrlkriyoL See Moment. 
— Import (sense), ^<«a^ ma^\ 
Import (merchandize imported 
from abroad),j^^^^LB^ ^l^ 
<-=-^itdr* Mofi^ mufllA§i min 

610 IMF 

gkojfr makalidt, Athingofgreat 
importance, tUf^i^^'^^ nuulahtU 
nmh m w Mt p Af/y^t amr mukim. 
To be of importance, Af^^ '^ 
muMm, A thing of no import- 
ance, *f«^^^ •hyghap' mmkim. 
Important (momentous) ^ mmkim. 
To render important, ^^\i^ 
^Jijf^^ ^awuU aMkfif mu k im 

Importation, ^IdJlcp^li^^l ifiildi 

al iaddfi^. An importer, ^tt^ 
^LdJ Jalldh haddyi^ 
Importunate, J>Ju hM. Impor- 
tunately, DUu J^ hMl •ak&Ui. 

^j\ M^\ See Harass, teaie, 

Importune, j^£9^ mudoffir- See 

Vexatious. — (unseasonable), ii 

^Mf^j^fi ghayr mdhdUoh. 
Importunity, ^«X.^ tasdl^ -.Icrl 

Impose, V, ^i^ wada^; (taxes or 
other burdens), uJJ \ij f^i^^j 
tamdf ^layhim tak&Uf, To im- 
pose (command as a duty, etc.), 
yXs-^^J^ farad ^ala\ j^\ amor, 
^^Jifaarod. See Order, enjoin. 
— ^To impose upon, fjUh. ghuk. 
&ee Cheat) deceive. 




Impoaed upon, j^jk^ ma^hrlkr. 

Imposition (laying one thing on 
another), w^^ wiuL^^ ^Jo tarh. 
Imposition of taxes, etc.» v— ttAO 
idkiif. Impositions or public 
bmrdens, Xj^cJ^Lio^ Utdlif 
^Jijfot. An imposition (com- 
mand), A^ hukm, LdJ hadd. 
See Ii^jonetion. —(deceit), ilgt^ 

Mai. See Cheat, laUacj, im* 

Impossible, ^^ mumtani^, ^ 

^J^ ghayr mumkin, Jls^ muhdl, 

JiascUm.^ fntutahlL Impossible 

things, cJi^s^ tnuhdldt. 
Impossibility, ftL'^.,r>^\ imtind^f 

^ICf^t/^Jix ^adam al tmhdn. 
Impost, t»aj\0 takhf, ^j roitn. 

See Taxes, toll, custom. 
Imposthume, «. <lL«J dummalat, 

/%f • icaratu. 

Impostor, «. jLL« mtfiUSr, jf Jki 
ghaddar, ^Sd^ khaddd^. 

Imposture, <l L»> Al/a^,^ j L3 toirfr. 
See Deceit, fraud, cheat. 

Impotence, impotency (want of 
power), i;Jj^Jkf ^adam kudrat, 
yf- ^'<a ; (incapacity of propa- 
gation), J«^ ^qfas. 

Impotent, ujLai^ da^f/,Js»-U ^pz. 
See Feeble, weak, powerleBs. — 

(without power of propagation), 

Impotently, jMBp'jjLM^Ji^ hikol 
da^fin ufa^'oM. 

Impoverish, «. jli faikar. 

Impoverishment, ^ii\ i/Uu, 

Impound, LW-\ ^)thdt. 

Impracticable, J^^^;^^^;*^ ghaifr 
mufnkm al ^tnal. See Impos- 
sible, untraotable. 

Imprecate, v. _)lcUj da^ ^ola*. 
See Curse. [See Onne. 

Imprecation, U J du^, iiji la^L 

Impregpiable, ^^ numl^. An im- 
pregnable fortress, ^j.d»-^^^«a^ 
hisn hasfn. See Castle. 

Impregnate, v. (with young), Of^^ 

Impregnated (with young), (Ju». 
hMa\ To be impregnated, 
c:>^J^>»- kablaL Impregnated 
(filled), ^U^ ikab^ See 
Saturated. [Pregnancy. 

Impregnation, J^ habal. See 

Impress, «. (imprint).yt a8»ar\ (to 
force into the service of govern- 
ment), jir^ Bokkkhar. To im- 

press upon the mind,^t auar. 
Impress, impressioii, impressuve^ 
^)U ^o/dflM^ J] atr (plur, jUT 




(image fixed in the mind), ^ 
fihr. See Idea. 

Impressed, Jj(^ mu^aUam, See 
Marked. — ^A shipi horses, or any 
thing impressed into the king's 
seryioe, iysy* suhhra. Isqfan. 

Imprison, v. ^/am^- habas, 

Imprisonment, ^^^.^ hobs, 

Imprisoned, (jm^ » ^^ mahhiU, 

^jjs***^ nuufUn, To be im- 

prisoned, i >M^«airl inhahus. 

Improbability, f^\AS^\/^Se' ^adam 

ai ihtimdl. 
Improbable, ^Ja^tj^^j g ,r ^hajfr 

muhtamal. See Incredible. 
Improbity, X; Ul /% Ji^ ^adam am&nat. 

See Dishonesty. 
Improper, i,, ^.iL^^ ghayr mund' 

Sib. Improperly, j^^^^y^ 

i^^^^^J^,^ hi wajhin ghayr mundeib. 

Impropriety, ^^L«!!aJ^ ^adam 
al mandsabaL 

Improyable, wg:J\^^C^ mumkin al 
naf^ Improvableness, ^lX«t 
lu^vJl imkdn al naf^; (as a 
country), jUjJIJjLJ kdbil al 

Improve, f^. (make better), J^Bollah ; 

(toedify),c^*3t addah^ A^ ^lam. 
See InBtmct — To improve a 

country or estate, jLS]^^ ^m- 
mar al bddd. 

Improvement, «^^J^ taslihy ^^Jt^j 
tamaddun. Improvement of an 
e8tate,^^g/wu to^mSr. See Cultiva- 
tion.-— (edification), M^jQ ta^m, 
c^.jIj iddlb, [ma^mtlr. 

Improved, J^^^ musallah, jy^^^^ 

Improver, «. J^^^ musaUih. 

Improvident, ^^^JcJf JJjl kaltl 
attadbir, Jili ghdJU, 

Imprudence,XIix ghajlat, Sj^^^ ^«^ 
^am basirat, y^ sahHf Jif a Jl^ 
^adam ^kl. 

Imprudent, jL^lL bUa imtiydz, 
ij^^^ bild basirat f Jilx ghdJU, 
iJSslj bild cakli -«jJo)b bild 
tadblr, Jj^U- jdhil. 

Imprudently, jXuL bild ta^akkul, 

\j^ Bahwan. 

Impudence, <ib^U^ wakdhat, ^S& 
<^ j1 ^dam adab. 

Impudent, L>>^ bild hayd. 

Impudently, \^j^^ min ghayr 

hayd. [See Attack, assault. 

Impugn, V. ^Js^mjs^ hajam ^ala\ 
Impulse (effect of one body acting 

upon another), ^tjJUjlSJt al 

kutffat adddfi^at. See Incentive, 

ImpuLfiive, ^\jif^dl laho kuwat 




ddfi^, CJjSt^ muharrik. Im- 
pulaiye force, d^f^s^iy kuwat 
Impunity, hyJi^Sfn^ ^adam al 

Impure, jJbU?^ ffhaifr tdhir, ^/*sf^ 

naj%$. Bee Nasty, filthy. 
Impurely, iJ\^J^^^ min ^hayr 

Impurity, impureness, ij\^AS£' 

^adam tahurat^ ^\ser pq^ddat. 

See Filthiness, nastiness. 

Imputable, J^.a..*;. fr^ tnuhtamal, 

jLjmJ^^^^ mumktn al undd, 

JixUc^yi karih lU ^akl. See 

AccuBable, chargeable. 
Imputation, JUi>.1 ihtmdl, <U^ 

tuhmat, a\^\ ithdm, jU^il isndd. 

See Accusation, charge, calumny, 

reproach, slander. 
Impute, M^ taham. See Accuse, 

censure, reproach, slander. 

Imputer, «. *Jh\j t&him, 

• • 

In* (J /^* In the meantime, (J 

— '' •• 

iJL^ J^j^oc /f ghudUn %alik. In 
fact, <L5gAy\(J /{/ haMhat\ (on 

> in), ^^yay^yii j^ efo' 

a/ manwdl al nuuhrAh, In a 
continued series, _J1^-:LJt_l^ 

^oib' aitawdli. In this case. 

Inability, ^Jl^Uj^ ^a<^m a/ 
kudrat, ijS^\/^Se. ^adam al katcai. 
See Impotenoy. — ^Inability of re- 
sistance, ^^U^illi^J^ ^aiiam al 
mukdwamat. [a/ u^iMtl/. 

Inaccessible, J^^^^^ mumtani^ 

Inaccuracy, ^jJ\>%Jifi ^adam al 
dikkat See Incorrectness. 

Inaccurate, ^^js^j^a ghayr idklh. 
See Incorrect, imperfect. 

Inaction, inactivity, iSj^^/^J^ 
^dam al harakat 

Inactive, JL^^^t|»JJ^ ^adlm al 
harakat, yj^ kasldn. See Idle, 
indolent, lazy, sluggish. — In- 
actively, JuM^ J^ Hkol kasaL 

Inadequate, ^J^Syj • r ghayr 
muwdfikf c,.^A,:.»^--^iX gha/gr 

tnundeib, (jL^^ ghagr kd/l, 
yjei U n&kU. See Defective. — ^To 
be inadequate, ^L.^ ma lAk, 
^\jU fuel wdfak. 

Inadequately, iLiUi^Juu hi ^adam 

Inadvertency, y^ mAa, J 1^1 ihmdl. 
See Negligence. — Inadvertent, 
JiU ^Ad/S^. See Careless, negli- 
gent. — Inadvertently, V 




InalienaUe, lii^jaBJjAJbJ^\i Id 

(Mad foUir fokmrraf hM. 
Inaiiimate, ^jg^ ^^ rawh, O^U- 

InapplioablBy i^<^^\.\fj jf |fAayr 
mmOM, ^ ;l Vi^ mc ghayr 

I&ap^lioatk»i| Jlf::^l/*J^ ^adam 
yUkdd. Seo Indolence. 

Inarticulate, )asii\jiiAS,^j^ ghayr 
Mn/awMfyof «/ lajk. An inarti- 
culate flOttnd> inarticulateness, 


Inartificial, itCmOj^^ mm ghayr 
mn^ See ArtifioiaL 

Inattention, JiLa? taghBLfidy Ui 
jLJ\^\jji Jmttai dagmran al 
hfiL See Inadrertency. 

inatientiYe, JiU ghdJU^ ^^\,^jJ: 
ghayr mumtahihf ^L» wOkl, See 
Oardeesi negligent [mfi^. 

InaudiUe, ^y^^Mj^r. gkayr mut- 

Inaugurate, v. {j*»^ karroi, ^j 
ra&am. See OonsecBste. — In- 
auguration, ijui hay^t, ^^JjJ 
UMu. The inauguration of a 
king,uX*3^^^)^/M^ft«ii/ malik. 
See Coronation. [X}iift>rtunate. 

Imnspicious, i^t^a^^ manhtti. See 
Inborn, ^yuJo iabl^. See Innate. 

Incage, r. ^JMl^^^^^ wada^fil 
kafoi. See Confine^ imprison. 

Incantation,^*^ sahr or »iAr. See 
Enchantment. [Inability. 

Incapablenese, incapability^ See 

Incapable (unfit), ^^}ijt^ ghayr 
MM, Jil^ ghayr ldyiki(mih' 
out power), ip!h Md kowat; 
(without understanding), Ja^ 
hUd ^aJd, fXoh htld ^fm. 

Incapacious, ^.^V^^ ghayr wdii^ 
See Narrow. — IncapaciouBness, 
ijUi^\MiX& ^adam alunu^. 

Incapacity, jAnJUj^fi ^adam al 

^aU, oIjucj^JHaJ^ ^adam al 

isti^ddd. See Inability. 

Incarcerate, v, 4,/*^^ habai. See 

Incarnate, Juuj^u* mutqfassid. 

Incase, v, cjiii ghallaf. See En- 
close, cover, euTelope. 

Incautious, J^li ghaJU, ^JjSb 
^iZd tadibir. See Careless. — ^In- 
cautiously^ 1-iU ghdJUoM^ Jw 

^JLlii ^liiU)/ ghajlaitn, Jl^\J^ 
^t^^ ihmdl. 

Incendiary, «. (one who sets houses, 

etc. on fire), ^j^ harrdk; (a 

seditious man), <?yu b l\cl/JiB<* 

muharrik al fitnat, j\MjLl\cf^sr^ 

fMiharrtk al faedd, JumA^ im^nd. 




looeiue, jyasT baihih^. 

Inoenae, v. ^^^r\ aghdab. See 

Exasperate, irritate. — ^IxioeiiBed, 

^Uop ghadbdnf 
InoentiYe, «. kISjs^ miAarrik. 

See ImpuLae, inatigatloii. — In* 

centiye (stimTilating), {jojg:^ tnw- 

karrid, C//r^ mfikarrik, 
Xnoefleanty (^^^*i^ muddwimf w\j 

idgim. Incessantlyi ^-^Ht^^ 

idymam, a\^^\m^\j dOyim al 

Incest, i^j\Ji\^\^j\\i^\JZj\ 

friikdh axzind ma^ al akdrib, 
Incideot, s, iujU- h&disat, jUJt 

ittifah. See Accident. 
Incidental, incident, ij,\su\ ittifdM. 

Incidentally, IjUjI ittifahan. 
Incision, incisure, 9, i^^jar&hatf 

^ shik. See Wound. 
Incite, V. \J^j>' harrad, CJ^ 

harrak, l^^j raghghab, 

host. See Excite, animate. 
Incitement, d^jssrtahrik, 

iahridf ci^'w has. See Incentive, 

IndyUity, ^jMH hOM <M. 


Inelemeiiey, ^L-a-AmiaJl^ ^adam 
ik^dkcU. See Cruelty, severity, 

Inelement, JU0 sd/tifi. See Cruel, 

harsh, severe, merciless, boister- 

. ous. 

Inclinable, iJ^U mdgtlf c^^|^ 
rdghib. See Willing, fiAVOurable. 

Inclination (propensfon of mind), 
J.-,^ magi, L^j rughht, 
v^\«^flBrl «ri;tsd&. See Afbction, 
love, propensity. — (dispositinn of 
mind),^ls^ ihattr; (tendency 
downward), 4^^ magh 

Incline, 9. (to be favorably dis- 
posed), JU mdl', (to bend, lean 
downward), JU mdl. 

Inclined, J— ^U mdgd, (^JieuCi.^ 
mun^iif, 4— »jUir»< ma^uf. See 
Bent. [mnhtml. 

Inclining, Jh^U m4y»7, ^y^^^^ 

Include, v. (comprise), ^J^c/jS^I 
ihtawa' ^la\ ^lc>^^AsJ^\ UMamal 
^cU^. See Contain; oftpendoee. 

Included, Inclusive, Jfi^^W dathtt, 
f^AsJU^ muiUamS. See (Con- 

Incog, incognito, i^^ic^ miUikaffl. 
To be inoognitp, concealed or 
disguised, U^ iiiiU^'. 

Incoherence, incoberency, .^Ju^ 
^U^l ^adam al imm&iabai. 

Incohemit, i^'m» L, \^jifn S ght^gr 

IneombastLblfi, y^f^^ ^ ^uhrak. 




Inoome, J^J^ madkhnl. See 

Prodace, revenue. 

Incommensurable, ^Ifi^l ^ yukds. 

Incommode, incommodate, «. cJu^ 

lfjt\s>'. iodda^ Jthdtiraho, J^«^ 
^J^Ulc ^mal ^ihi %ahmat, 
ta^ah. See Hinder, em- 
Incommodious, eJuA^ muscMi^ 
Incommodiously, ^^a^^JjCj hikol 
zahmat, lucommodiousness, 4«4>J 

%ahmaty cftJJjf takaUuf, See In- 
Incommunicable, ^LmJI^jC^^**^ 

^Aayr mumkin al haydn. See 


Incomparable,^Jai ^U m&laho natUr, 

jJbiXJ\jjj3 /arid uddahr, jJLj 

nd^tr. Incomparably, JLa-jL 

Incompassionate, <i.^.fw^lLj htld 
fohtnat, i^lsLliiii htld shafaiat. 
See Pitiless. 

Incompatible, fj3\yj^ gkayr mu- 
wdfih. See Inconsistent. 

Incompetent, (.^^^%m)\..:i.4»;^ ghoffr 
mundatb, (ji^jt^ ghayr Idyih, 
Incompetently, ^ ^..iL^^^ to"^ 
^1 wafhin ghayr mundnb. In- 
competency. See Inability. 
Jncomplete, ^^0 ^ib'tf. See De- 

fective, imperfect. — ^Incomplete- 
ness, fj^ nahifjy^ huiikr. See 
Imperfection, defect. 

Incompliance, ^XJl^^Jl/^J^fi ^adam 
<d nmwdfakat, 

Incomprehensible,inconceivable (not 
to be conceived), d^Juj) Id 
udrakf Ji^^jy fi^k al ^M. 
Inoomprebensible (not to be con- 
tained), ^l^^ hild hiydt. In- 
comprehensibleness, incomprehen- 
sibility, vl/ljJj(!i%«X£ ^adam al 

Incompressible, yiA^!l Id yunhanr. 

Inconcealable, ^^^^ Id yukhfa\ 

Inconclusive, ^^LJ ndhU, (^^rs^ 
ghayr tarn. Inconclusively, 
^L:ci::jL htld natijat, Incondu- 
siveness, ^L^u:Jl/»>Xg ^adam al 

Inconditional, ^Jy^ji^ ghayr sharti. 

Inconformity, nonconformity, /»J^ 

JLftJlyJI ^dam al muwdfakat. 

Incongruity, incongruence, /«Jl-c 
JLmjL^I ^am al mundiohat, /^Ja 
iJi\yil^\ ^adam al muwdfakat. 

Incongruous, ji^j^^ ghayr mw- 
iodfik, ^^^^^\:,^jfX. ghayr mimd9ib. 

Inconsiderable, ^j\is,\i Id i^ihdr 
laho^ ^^^ la ffhy, ^•J diin. See 




Trifling. Inoonsiderablenessy 

Inconsiderate, j^jSih htid tadblr, 
ijii^h hUd basirat, jCSL hUd 

JIhr, Jj\c ^hdJU. See Imprudent, 
n^ligent, careless. — ^IncoDsider- 
atelj, 4Lla»^L«L hild muHdhauiU 
See Carelessly, rashly. — Inoon- 
siderateness, inconsideration, f^Ss, 

^^jl1\ ^adam al fikr, ^^;wki!lAjLfi 
^adam al hoHrat, 

Inconsistence, inconsistency, /««X£ 

^^Jx4J! ^adam al mutdhakat, f^Sc 

)Lw«J^ ^am al mundsabai, 

.sr^ mukhdlafat, uJti •;■< \ 

ihUilaf{^\. ^Mh^] ikhtddfdt), 

if jJU^ mu^nadaf, jLu ta^llul, 

^ LU 1 A Jlc cadam al liydhat. See 

Inconsistent, fjj\yj^ ghayr mu- 
wdfikj L,.^..>lx^^ ghayr mundsib, 
^ ^ia^j^ ghayr mutdbik, ujiJ \s^ 
mukhdlif, jAxy mughdytr, Jjl*^ 
mu^nid, ,<ili^ mundfl, ^^L^ 
mundkid. See Contrary, absurd, 
repugnant. Inconsistently, 

)L«^^*p-y bi toajhin ghayr 
Inconsolable, <sJ.%>,.r.-HJjl3,<x ghayr 
kdbil attasliyai. See Sorrowful. 

Inconstancy, Cl^L^U«X£ ^ad<m 
anahdt. See Fickleness, 

Inconstant, c:.^U^ gha^r tdbat, 
{Juj^ia tdyuh. Inconstantly, ^ 
(JL^Lj^^J mtn dan sabdt 

Inconsumable, uJ)b)H^a:>^^ frnm- 
tani^al itldf, ^9\^ Id yankati^ 

Incontestable, 4£:jL«^U md bihi 
mundsM^i, (jLl shdfl, f-tLS 
kdti^ ^wh'i kat^. An incon- 
testable proo( (iUi J^J dalll 
shdft. See Indisputable. 

Incontinence, CL^I^-f^Jbcl/Ufjl 
inhimdk bil shahwdt, Lm1\j^Ja 
^adam al ^ffat. 

Incontinent, L^j^/t.W y*^ ^^ '.^ 
munhamik bil shahwdt. Incon- 
tinently, CS\a^\JLj bikol in- 

Incontroyertible, ct^d^U md bihi 
nizd^. See Indisputable. 

Inconvenience, ^LUUjlc ^adam 
al laydkatf Ia^j zahtnaL See 
Difficulty, trouble.— (unfitness), 
^\y^jA ^adam muwd/akai. 

Inconvenient (incommodious), v_-*T 
ta^, dJuAJ taklat; (unfit), ^^ 
J^ilj^ ghayr muwdfik. See Inex- 
pedient. — Inoonyeniently, JCi 
4.4>J bikol zahmat, ujLiCJ^ 
bikol iakaUaf, 




Inoony ersablej^^ Usj) Id ymU^har. 
See XJnsociabley incommunicative. 
InocmTincible, wxfcj^ l& ytrnfamt ^. 
Incoiporaly inoorporatey incorporeal, 

Juu>- hUdjatad. Incorporality, 

Incorporate, «. (mingle), lai^ £b^^. 
See Mix. — f^ dam, ^^^jam^^. 

Incoiporation, Ul^ khaU, JfLc)i 

fO^, ^[J\ Mam, >r^j^S wUmdj, 

^ dam. See Mixture, union. ~ 

An incorporation (a college, body 

of artisanB, etc.), ^Li^ hirfat 
See Association. 

Incorrect, ,^^j^ ghayr tahih. 

See Inaccurate. — ^Incorrectly, ^ 

Incorrectness, is^j^j^ ^adam sah- 
hat, ^,^\aJx> ^dam Uldh, JlJ^t 
ihmdh See Inaccuracy. 

Incorrigible^ .^Oudf JjU^ ^^o^ 
Uha attasllh, ^ JL:) 2d ^tTo; 
laho. See Profligate. — ^Incorrigi- 
blenesa, ,^Ji\ a jlc ^ocitim ai islah. 
See Depravity, wickedness — In- 
conigibly, ^^^iL^UiSuu ^t ^adam 

IjMoiTupt, incormpted, jJbU? ^Atir, 

4^l>. khaiii, JLp «a/»il, ^l^ 

^d/'i. See Pare, good, honest. — 

Incorruptibility, incorruptness 
(purity of manners), ^1^ ioldh, 
ij\^ tahdrat See Honesty, in- 
tegrity, chastity. — (freedom from 
decay), \twflJl>»Ju: ^adam alfand. 

InensBate, r. d^ Mmmai. 

Increase, v. (make more or greater), 
i>\j tdd, s^\^\ adaf; (to grow 
more or greater),^^ Mer, fjo^ 

Increase, i*i^j tiyddat, 4>Uj|t 
itdigdd, JuljJ tastdgud, j j^lJ^J 

Increased, jf J^ mmddd. 

Increaser, «. jJ^ musutggtd, 

Increated, j^Jss^j^ghagrmalsUiik. 

Incredibility, incredibleness, /^Se- 
^Xaa^\ ^dam attasdlk. In- 
credible, JJ^«^) 2d gatoioddoL 

Incredulity, incredulousness, a«X£ 
oUr&f^f ^dK^am a/ i^ikdd. In- 
credulous,^!^ kdfir. 

Increment. See Increase, produce. 
Incrust, V, (with plaster, paint, etc.), 

^^;*JL1 layyoi. [talyu. 

Incrustation (on walls, etc.), (^mJJ 
Ineubate, tr. ^^, * Jl^^^Jugc: 

ha^adat ^ala* dl Boyd, i^ 

Imdanat. See To sit upon eggs. — 

Incubation, ..^^i^- hadn. 




Inenbas (night-mare), (jm^^ kdhm 
(plor. ^j»i^\^ kawdhU). 

Inculcate, ^Jl^ ^aUam. See In- 

strncti teach. 
Inonli See IJnoultivatecL [lees. 
Inculpable, (^ hari. See Blame- 
Incumbent (lying upon^, ^C.-l.^ 

muttall^; (imposed as a duty), 

durHiri. See Proper, necessary. 

Incur, V. JjlbL:^^ istdhal, j;^Uil 

Incurable, ^-^IxS Id ^Hdj laho, 
,Jiji\^^c.j^^ mumtan*^ <U ^pdj, 
Incurableness, incurability, clio^f 
,Jiji\imtind^al^%ldj\ Incurably, 

tnin dun mu^lijat. 
Incurious, JiUi^ mutaghdfil. See 
Negligent, inattentive. 

Incursion, i, (^y^ hujUmy i Sj^^ 
hamlat. See Invasion, attack. 

Incurvation, incurvity, \:^a^\ tnlmd, 
^tyul in^itodj. See Curvature. 

Inourvate, v. ^..v— 'w hana\ See 
Bend, crook. 

Indebted (being in debt), ^^«^ 
madjfun ; (having obligations), 
^y^A^'* mamnun. 

Indeoency, c^ji^j^ ^adum adab. 

Indecent. (-^j\)b hUd adaby r^ 

fj^ ghayr Idyik. [adab. 

Indecently, c-»jUjuu bi ^adam 
Indeclinable, t^j^ ". ^^r ghayr 
mutoiarrif. [cenoy, indecent 
Indeoomm, indecoorous. See Inde- 
Indeed (in reality, in truth), 

kaian, I Sj.inr tahklka$^ le> 

fll haklkat. See Certdnly.— 
Indeed! (is it possible! wonder- 
ful !) Lfi^ ^ajaban. 

Indefatigable, i^^nsSi Id yat^b. 
Indefatigably, ^^idi] bUd ta^, 
t^^>ju ,J:.,j>^ mtn ghayr tacob. 

Indefeasible, J ILjSI ^c^A^mumtant^ 
al ibtdl. 

Indefensible (incapable of resist- 
ance), ^jlL»H^u*Ub>» mumiant^ 

al makdwafnat; (admitting no 
apology), jsJi\ 

- # 


al ^r. See Inexcusable. 
Indefinite, J^Jlct^^ ghayr mahdud. 
Indefinitely, jyaa^jti, ^i^^%mi bi 

wqfhm ghayr mahmr* 
Indelible, ^|^JuJjI1( 

muitahti al indirdi^ f^\tiii\^AA^ 

mumtam^al ibtdl. 
Indelicacy, ^\jib A 6£. <^ad«AiMr4jaX< 




Indelicate, ^QlilH|»jAg ^tu^m cX 
Udf, [addarar. 

IxidenmifioatioiiH^t^^yu ta^id 

Indemnify, v, jjA\i^^^ ^aw" 
wad ^Mhi addarar. 

Indemnity (exemption from punish- 
ment), ^L^Ajl^arLiL-A-^l 
a/ mu^f&h m*n 0/ kitds. 

Indent, v. (to covenant), ^^ J^ 
^mnal shurUt, See Contract, 


Independence (freedom from con- 
trol), JlJLruil UtiJdal. See 
Liberty, freedom. 

Independent (uncontrolled), Jiiu^u^ 
mttstakH, jJJix^ mutlak ; (without 
reference or connexion), J^]jCm«^ 
ffhatfr mtUa^lik. Independently 
(freely), iibuA^ mustakillan. 

Indeterminable (not to be defined 

or fixed), jMoill^jJu*.^ mumtani^ 

al fiUl, jna^\^zjk^ tnumfani^ 

al haw, j\j^\^^^^A>^j^ ghayr 

mwnhin al kardr. 
Indeterminate, indetermined (not 

defined or fixed), ty^J^^^x^j^ 

ghayr mahdud. See Indefinite, 

unsettled. [a/ hadd. 

Indetermination, iXs^^J^ ^adam 

IndeTout, 4^^JL::lJ1a£*Xx ^adim 

Index, «. (whatever points to any- 
thing), JJj dcM. See Fore- 
finger. — ^The index to a book, 
t^j^ fahrasat, [4^*^^ hindl. 
Jndi&,J^\JLbilddalh%nd. Indian, 
Indicate, 1;. ^^l^Liil ashdr %la\ 
See Show, point out. [ilayhu 
Indicated, <uJl^^«^^l ahnHma* 
Indication, ^L^t ishurat, iLlJj 
dalalat, JUjo^l tstidlal, Lthi 
^Idmat, aL-cI i^ldm, j^^J^ 
hurhdn, j\^\ izhdr. See Mark, 
sign, token ; symptom ; informa- 
tion, intelligence. 
Indicating, indicant, Jlj ddL 
Indict, V. (accuse of a crime), 
ls.^^^zJ^\ Uhtaka' ^ala\ See 
Indictable, iAL^\^^^^s>-\^ tcdjib al 
shakdyat. Indicted, <)lJl& Jcju*.^ 


mushtaka* ^aWii, /^y^ mazmUm, 

Indictment, lA^ shakdyat. See 

Indifference, indifferency (coldness, 
want of affection), i^^^j^ hurudat, 
^ A y^i»Ju,c» ^adam muhahbat; 
(carelessness), Jl^t ihmdL See 
Negligence. — (equipoise, sus- 
pension of judgment), JijcLcl 
i^iddl, ilj\xyt mu^ddalat, ^jW« 
muwdzanat. See Impartiality. 




Indifferent (cold, nnaffectionate), 
itXj^Cy^fwL^ 9dh$b burudat; 
(careless), JiU sfhdJU ; (left to 
free choice), j^^^ mukhayyar ; 
(disinterested), Ljyi\^^,^ ^adlm 
al gharadiyiUf ^^^Lsw khdUs; 
(in a state of mediocrity), J Jcju« 
wtu^tadtl, Ixm)^ mutawimt 

Indifferently (coldly), Sj^j^JCj 
hikolhurildat; (indiscriminately), 
^^)b bildfark; (tolerably, pass- 
ably), Ibwy tawanitan. 

Indigence,^ fahr. See Poverty, 
want, necessity. 

Indigenous, u^jl; 3a/a<it. 

Indigent, ^^;JLi« muflU^ ^Lix^c^ 
muhtdj, jM fakir. See Poor, 

Indigested (not arranged, rude), 
L^^JjJi hild tartlh; (not con- 
cocted in the stomach), m^o^j^ 
ghayr munhadm. Indigestible, 
jn6^\^^ mumtani^al hadm. 

Indigestion, Ia^sT takhmat 

Indignant, (^^a^ yhadnh. See 

Indignation, c,.^*^, r ghadah. To 

excite indignation. 

ghaddah. See Exasperate. — With 

indignation, c ^*n f'J^ hikol 

Indignity, JLjUt thdiuU. See Con- 
tumely, insult. 

Indigo, JJ nf /• 

Indirect (not straight), '^y*^ mti- 
^unoqffi^fL^mulUml, Crooked| 
curved (not honest), J\^,^j^ 
ghayr tdlih. Indirectly, \jj\J^\ 
Uhdraian^ luUt^ibndyo^; (dis- 
honestly), ^lLJU ^^ ^^^- ^* 
directness, ^^ ^f^\ (unfidr* 

M ft M ft 

ness), <lL». Afia^, <(»-Li hah&hat. 
See Dishonesty. [moiMflr* 

Indiscernible, j^-Jox^^-;^ ^Ao^ 
Indiscreet,^ Jj)b 5tAl tadbir, JiU 
yAd/S/. See Imprudent. — ^Indis- 
creetly, Ja«jL Md ia^akhd. 
Indiscretion, Hke. ghqfiat, ^«X^ 

^idam imtiydM. See Eashness, 

Indiscriminate, ^^jJu^^^J^ ghayr 

mafruk. Indiscriminately, )Lj 

jy Ma fork. 
Indispensable, ^1 i^sim, ^<.Jji^ 

mukkuti, ^j^j^ i^MrOri. See 

Necessary.— « Indispensableness, 

tdjil tA^M^, ij^j^ durHrai. 

Indispensably, L..!^^^ fardam, 
\3j^j^ dmHraianf ij^j^dlV^ 

M durHrai. See Necessarily. 
Indispooe, «• (}Xi v^^ ^^ \«fi&^i> 




AM da^af^ lJ*^ thowiffiuh; 
(to render unfit), ^Jlc^jLc gkayyar 
^M ; (to make aTerse), i,,^>tfM 
^Xe> aghdkb ^la\ 

Indispoeedi \j^^j^ tnarid, J^Ila^ 
ma^Hl, See Infirm, Biok. — ^Indis- 
poeedness, indisposition, c^t^a^l 
^l^^l whir&f al mvUtf. See 

Indisputable, ^l^^l JjU^yA«yr 

mmtahll al mandMO^oL India- 
putableness, ^;-f-^ ffoiHn, See 
Certainty.— Indisputably, ^*ia^ 
iahJAkan, ^^.g^iJLj M yoibn, 
IxJj yoiHium. See Certainly. 
Indissolyable, indissoluble, J^^jS 

M/ a/ n^M See Inseparable, 
firm, obligatory, everlasting. — 
Indissolubility, indissolubleness, 
d/l^Hyjo: ^adam al injlkdk. 
See Fimmess. — ^Indissolubly, h 
JWl hild inhO&l. 
Indistinct,J;«^«b^^ ghayr mumagyai* 
See Confused. — ^Indistinctly (not 
dear), ^J^j^^^ mtn ghayr 
bagdfiy ,^^ htldfark. SeeCon- 
fosedly. — ^An object seen indis- 
tinctly at a distance, .^d^ shahh 
(pJar. ^Lj^t asAidi). lodistinct- 

See Conftision. — (want of clear- 
ness), ^^^/♦«J^ ^adam al hagdn. 

Indite, i'. (write), ^jmj\ ainM ; 
(dictate a letter), i^^ na9 Mo. 

Individual, ,\^\^ wdM; (an indi- 
vidual), fjAOs^ ihakhi (pL ^li*** \ 
ashikkdi. Individually, to^ \jj3 
fardam fardan, l«X»^tj \j^\j wd- 
hidan wdhidan. See Singly. 

Indocible, indodile, Jl«J\ J^^LS^ 
ghayr hdhil al ta^Uum, 

Indolence, indolency, Jl^t ihmdl, 
JdUM^ hasal. See Sloth, laziness. — 
(freedom finom pain) ^>-jSt^J^ 
^adam al woga^. 

Indolent, JiU ghdJUy J^U hdmU, 
See Lazy, slow, slothful. — ^Indo- 
lently, JyuM^ Jij hikol hasdl. See 
Carelessly, slothf\illy. 

Indubitable, indubitably, (lXs»^ 
hild shah. See Undoubted. 

Induce, v. ^j^ harrak, {jOj^ 
harrad. See Excite, incite, per- 

Induced, C^^s^ muharrak, (joJj^ 

muharrad. See Persuaded, pre- 
vailed upon. 

Inducement, u^-^ a^^j-^ targhU, 

^^jCsT tahrld, CJ>ijgC iahrik. 

See Incentive, motive. 




Induction, J^Jl^ madkhal. See 
Entrance^ inference. 

IndnctiTe, ^Ju* mvkni^ See Per- 
soasiTe, inferring. 

Indulge, V, (grant), ^Jl£wu\ an^am 
^la\ ,^ manah; (show kind- 
ness), <L.A,,fl.«!uJL^\ aahar al 

Mkafakat. See Favor, fondle, 

Indulgence, -.U^ 9amdh ; (shew of 
kindness), ^ii L shafakat, yLc 
^fHf ijiJU9 maghfarat. 

Indulgent (kind), j^i^ karim. See 
Kind, gentle, fayorable. — ^Indul- 
gently, -.U^J^ biiolsamdh. 

Indurate, i^. (make hard), ^^^S.^ 

Industrious, ^^ Bd^y jUbLsr^ 

fnujdhid, ^ xj ..) lablhf ^jL.>- 

hdsik. See Diligent, laborious. — 

Industriously, ^^ju»JCj hikol sa^, 

j^^JCj hikol jahad; (on purpose), 

tjuai kasdan, Ju^^ ^an kaad. 

See Intentionally, designedly. 

Industry. ,^^*-> aa^, J^^^ jahd. 
See Diligence, assiduity. 

Inebriate, t^. jL^ takar, ^^\ oikar, 

jL^ 8akkar. See Intoziccfte. — 
(to be intoxicated), jL^ tek&r. 
Inebriation, jjL.^ sukr. See 
Drunkenness, intoxication. — 

Inebriated, ^^]/^ aahrdn. See 

Ineffiible, JJu>J^JLkJ^ Id pamkin 
woifaho, u- a«0ji^ Id ywonaf* 

Ineffectiye, ineffectual, inefficadoua, 
ilfili^i^ mm ghoffr fd^UiiftU, 
JLU bdtil. Ineffectually, inef- 
fdctiyely, inefflcacionsly, 

iAAi mtn ghayr fd^tUyai. In- 
effectnalneeHyineflloacy, ■Jmi»J^ 
^am al ^Ir. 

Inelegance, ^LyJtA«Xc ^adam al 
latdfaf, i^\JaJ\AiXS' ^dam al 
wa/rdfat. Inelegance of writing 
or composition, LuJjI^^J^ ^aiam 
alinshd. Inel^antiy, ^Ual^Juu 
hi ^adam latdfat. 

Ineloquent, .^u^i^ ff^^^lf^ fatHK 
See Eloquent. 

Inept, Jjli^ ghayr kdhil. See 
Unfit, useless, foolish, trifling. 

Inequality, Jtj&^^Uju^ ^adam al 

Inerrable, ^^Jif hUd tahik. In- 
errably, Jul Id hud. See InfiJl- 
ibly. — ^InerTingly,^fJb hUd toAa. 

Inert, Klf^^^^j^ ghayr midahoT' 
rik. See Hotionless, duggiah, 
dull. — ^Inertness, JLiy^t^«X-f 
^adam al harakat. See Dullness, 




Inestimable, I^Ji ii! t* m&l<Ao klntat, 


Inevident, ^\j^ ghayr wddih. 
Inevitable, ^.*U:;p-5l\5J^J•w^ mum" 

nnutahU al ihttzdr. 
Inexcusable, j^J Id yw^jwr, j^ 

j^Sx^ ghayr ma^sflr. 
Inezcusablenees, JljjjJ^«^\a«x& 

^adam al maMriyat, 
InexiBtent, ineziBting, aJ[«Xc ^adlm^ 

^^ytj^ ghayr mawjikd, 

Inexistence, Jy»-^1/%J^ ^adam al 

Inexorable, f^^r^'i ^ yarham, 

mdlaho marhamat 

See Stubborn, meroiless. 
Inexpedience, inexpediency, |%«x& 

JLrfliw^Jt ^adam al mundsahat. 

See Impropriety. — Inexpedient, 

v^,.^!^ ghayr todjtb, ji^yjtf^ 

ghayr muwdJUt. See Improper. 
Inexperience, ^Wl«^l/%J^ ^adam 

al imtihdn, JU xu «» ^ \/»*Xg ^adam 

ail iati^mdl, ^^^^Uj^ ^adam al 

Inexpiable, ^;AjUjl Id yughfar. 
Inexplicable, ^j^^} ^ yansharth, 

ujltfjj^ Id yawsaf. 
Inexplicably,ujLpjiJ^ jyj hinaw^n 

Id yawMf, 
Inexpressible, f^mi>^%i^ Id yaw9af. 

Inexpressibly, ^y^y^jt^^^yi 

hi wajhin ghayr matosnf, [taf^' 

Inextinguishable, ^J^j^ ^ V^^ 

Inextricable, ^\y}t^^**^ mwtahll 
al haU, Jj^} Id yanhal. See 
Perplexed, intricate. 

Infallibility, infeUibleness, (♦Laic^ 
i^iidm, lkflc)^^^i*-^^ al ^umat 
^n al hhatd, ^^^1 Juc ^ al 
yakin, j; » 5^ tahklk. See 
Certainty. — Infallible, ^^yoM^ 
Iks? I mac,8Hm can al khatd. See 
Certain. — Infallibly, L, v , j ai 
yakinan, UJ bt^ ^aA*l^», ^j-« 
^^IjmII i»f» a^ ma^Hm, *^,J^^^ 
min hoi hud. See Certainly. 

Infamous, (j^j^ mujarras, '^y^^ 
mafduh, C/yj^ mahtuk. See 

Infamy,infamousne88, d^s^aifadihat, 

^urd. See Ignominy. 

Infancy, iJ^^i? tu/uliyat, U-p <tfia. 
See Beginning, original. 

Infant, *. jJj M?a?a(^, Jit ^»/, ,^^ 
«ail. See Child.— Infantile, in- 
fantine, jJJ^ Ji^ misl al walad. 

See Childish. 
Infantry, *jUj payddah; (an army 

of infantry), ^lu*/«^U^ ^ewa^tr 
^ moihahdyi. 




^OKUtm ashshay bU hkhfl ^ynthi. 
Infect, V. f^Sc cada\ c-^L^f asdh, 
Infected, ,^djc^ tnunctdi. In- 
fected with pestilence, ^y^ 

Infection, infectiousness, ^LjIj-^ 

^adwat See Contagion. — ^Infec- 
tion of the air, \^\ij^ ^fanat 
al hawd. 
Infections, infective, i^j^ 9dri, 
i^Jlj^w^ mu^. Infectiously, 

Infelicity, ^^^us^ nahi, iLSi shakd, 
SeeCalamity, mi8ery,uDhappines8. 

Infer, v. (draw a conclusion from 
premises), ,4f^.s^\ Utantajy JjCL«»t 
istadal, fj-^^^ antaj min. See 
Bring, offer, produce. — ^Inferred, 
^Ij ndtij. 

Inference, «. i^^^ natljat, (jmLJ 
JciydSy Jytfl^- hditl. By inference, 
inferrible, (jwI—j-JUI^Jlc ^la^ al 
kiyas. See Deducible. 

Inferiority, JjUj dandwat^ ^^ 

ulX! J«a^ Ulc ^atm a^A(uf (^un 
ghayrohfil makdm aw ak<d tninhi 
oilman tea nahii %alik. See Base- 

Inferior, ^^J dun, <J j\ adnt^, Ji^! 
asfal (plur. JiLI <w4/?/), (JliaT 
iahtdnl. The inferior part (of any- 
thing), L£,>^ <a^^, ^^1 au^to'. 

Infernal, ^^^^.♦i^s** yaA^mnomf. The 
infernal spirits, 
arwdh khabUat 



Inferring, adf. ii^,^>:j yantij minho. 

Infertile, c, ^in<j^ ghayr HAeseb. 

Infertility, i^-wiirlj^ kiUat al 

Infest, V. Ci^g ,» ii^Aa^, (CjuJ 

ta^adda\ ijoyC ta^arrad,j^ dar. 

To infest the roads, JrS^Mr ^ * 

Infidel, *.yl^ i&4^. Infidels, jU^ 
^/ar, iji^ kufarat. like an 
infidel,^li31 J2^ misl al hdfir. 

Infidelity, ^jJIaJ^ ^adam iddln, 

jS^ kufr, ^Uj^l^JkC ^am dl 

imdn. See Impiety. — (treachery), 

^Lfw khiydnat, \i^\/^S£> ^adam 

al wafd. See Perfidy, deceit. 

Infinite, ^lf)^t« mdlaho mhdyat, 
JbU:L«^ yhayr mutandhU See 
Boundless, endless, immense. 

Infinitely, ^V^ hUd nihdyat, In- 
fiuiteness, infinity, infinitude, 
JuI^IaJlc ^adam al nihdyat 

Infinitive (of a verb), j Ju^^ masdar, 




Inflnn, uJ-jw da^f, J-L: ^ahl, 
JjL(/f ma^^, u^r* ntarid, 
if^ ioklm. See Weak, feeble. 
— ^Infinn (plur.), \ijLa du^fd, 

Infirmary, «. LamJ]^^ J idr Mkihqfd, 
fjOj4i\j\i} idr al marad. 

Infirmity, infirmness, s^Mui da^f, 
\^y nnirad. Bodily infirmitieg, 
L^\^.j^M ^ Jij\^ ^awdrid jis- 

Infix, V. jjS. ghoTM. To infix in 
the ground, c,,^>n» na^ab. To 
infix or drive in pales, Jjjlt JJ 
dak al watad. Infixed, (.^y^:^ 
mansuh. See Fin. 

Inflame, v. (set on fire), jy>> harak, 
Jjd iha^; (to kindle desire), 
j[^ ahaunoah; (to exaggerate), 
^JL^ 2^S{0^A. See Aggra- 
vate. — ^Inflamed, J y •; .hi ,.^ 




i^y^ tnalhuh, 

Inflamer, «. c,"^^!^ mulhih, Jjkma.^ 

Inflaming, jpor^. c^^^l^ mu/A»&. 

Inflammability, inflammableness, 
JU::.^jliijli kUwat al Mti^dl. 
Inflammable, ^^jbkT^ yuhrak. 

Inflammation, jl^ % r^\ ihtirdk, 
^IfJI tUih&h, JLc^l iMX^ly 


9j^f^ hardrat. Inflammatory, 
^j^^ nrnkrik. See Inflaming. 
Inflate, i^. ^ nafdkh. See Blow. 
— ^Inflated, ^^a^^ manfakh^ See 

Hangbty, pompons, swollen. — ^In- 

* • 

flation, Aisj] intt/dkh, ^ nafkh. 
See Flatulency. 
Inflect, V. ^p Vir. ^ataf^ tSh^^ 
maifyal, ^jJ dayyar. See Bend, 
torn, change. — ^To inflect (a noun 
or verb), JjuIIuJ^ %airraf al 

Inflected, upW t ; ^ mun^ify 

wojf, J^t* mdyil. See Bent. 
Inflection, (J^Uj tamdyul, fa,p Vtr> 
^a(/> c^ tTMyt^ ; (modulation of 
the voice), <Uju naghmat ; (of a 
noun), i^jby.^ ^o^?/ 

Inflective, (J^^^*^ mumayyil. 

Inflexibility, inflexibleness, ^'1 
matanat, jLe ^tndel. See Stub- 
bornness, obstinacy ; o&o stiff*- 

Inflexible, Juiix &a»2(f, J^^cl^ mti^a- 
marrid. See Immovable, stub- 
bom, stiff. 

Inflexibly, ^'l:;^^ J^ bikol matanai, 

jLc J^ ^liib/ ^tiidi. 
^ Inflict, V. (punishment), 




buds ^M iMad. See Punish. 

infiictioiii ^IdAJb^ylfi^ hiukamat 
M Juuas. See Fidiuahinent. 

Influence, yt oar, jJl3 UUHr. See 
Impulse. — ^Influenoe(oyer others), 
ijjj kudrat, ify kawai. See 
Authority.— « Influences of the 
stars, iJ:j\jti\j tdslrdt, ^\L>^\ 
ahkam, ^\^\cL^iLsj\ iUkdldt 
al hawdkih, A happy influence 
of the stars, Juud sa^. An un- 
happy influence, (^^ulsc? nahs. 

Influence, v,y\ assar, CS^ harrak. 

Influenced, ^Lj^ Jy.0l>. hatitl 

hihi tdAr. 
Influx, J-*«» sayl, ,^^j>' jaraydn. 

See Infusion, Influence. 
Infold, 9. ujU laf. See Involye. 
Infoliate, v. (cover with leaves), 

jjjlU^kc ghatia* hUwarak. 

Inform, v,j^ hhdblary aIcI Jafl 
a^^' i^m, j^\ dkhhar. See 
instruct, form, animate. 

Information, ^)L-c! i^m, j^^ 
khabar, uJ^i* wahuf, v^^jLJ 

See Instruction, intelligence, ac- 
cusation. — To have information, 
:k1 akkag khabar, jJ-l^l 


Informed, ^IL/* muitali^fjfS^AM^ 
ma^ khabar f u^fj wdUf, To 
be informed, ^^^iX-^t oUos 
khabar, ^iLt aUaia^ 

Informer, «. (one who gives intelli- 
gence), j*"-^ mvUiiahbir\ (an 
accuser), J^ yAomfftds, ^UiJ 
nammdm, ^^LiM» «S^f, v^^^-^ 


Infraction, ^ fasakh, ^joij nakad. 
An infraction of the peace, ^^oaj 
^^1 najb<7 al nctt. See Breach, 
violation. [uncommon. 

Infrequent, J jU nddir. See Bare, 
Infringe, v, (compact), ^**^ fatakh, 
^joAJ nakad. See Violate, de- 
stroy, hinder. [Infraction. 
Infringement, ^ fuakh. See 
Infuse, V. Cy "i^Mi «aX^, c^ kaib, 
(^^^M0 m3. See Four, instil (to 

steep, macerate), ^a3 naka^ J^ 

^a//. See Dissolve ; aUo tincture, 

Infused (poured), < ., J>^d < mask&bf 
(incarcerated), P ^a;^ moMte^. 

Infusible (possible to be infrwed,) 
^^\^^»A^ tnunikin al nak (•, J^^U 
jj\ kdM al haU; (not fusible 
0r diisobrablei), v^^^ Vu. ^«iJbio\i^ 




Infdsion (pouring), ^^ ^ tab, 
i^X >o takb; (steeping, mace- 
rating), ^a3 nak^ 

Infusiye, J>--s^ yunhal, c,.^«gu 

Ingenioos, (—^{^ ^uirif, upjVi I 
latif, uJ;U ^rtf, Jb\^ mdhir. 
See Witty. — ^An ingenious man, 
J.Bp.L,i^fwL^ 8dhib ^kl. See 
Oenins. — ^Ingeniously, ^t)-**J^ 
hikol ^kUn, i^\jif^ ( » ftijb/ 

Ingeniousness, ingenuity, Ji£ (pi. 
J^-if ^iiihzO, ^LwdUi faraiat, 
l1S\jJ\ idrdk. See Genius, wit, 
invention, subtlety. 

Ingenuous (candid), ^t^L^ s&dtk, 
(jl<i^ sadik, ^JA,s^ mukhlis, 
j^U. khdlis, ^j taU. See 
Open, firee, generous, noble. — 
Ingenuously, JJuJl^ hil sidh. 

Ingenuousness, ^d^ aidk, ^^^ 
khulas, LJ\s.^ sadakat. See 

Inglorious, ^Jj d^ml, j^^ hakir, 

i^S^^j^^ ghayr $harlf. See 

Base, ignominious, mean. — In- 

gloriously, ij\ 5 rv J^l—j hikol 

' • iakdrat, i^^LaiJlCj hikol fadlhat 

Ingot, s. (of gold or silrer), <lC^ 

mr3Uaf(plwr. cl^L^ sab&yik). 

Ingraft, «. (trees, etc), Jiio ia^^m. 

See Plant, insert, fix. — ^To ingraft 

a piece of cloth into a garment, 

w3j rakka^* 
Ingraftment, ingrafting, ^jt Irt 3 

tai^m. Ingrafted, ^n Vi^ mu- 

Ingrateful, lijlt a^Jl& ^adim al wafa, 
^L*».ll|^l; nakir al ihtdn. See 

Ingratiate, v, (oDc's-self, t— dLwa^il 
ista^taf, Jtc^t istamdl. 

Ingratitude, (Sa^^^^]/^ nakran 
al Jamil, <UjcJ\^1^ ku/rdn 
anni^at, Mx:^\^\ji^ kufirdn 
anna^am, 1jjI!aJl£ ^adamal wa/d. 

Ingredient, jjs>*y«za, \'^\ ajzd. 

Ingress, ingressioD, J^<-^ dukhul, 
^dif^ljL^ muddkhalat. See En- 
trance. — Ingress and egress, 
^^^j J^J dukhul tea khuruj. 

Ingulf, V (swallow up in an abyss), 
^1j hala^y t^^ ihtala^. 

Inhabit, v. /^\jc^\ istakdtn, ^Ji^ 
iamakkan, ^^.—L..^ sakan. In- 
habitable, ^X*A* ■> ymkan. See 

Inhabitant, «. ^jS^Lj «fiHi», ^jL^z^ 
tnutatnakkin, ^Jl^ muklm, ^f^ 
muiatcatin, ^yj^^ mustawtin, 
i*M^ mustakir. 




Inhabited, i^^^***^ masknn, jy^*^ 
ma^Ur, ^L-c ^mir. To bo 
inhabited, ^JLjI insakan. 

Inharmonious, <UJcJl/*JLfi ^dam al 

Inhere, V. ^^\ illaham, ^ji Idzam, 
*\a^\ itiahad. See Adhere. 

Inherent (inborn), .1* ■>■ jahU^ 
Jutft adit (J^J tdtit i^y:^ 

tabi'^. See Innate. 

Inherit, v. lI^^j weres. Inheritance, 

wardsaty L^j^ tarhat, Soe 
Inheritor, C^^j todns. See Heir, 

Inhibit, v. ^j^ mana^. See Pro- 
hibit, forbid, restrain, check. 

Inhibition, ^^ man^. See Prohi- 
bition, embargo. 

Inhospitable, i^i»,d^j^m^r ghayr 
mudif. Inhospitably, h\^jJu 
hi ghayr diyufat. Inhospitable- 
ness, inhospitality, ^jL^JIaJl^ 
^adam addiydfat^ JIJi^^Jt^jL: 
^adam attawfik. 

Inhuman, ijk^JL hUd rahmat, i^ 
A ^JJLit hild shafakat, ^Jt^^ytLj 
hild marhamat, i^\*^}\^ hild 
insdniyat, JU? zdlim. See Merci- 
less, pitiless, cruel^ savage. 

Inhumanity, ^L^iLjS^/^JLfi ^adam 
al insdniyat, Ji?* mdm, |^«>-^ 
^AmIJI ^adam ash$hafakaL In- 
humanely, JJ0 J^ hikol %ulm. 

Inimitable, jJi:ujl Id yutakallad. 

Inimitably, JuLlaJ^^iJU^^^^ 
hi wajhin mumtani^ aitaJUld, 

jIai^)^^^ hi tffajhin Id yuta- 

Iniquitous, iUtj^i^ hild ^addlat, 
diuJUoilJ Id insdf laho, i^'^^^c^ 
muta^addl, JU0 tdlim. See Un- 
just, wicked. 

Iniquity, aL_!tj^l/%Jcc ^adam al 
^adalat, «^JuO' ta^addl, ^ ztUm, 
1 •>- jawr. See injustice, wicked- 

Initial, J^\ auncallf v^l Jcj\ ibtiddl. 

See Incipient. — An initial letter, 
v^ljcjlv^i^ harf ihtiddl. 
Initiate, v. ^^.^.s^jt adhhal. To 
initiate in the rudiments of an 

art, ^l^l^J-^*^' ^^^^ /^^ 
asrdr. Initiated, J^jJi \ ci J^ \ J 

ddhhU fll airdr. Initiation, 

<lLw1jl^ maddkhalat. 
Inject, V. (J^;- j1 adkhal, -.^ tarah. 
Injection (throwing in), JL^jl 

idkhdl, UJt ilkd, ^Jb tarh. An 

injection, il,:>Jft.,»^ Kuibvat* ^Sh^!^ 





Clyster. — ^To give an injectioiii 

^jA^ hahm, 

InjudicioiiB, J^'lJdtSU mdlaho ta- 

ammul, ^^^moj^U m&laho haslrat. 

See Impnident. — Ii^adicioaaly,]b 

i^*\j h%ld iaammul. See Lnpra- 

Injunction, dS^>^ hukm, j^\ a$nr. 

See Command. 
Injure, v.jj^^ ^amal itmror^ Jia 

walam. See Hurt.— An iEJurer^ 

Injurious, JU? sd/tm, j,d^ mudir. 
See HurtfuL — (unjust), j;*r*^ 
ghayr muhiiy c^La^l^dU mdlaho 
insaf. See Contumelious. — ^In- 
juriously, ij,A^J^ hikol mudar- 
rat, LISjxIj hUd ^adalai, JCj 
^j9iia bikd ta^. 

Injury, ^^t^ nuhdn, Jl? zidm, 
iUlia/f matUamat, 1jclc\ i^idd, 

duroTf ij,0A^ mudarrat, ^jl 
• a/Ayat. See Damage, contumely, 
reproach, detriment, barm, injus- 
Injustice, JlJ^ sv/m, ZJIj^xaJl^ 

i/^/'/i^ «/ JbiE;. See Iniquity, in- 
jury, wrong, 

Ink, j^ hibr. Bedink, y«^\ 
hibr ahmar. An ink-horn, ^^^<^ 
dawdyat (plur. CL^Mj J dawdydi), 
ijf^!^ makbarai. Cotton, lint, 
etc., put into an ink-horn, ^lLJ 
HkaL [mation. 

Inkling. See Hint, whisper, inti- 

Inky,^^-^1 J2^ misl al hibr. 
Inlaid, ^^j^ murassa^, ^^-juu^ 

Inland (remote from the sea), J^t J 

J\ ddkhU al barr. See Interior. 

Inlay, v. w^ rassa^, Ji kallam. 
Inlet, J^ti) dukhul, J^J^ tnaif- 

^A<i/. See Entry, passage, creek, 

bay. [internally. 

Inly, ^J^ ' ^ ddkhili . See Internal, 
Inmate,«.^^liAM^ mwtdjir,i^jCz>M*^ 

tnttstakri. [yalun. 

Inmost, ^SjLtfJs>^j\ adkhal md 
Inn, i. J^yb Aof^/, ^ jJI^^ lokdnda, 

Jj.:^^* tnanzal (plur. JjLiw^ 

manastT). To inn, «Jjl^^lcic|p 

nhUfil lokdnda. 
Inn-holder, inn-keeper, l^^'*^\.^ 

2(Jjl^j]Jl «dAt5 al lokdnda. 
Innate, ^^-V^ ^3^1, (J\j sa/f, 

^^^ "ifcAa/^, ^^\ aslh Jr^ 

jabll, ,^^Jt-jJ9 ^aftl^i, J^-^ 

mafbul, ^5J-i r^ yAartEJ. 




Innate ideas, JJif JaxII al ^hl 
dl awwal, ^lL^ jdhlat. An in- 
nate qoalitj, (L^\^ hhdsiiyat. 

Inner, ^jLfl^l*> dakhiti. See In- 

Innocence (freedom from gnilt), <U^ 

^adam al zanh ; (purity), h^ 
tahdrat, i^^J takdwat, A4>*^ir 
^matf ^l^t ikMdi, ^^Jl£w 
ibAWfi«. See Purity, harmlessness. 

Innocent (not guilty), (>y^^*^ mat^ 
sum, c^jL hila tanh\ (pure), 
ysX^ t&hir, ^j zaifef, j\i hdr, 
^V:>. khdlis. See Harmless. 

Innocently (not guiltily), v^^f y^ 
5t naw^n harl. 

Innovate, v. cJcjI ibtada^y Ll^Jo^l 
ahdas. See Invent. 

Innovation, ^ 1 Jcj 1 ift^tV^ ^, CjI J^>- \ 
ihdds, jlaC^ 1;«<^. See Invention. 

Innovator, «. lI^Jls^ muhdis, ^ J^^ 

Innoxious, innocuous. See innocent. 

Innuendo, 8. ij\j^\ ishdrat, LA:S 

Innumerable, JuujI Id yucad. See 
Infinite. — Innumerable as the 
ants, JjLXiUUj^lJj^ mtsl 
annaml tndlaho ^adad. Innumer- 

. ably, c-i>L4>^iOU mdiako hi%dh. 

Inoffensive, j*^^ Id yudur. See 
Innocent, harmless. [Irregular. 

Inordinate, aUoJL hild nizdm. See 

Inquietude, JU^JLuUf imhiyhdl 
Mdl, See Disquietude. 

Inquire, v, (ask about), .^.mJ \»J\ 
iatafsar, Jt^sc^\ istafham, Ajc^\ 
ista^m,yJsx^\ istakhbar ; (seek, 
search after), ^^w^rf^ tafassaSf 
(afahhas, (jauiJ faitashf 
fahai. See Ask, seek, 
search, examine. — To enquire 
after news, ^^.icus^ istakhbar. 

Inquirer, «. j*uJui^m^ mustafsir, 
^jMMb*u,jcv^ tnutaj'assis, f^a^sr*^ 
mutdfahhisy ^JLjxJut mufattish, 
_;J:mm^ mtutanhl, iiiui fattdsh. 
See Examiner, inquisitor. 

Inquiry, inquisition^ Lui:;^! istifidrf 

A^sc^\ iiti/hdm, ^^Lcl^I isti^m, 

jLis:Us\ istikhhdr, (j.M,^T.i3 taftish, 

^josr' tafoMiuSy ^jM.»j^sf tajasaiu, 

See Question, search, examination. 

* - 
Inquisitive, ^^aam^sci^ mutafassis, 

^ascoM^ mustaksi. See Inquirer, 

Inquisitiveness, ^jujjx^ tajaistis, 

lioAi^ol istiksd. See Curiosity. 
Inquisitor, «. (jl^::^^ mu/a^^MA 
Inrail, r. (surround with rails), vi^ 




Inroad, ^U gh&ra, Siee Incursion, 

Insane, ^j^^ mqfnUn, Ji^Jb bild 

^M, See Had. — ^Insanity, 1Jam» 

sawdd, ^y^junUn. Seelladness. 
Insatiable, insatiate, r - - »^ /<z 

yoBhha^ See Avaricious, greedy. 

Insatiableness, j-^ tafna^ See 

Insatiably, ^^ J^ hikol Uma^. 

Inscribe, v. ^j rdkam, s,,^ katah. 
See Write, enrol. 

Inscribed, ^^j^ tnarkum, jJi^ 
mvJcayyadf ^j^Lt maktub, (^y^j^ 
tnarsUm, jjsf* muharrar, j^^j^u^ 
nuutUr, A table or monument 
on which anything is inscribed, 
^^ lawh (plur. -1^1 alwdh). 

Inscription, *. L)\^ kitdhat, ^j 
ram (plur. ^y^j rwUm), The 
inscription or title of a book or 
letter, ^'yx ^amodn,ii \z^ kitahat. 

Inscrutable, ijU*::jc^\^j:,:,A.^ mum- 
tani^ al taftUh, ^^uls^\^}^^a^,u*^ 
muitahll attafahhm. 

Insect, *. ij .» «>- hasharat (plur. 
^I^I^^^Iai- haahardt), JUU Aamd^ 
(plur. >*l^l <iAt(?diii). The in- 
sects of the earth, {joJi\/^\ub 
^atcdm al ard, ^^^X1cl;|^ 

AasAardt al ard. 

Insecure, ^j^\j^ ghayr amln. See 
Secure, safe. 

Insecurity, <U:N^li%kXc ^adam amani- 
yatfj^ khatar, 5jb[sr^ mukhd- 
tarat. See Security, safety,danger. 

Insensibility (inability to perceive 
or feel), (jMUud^^tAjLC ^adam al 
%h$d8\ (stupidity), J— L«JUju: 
^adwn al ^kl ; (dulness of cor- 
poreal sense), -.Ij-Jlijj^ larudat 
almizdj; (want of affection), ij^^ 
harHdat, <L.-.s:r*Ajx ^adam mu- 
hahhai. See Sensibility. 

Insensible (unable to perceive or 
feel), ^j*i^^^ bild has; (stupid), 
JacL hild cakly ^Ja^\ ahmak, 
Jub halld ; (cold in constitution), 
-.|j^lj;b hdrid al mizdj; (with- 
out affection), <^ss•^lAJ*Xc ^dlm 
al muhahhat; (gradual), ^ jJcl^ 
mutadarrij. See Sensible. 
Insensibly (imperceptibly, by de- 
greos), l^r^JJ tadrijan, gC^JcJb 
bU tadrij; (without mental or 
corporeal sense), ^-"^ ^ ^ ,-f 

min ghayr has. See Stupidily, 
frigidly ; aho sensibly. 
Inseparable, J L-^s-LJJl J ■^-^^■■-i 
mttstahil al infisdl, Juoi-:^^*^ 
ghayr munfasil. See Separable. 
— Inseparably, JUiAj|^-->_«j hi 
gKat^r injUdl. 




Insert^ v, ^jJ darraj, J^ jl adkhal. 
Inserted, ^jX^ mundarij. 

Insertion, JU.j\ idhh&l, J^j^^ 
tndirdj, ^lA ildj. 

Inside, ^jA>^ dimn. The inside, 
^jtU hdtin. 

Insidious, jiJu-e ghadddr. See 
Deceitful, sly, treacherous. — 
Insidiously, jOl-a-j hi ghadrin, 

I \ ■ 'y^Xji UM hlka. See 
Insight (inspection), ij^^ hoHrat, 

Jaj nazoTf ijJ^[^ muhdMhirat; 

(skUl), iijX^ ma^ifai, Jlc ^ihn. 

Insignificance, insignificancy, a Ac 

^uc^ ^adam tna^na*. 


Insignificant, i? J^li^ hild fdyidatf 
JiJu4j^ ghayr mu/id, <Uai^^ 
bild manfa^t, ^JM^\y*^J^ ihy 
md Id ya^l. Insignificant talk, 
ij^j^hjii^ kaldm bild ta^i. 
Insignificantly, ^V^-^^ «^ hild 

Insincere, ^jL^^ gha^r sddik, 

^jAs^j^ ghayr mukhlia. See 

Sincere. — Insincerely, <L ,LA>>lb 

hild haJAkatf ULs^ majdtan. 

See Deceitfully. 

Insincerity, <Ljljk^ti«J^ ^am 
assaddkal, ^)LwjS1^Jlc ^adam al 
ikMds, ^sJuAs}\ i^SC' ^adam al 

hakiiat See Dissimulation ; aUo 
Insinuate, i^. j\J^\ Oihdr. See 

Hint, suggest. — (to introduce 
gently), J^^J dakhkhal, (jm J das, 
lilUj Jj^J daiMhal hi latdfat, 
^JU^*^ dahasi. To insinuate 
one's-self (into another's &yor), 
L,p lit •; ,ol ista^f, ^Ic 

takarrah ila\ 

Insinuation (hint), ij\Ji»\ iahdrat, 
<L.£Lj^ kindyat; (into ^etyor), 
uJlWiCirfl idi^df, J^mo^U^K 
^^L^mJ U i (T ^ kaldm litah^l 
muhahhai assdmi^, A yillanous 
insinuation, <U}^j toastDotat. 

Insinuating, insinuative, •^^^^ tI 
isti^dfl. An insinuatori 

Insipid, A^JcLalU mdUho ta^e, 

ifjJalU mdlaho lisatat, ^J delec. 

See Tasteless, dull. 
Insipidity, ifjJJUiXc ^adamalliuat. 

See Tastelessness, dulness. 
Insipidly, ^^Ib &f J^ mmaU, ^«^ 

d.4Jil9 mm y^ayr ta^nU, See 
Insist, v. ^ U^. [Dully. 

Insnare, *.v^^^Ut^^c...^ mM^ife hil 

matyadaL Insnared, >^l U .^ ^ 

mustdd. To be insnared, *^^-f ■ ^ 




In80ciable> ^licj) Id ytUa^har. 

See Unsociable. 
InsoleDce, hb\su» aafdhat, i>^U« 

wakdhat, L^j\/^Ss. ^adam adah, 

ij\jb\ ikdnat. See Contempt. 

Insolent, ^i^J1]b htld adh, JSz^ 

mutakahhtr, ^j waheh, <ltj— Lj 

Insolentlyi lib\L^JlCj hikol Ba/dhat, 
i^\j»J(Cj hikol wdkdhdU 

Insolvable, insoluble (not to be 
solved), J^t^jjjw^ mumtani^ al 
hd; (nottobeexplained)J.;^£duM/« 
^LJ \ mustahil al haydn, ^jL^ ^j^ 
^jj^\ghayrtnumk%na9h9harh. In- 
solvable (impossible to be paid), 
wijcjH Id yandafi^ 

Insolvent, ^jJLJu^ muflis, j^^x^ 
mu^ar. See Bankrupt. — In- 
solvency, ^^5Lil tflui. See 

Insomuch, jP*^ hatta\ \J^9yi 
hinaw^an, jljiLjtlj^ hthazd al 

Inspect, t^. ^J^SijCiJai nazar bikol 
tadkth, U'^^ J>^ K.amal yoklamd, 
li&»^j| Idhaz, See Examine. 

Inspection, Jaj tkuar, ij^ fuudrat, 
a^aj yoUama, <Lli».l^ mtUd- 
Jkazat, iLlL^ muhdiharat. See 

Superia tendence. 

Inspector, «. Jiff\j ndzir, J^\^ 

muhdshir. See Overseer, superin- 


Inspiration, ^l^t •Mdm, _»-jt9aAf ; 
(breathing), ^jmJU nafoi. Divine 
inspiration, vJ^j/^W-'^ Hhdm 
rabhdnl, <JVjt5^j ^^^^ rahhdni. 

Inspire, v. (draw breath), ^^^ma:J 
tanaffas; (animate by supernatural 
infusion), m^\ alham, ^^^jwaha^; 
(to breathe into), ^ nafakh. 

Inspired, m^ mtdham. 

Inspirer, «. ^^ mulhim. 

Inspirit, v. ^jOj^ harrad, ^Juju\ 
an^h. See Animate, encourage. 

Inspissate, lIx^ sammak. See 
Thicken, coagulate. — Inspissa- 
tion, ;l^-f— " tasmik. 

Instability, ^l^^JJl^J^ ^adam al 
Jbirdr,C^U^t/*J^ ^am oisabdL 
See Inconstancy, fickleness. 

Instable, j\jii\\^ mdlaho kardr, 
ic^Ik^ yhayr sdhit, d^Lj^t* 
mdlaho sahdt. See Inconstant. 

Instal, V, y^^*m nasah. To instal 
in an office or dignity, <Li^j2flkc! 
aUdh watlfat ; (invest with a robe 
of honor), ^^^J — z^S-. khala^ 
^layhi. Installed, * . *j ^ * t 
\ In&l&WQAioii, instalment, 




mansab , (a stipalated payment), 
IxuJ kisL 
Inatance (example), Jl.!^ nuual, 
ijya sHrat, ij^ ^thrat, m^j roitn, 
^^A^ nashhaty fj^^^ tamsil ; 
(proof, document), d^lJt uhdt, 
JJj dalll, ^^;^ hurhdn. See 
Demonstration — (entreaty )Ujcurfl 
isiid^, U-j rajd, ^^ iamannl ; 
(importunity), ^-^^ Uhdh, See 
Urgency. — For instance, JLI.^ 

Instance, v, (give as an example), 


Instant (entreating), ^^^^^s^ muta- 
manni ; (importunate), J^ saJtll; 
(immediate, present),^ U- hddir, 
Jj^y mauyud. Instant, in- 
stantaneous (without interval), 
JW^ fll hdl; (quick, with- 
out delay), ^j\jjij hild tawdnl, 
cjby^ hild tawakkuf. 

Instant, b. (of time), dJis^ lahzat, 
J<si^ lamhat, i^L3j daklkat. 
Instantly, instantaneously, at this 
instant, JUM J fll hdl, Ic 

Instead, ^^^ ^awad, i?lilC« mukd- 
fdt, Jjl-j hadal. Instead of 
which, Lw^ ^awadmd. 

Instep, «. (upper part of the foot), 
^jJ kadam. [harrak. 

Instigate, 9. \J^^ harrady cJ^ 

Instigation, \y£\ iifhwd, yjoi^s^ 
tahrld, C1.0- has, CSijC^ tahrik. 
The instigations of the devil, 
{jM\y^^ watwdtj i^y^^ watwatat. 

Instigator, «. cJ}-iB^ maharrikf 
i^yf^ mughwi, s^jSf^ muharrid. 

Instil, ^^ kMar. See Distil. — 

To instil into the mind, Jl£ ^aUmn. 
See Teach, instruct. 
Instillation, j^aSi3 takttr, JijSsJ\ 

ittiktdr. See Distillation. — ^In- 
stillation into the mind, <»Jju 
ta^m. See Instruction. 

Instinct, .li^,^:*^ J^ \^ haywdni, 
wUl^L^ mail attahc^ 'A)^ 
vmdjyljiXr^^khaXkat, Instinctive, 
instinctively, ^J-JLjiIlj;^^^-!^ 
vj^^t^s*) ^l€^ tasrik al ^akl al 
haytodnlf ^^ tab^^ 

Institute, v, (establish), \^^»n ) 
nasah, Ja^ j^^^> ^^3 toada^ 
^^•^ samma\ Jaj nasam. See 

Constitute. — (to instruct), Jlc 
Institute, institution, #. (establish- 
ment), L, ^-rt'^ na<^, ^j iMM^, 
^^^«^ to^yiii; (precept^ maxim, 
regulation), ^cNx. ^ioi> o'i^ 




kdnun (plor. ^ja^^y katvdnln), 
ilij J^ tarikatf Sj^li kd^dat', 
<u«j 9unnatf J^^ «a&f/; (edu- 
cation), 4j^ tarhiyat, c^jlj 

^de^f^, (»r^ ^^l^"*' '^^ in8ti- 
tator, ^yL&Jlwi^tj t9d(^t^ a/ 
. kdnHn. See Instructor. 

Instruct, 9, jXc- ^allam* 
Instructor, t, Aji^ mue^aUitn, 
Instruction, <LjJ tarhiyat, aJjo 
iadim, c^jLJ ^<fl^, ^j^,,7 
tafhlm. See Mandate. 
Instructive, ,<^«-i«3 ta^liml. 
Instrument, «. (tool), ^1 d/Iei^ (pi. 
CL^lT d/d^). Warlike instrument, 
c-J^ilT d/!0^ Aari. The string 
of a musical instrument, c\jJ^ 
Bhiru^t An instrument or written 
contract, ZJL^ kahdlat, Jc^ 
sanadf ^*> »-^v tamassuk. An 
instrument (agent), J^^ wakil, 
J^U ^dmt7 ; (the cause or mean 
of anything), c^^^^^* mtl;V3, 
^— >.>.■) «a^a3, (^jb ^d(^, JxLi 

Instrumental (causing), ^^^Ju^Li 


fd^li; (helpful, aiding), ,j-*^ 

mu^n, uJaaw* mfM^i/. 
Instrumentality, instrumentalness 

(the agency in causing), <uLf U 

Ins trumen tally, 

knvoatin fd ^liyat. 
lTiBXiSeT&hle,,jAS>s:^j^ffhayr muh- 

tamal, ^J^sa^!il /d yuhtamal. See 

Intolerable, detestable. 
Insufficiency, ^U^^/»Jx ^adam al 

kafdyat, <LL»^^f aJ^ ^adam al 
' muwdfakat, <u]jb^\^J^ ^adam al 

Insufficient, (jUt^ ghayr kdfl^ 

ghayr Idyek, See Inadequate. — 

Insufficiently, l^K^kSL^ hUd 
Insular, LfSjl\)^ ja^dyrt. 

Insulated. See Surrounded. 

Insult, JtsJ^ shatm, Liil ifiird. 

Insult, V, JtzJ^ slmtam, ^Xs,^zj\ 

iftara^ ^la\ 

Insulter, ». /«lLl shattdm, Insult- 


ingly, \j:j\J^ hikol iftird. 

Insuperable, insurmountable, i^^oi 
^-— 1 Id yafukaho shy. See In- 

Insupportable, J-^^^oJ Id yuta- 
hammal. See Intolerable. 

Insure, ^-^y^ suwghar, ^Ij.yL-: J^ 
^amal slkurid. See Ensure. 

Insurgent, «. ^Ic ^d8i,^\j bdghi. 

Insurrection, «uii Jiinat. See Re- 
bellion, sedition. 




Integer, integral, «. ,^vs«^ J J^ ^adad 
tahih. See Whole. [See Entire. 

Integral, ^^l^ sahlh, J^l^ kiamil. 

Integrity, ^jo^^ khulus, JL^ 
saldh, i^V,xr,^\ tstiJtdnuii, iLK 
kuUiyaL See Sincerity, honeety, 

Integument, v^f^ ,r ghU&f, See 
Cover, envelope, shell, husk. 

Intellect, Jic ^a^, g^fahm, LJ\j3 
fardsat, CS\jS\ idrdh, wib ^a5^. 
See Understanding. 

Intellectual, intellective (having the 
power of understanding), iy^^^ 
iSjS^ zfl kuwai mudrikat. In- 
tellectual (relating to the under- 
standing), ^Sa£> ^oX/f . See Ideals 

Intelligence (information, news), 

j^ khahar, ^^\ ittild^; (under- 
standing), JJLc cokl, ^ fahm, 
cJ\jC\ idrak. To give intelli- 
gence,j^ khahhar. An intelli- 
gencer, ^^Zi^ makhabhir. 
Intelligent (knowing), JiU ^akily 
jJU cfi^, cJjU ^firi/, ^ 
fahlm, c^ /<»if J. See Skilful, 
learned, wise. — To be intelligent, 
^ fehem. To render intelligent, 

fahm. An intelligent man, v»>.rv l^ 

i^\j3 idhih fardsat Intelligent 
men, a^i<„»\— g^t MAdft /aAm, 
5^j.a.i<»,»l^^l ashdh UuHrat, U^ 

Intelligible, a^aij ^n/oAm, ^^^C*^ 
if^\ tnumkin ail fahm, Intelli- 
gibleness, intelligibility, ^^}S^\ 
^»^iJt imkdn al fahm, il^m^ 
ma^uliyat. Intelligibly, ^^yj 
JjAff^ bi wajhin ma^kfU, ^^y 
/%^fA^ bi wajhin mafhum. See 
Clearly, plainly, distinctly. 

Intemperance, intemperateness, a J«f 
JtjcxSt ^adam al ictiddl. See 

Intemperate, Jj>,%»tt-><y^ ^^r 
mu^adil, (jL*LJ ni/«dni. In- 
temperately, Jljui-^tlL^ ^TiS 

Intend, v, ^^ ^ofom, Ju^ icuoi?. 
See Design; o&o r^ard, attend 
to, enforce. 

Intendant, %, ^j^\ amln^ )o\Ji 
ndzir, j^^ mt^dshir, lJjS^ 
mutawaUi, fj^^ waX^l, i^lw« 
mdmUr, An intendant general, 
U^^i)i^} tt^oiH/ muilak. 

Intense, J^J^ ahadfd, i^y kmoly 
AjVir. ^asim,^1j ii^d^. An in- 
tense look, ^U/«t im^n. See 
Yehement. — ^lute;^&ai^^^ \^«1»>])^^ 




bikol tkiddai, JuU ^hdyat, iAkj 
hi g\dyai. See Exoeesively. — 
Intenaeness, 2f Jl^ shiddat. 

Intension, )au^ hasi. 

Intent, adf, J^Lu^t mathghul, JJX« 
mukayyaif ^Li «d^f . See Dili- 
gent — ^To be intent, J n a. ,>\ 

Intent, intention, aj£ ^oim, if jljl 
irddat, J\j^ murdd, tXmoi iasd, 
i^yoL^ makaiuiy ^ niyat, \^j^ 
yharad, ^^l^ M^i. See Design, 
purpose. — Intentional, ^Ju-o-i 
Jtaadi. See Designed. — Inten- 
tionally, ^*Xu3h hi katdin, j\fx:>^\j 

hi ikhtiydrin, 1 J^f ^mdan. 
Intently, ^^^•Jj^JCjhikoljaddin 
wajakdin. See Diligently. 

Intentness, jJLftj Utkayyud^ ^tcJbl 
A^mdn, Jjwl %haghly ^u^ «a^f. 
See Diligence, intention, study. 

Inter, r. ^J d!ff/aii. See Buy. 
Intercalary, ^n. j ■ ,S lahUal, See 

Literoede, •. (mediate between two 
parties), ^jLU to«A0^^, ioLy 
imraiuU. An interoeder, inter- 
ceflBor, ^ J g Ml «Ai|/t&. See 
Intercept, r. (atop «r bbim by the 

way), L^ do^o^, ^ JsalliaJ^ ruio/ 
attarik ; (prevent), ^^ puma^. 

Interception, ^^^ man^,J^ hqf». 

Intercepted, 9J^oL* tnaktu^, «J^Oumm« 
masdud, ^y^'*^ fftamnfi^. 

Intercession, LiLy tawassaif ieXiJ^ 
shafiL^at, l>y ro/a. See Media- 
tion, deprecation. — To beg the in- 
tercession (of another), ^^AjuLUmi) 
i$iashfa^. To admit the inter- 
cession of one for another, ^JJ 
^\i^ kehel shafd^at. [Chain. 

Intercham, v, jsfj tanjar. Sec 

Interchange, ^oLw« m%d>ddaiaty 
^^U^ mu^wadat. See Change, 
exchange, commerce. 

Interchange, v. Jjb hddal. See 
Change, exchange. 

Interchangeable (capable of being 
interchanged), JjJ^^^^L*^ miMi- 
kin al hadal, ilA^\^^ Idyik 
al muhddmhty I^Xslj^^^JLa^ 
mumkin alwm^dwadat, J^LS 
J-J.y -. W kdha atUhdih See 
Changeable, unchangeable. — ^In- 
terchangeably, dJjL^lb hQ aiif- 

Interchanged, Jj\ ■ >♦ wtuUidml^ 

ijif^ mm^mnpmd. See Changed, 

Inteicourse, a^^s:^ niAM, 


aM^^, C/1^t MMrdib. See 
Communication^ commerce. — ^To 
carry on an amicable intercourse, 

Intercurrent, Isu^f^ mutawaasit. 

Interdict, v. ^-^^-^ tnana^f /^j,»- 
haramy ^^ naha\ See Forbid, 

Interdict, interdiction, 8. ^j>^ man^ 


^^ tiahl, f^ijss^ tahrlm, /•j^' 
ihrdm. See Probibition. 
Interdicted, (^^jS^ mahrUmf c ^X4b^ 

Interdictory, ^l« manu, ,<a:^ 
Interest, v. (to render necessary or 
important), /^ji^ w^ ^^^ts. ^malaho 
muhim tea Idzim. See Concern. — 
(to give a participation), ^J^^ 
iCia>. ^mal laho hissat ; (to affect, 
move tbe passions), ^ji»- hannan, 
i,, >^cj raghghah, ^LftA^td^cJ^ 
harrak fihi ashahafakat. To in- 
terest one's-self (in anytbing), 
^ J:>.ljJ taddkhdfly y^^^^j 
reghib fl. 
Interest (advantage), iJ^U fdyidat, 
^L) naf^ Cy'^ouC^ nM^iad. See 
Gain, profit, good. — (participa- 

639 INT 

tion), Cj\j:JL\ iaktirdk, 
hiasat. See Sbare. — (concern), 
4jlfi ^aldkat, {jOj£> gharad. In- 
terest of money, Ij; ribd, ^j 
rahh and rtbh. Unlawful interest, 
/^\j^i^^hX^ mdkadb hardm. See 
Usuiy. — ^To lend upon interest, 
iJJ\Al\J^J^ J daggan hUfdgidat 
Interested (concerned, participat- 
ing), CSljJ^ aharik; (moved), 
Vi »r ^ mudtarih ; (self- 


interested), ijOj^i 

^jo^c»^fv.Lg adhtb gharad. 
Interfere, v» (clasb with), ^joj^c 

^rad, (^>-\) zdham, ^tt mdna^ 

ujiJlsL khdlaf. See Oppose. 

Aho to intermeddle, interpose. 
Interfluent (flowing between), 

n^^y^j\^ jdri loaaat. 
Interfused (poured between), 

k>j^L»jyjW>< maakuh waaat. 

Interjacency (lying between), L^y 

Interjacent, k.ij r. ^ mutawaaait^ 

k^^t^cjjj/t mawd^^fllwaaaU 

See Intervening. 
Interjection, «. uJ^ Am/. An 

inteijection of oalHng, tjJcJ^ 

Aai/ ntie^. 
Interim, ^^^^^^ Ain, i«v« mmUkt, 




if Jw«]l2( jjb^ fl hauh al tnuddat. 
Bee Meantime. 
Interior^ ^\j h&tin. Interior and 
exterior,jJbU9j^b hdtinuHttdhir, 
The interior part of anything, 
Jic\j hdtin, j£^\j ddkhd. 

Interlace, v, iJiS^ ahahbak. See 

Interlard (mhc meat with lard), 

wada^ thahm 
khanntr, \s^ khalat. See Inter- 
mix, interpose, diversify. 

Interline, v. jyiajJi\^\^^^^^^^ 
loaasa^ noahaUib bin (usutUr, 

Interlocution, ^IC« muk&lamat, 
Jilj» takaUum, See Dialogue. — 
Aninterlocutor, Aic^mutakallim. 
Interlocutory, ^a^Sj takaUumi. 

Interlude, «. sm^^ h^b. See Play. 

Interlunar, j AuL!i\^}^^ i ^ ^^ m^ , ^ 
mansub lihulul al kamar. 

Intermeddle, v. J^^JJ taddkhal. 
An intermeddler, busy body, 
^yoi fudUli, ^Jjci|^ kasir al 

fntermediacy, ^j-^-jh.oy tauxuiui 
hu^. See laterposition, interven- 
tion. — ^Intermedial, intermediate, 
hny.^ muiawoisiL Intermedi- 

Interment, ^ J dafn. See Burial. 

Intermingle, v. intermix, Vt 1 ^ 
khalat. See Mix, mingle, incor- 

Intermission, ^^^ khtUas, f^^y 
tawakkuf. See Cessation, pause. 
— The intermission of the pulse, 
Jpi fatrat. Without intermis- 
sion, cjbyL bild tawakkafy )b 
Jl^\ bila ihmdlf ,Jl*s^ muia" 
wall, JUajlll Juc ^la^ al ittualy 
J\^l Jlc ^ala^ attawdll. 

Intermit, r. v^Jj^ tatoakkaf, J^^l 
ahmalyZ3 fatar, wkftjl tnkata^. 

Intermitting, iDtermittent, inter- 
missive, r^ *;^ br ^°V. ^J^ 

tdratan yankati^ tea tdratan 
yathar. An intermitting fever, 
^ i^J^^ humtna^ dawnyat. 

Intermix, v. LL^ khalat. See 

Internal, ^^U ^d/tn. See Interior; 

also intrinsic, real. — Internally, 
LLlj bdtinan, )lb^lj ddkhUan. 
Internuncio, ^^;ijL^_^\ d/^Al sa^hir, 

-jAkj «q/'lr (plur. 1^^ «if/2ird). 
Interpose, v. ]ai^t^\j^^^ wada^ bil 

waaat ; (mediate between parties), 

^j^Li-^k^y tawasiat fiyam& 

hxn. See Interrupt. 
Interposition, interposal, ^ ln..nlj 




wdntat. See Mediation, inter- 

Interpret, v, ^J^ tarjam^ ^jJ^ 
tharah. See Translate^ explain, 
decipher, e3q>oand. 

Interpre table, L^jiS^^^^A^ mum" 
kin attarjamatf j^*MA~r»,.\\^jLk^ 
mumkin attafolr. 

Interpreted, j»-j>-^^-j;— it mutarfamf 
^ •J^ mashrnh. See Explained . 

Interpretation, <U^^ tarfamat, 
j^ ta-Mr, ^jJ^ sharh, ^Jlj 
haydfif J^j^ tdwilf j^^**Ju tafiir. 
See Explanation, translation — 
The interpretation of dreams, 
A book teaching the interpreta- 
tion of dreams, ■ ■i^«»g."c»^l.,i ^ 
d^l^l:.^! kiidhtafslralmandmdt. 

Interpreter, s, ^j^^ mutafyim, 
^U^5>-J taryamdn,yjJi^ mufassir. 
An interpreter of dreams, -yui^ 
(JlL^l^UJtl mu/awir al mandmdt. 
An interpreter of the Mahometan 
law, ,<2^ tnu/ti. [fair at. 

Interregnum, interreign, «. ij^ 

Interrogate, v, ^Lj %dl, .mfi*;..)) 
Utafsar, ^^ i . - .^ » l utafham, jJiCL^\ 
isiakhbar, *Xaa3 tafakkad. See 
Examine, ask, enquire, question. 
-^Interrogated, Jmm-^ masfiL 

An interrogation, interrogatory^ 
j\0MXLJi uttfidr, /»\ffl->.«)t istifhdm, 
A^i •;.»>!<< VrB I /q^f Mfhdm, 
J\^ «ad/. A negative interro^ 
gation, ^5;1^1aV::u^) istifhdm 

Interrogative, interrogatory, 

_/«lfA:;^\ ittifhdml. An inter- 
rogatory pronoun, /•I^ai^^^uJ^ 
harf isti/hdm. Interrogatively, 
Ul^i:^^^ istifhdmany ^J^Joj 
t LsOmh^I bitarlk al istikhhdr. 

Interrogator, s, J^.L) sd^lly M:Jr.m^ 
mtistafhim, j.J^Ak»^ mttstakhhtr. 

Interrupt, v, (the speech of another) 
-oiIUK^ki kata^kaldm alghayr. 
To interrupt (business), ^JaS 
J.-iLl!t kata^ ashshughl. See 
Break off, divide, separate, in- 

Interrupted, 9^^aA^ makta,^ See 
Broken. — Interruptedly, clkailj 



Interrupter, «. ^^\^\3 kdti^al 
kaldm, (^»-)y» mutdhm, ^J^sc^ 

Interruption (of speech), &ILa3\ 
>*l^f inkitd^ al kaldm; (in 
business), {jOjtC ta^rrud. See 
Breach, hindrance, opposition, 




Intersect, r. uji^^^^iaj kaia^ 
min anfuuf. Intersected, c jiai^ 
k,^La:]\^j^ maktu^ min annoif. 

Intersection, #. ^^^ takdtu^ 

Intersperse, v. lA^ JthaHaL 

Interspersed, l^^Lsr^ makhlut, 

Interspersion, )A£>- kkalL 

Intertwine, i;. jLc dafar. Inter- 
twined, jy^*^ madfULr. See 
Twisted, entwined. 

Interval, L)^ atndy 4jL«.^ mas&fat 
(plur. C^ULu^ m'U9afdt)f ^ 
hayn. See Space, distance, di- 
vision. [Interpose. 

Intervene, v. )a^y tawassat See 

Intervenient (placed or passing be- 
tween), ^U tnd hayn. 

Intervention, )a^y tawassut. See 
Mediation, intercession, agency. 
— (accident), 4je'j wdki^ai. 

Interview, s. iiULt muldkdt, il^\y 
mufvdsalat, liLJl iltikd, _S)Ljf 
taldkl, See Meeting. 

Interweave, v. CSl^ hayydk, jLc 
iafar. See Intertwine. 

Intestate (dying without a will), 
JU ji3;jj-x^ min ghayr wara- 
hat suma^, iL^j J^U md ^amal 

Intestinal (belonging to the guts), 
Jhteatine, s, ^l^ Pki^a\ U^ ma^. 

The intestines, ^^Uc-« ma«Sriit, 

Intestine (domestic, not foreign), 
Jif^t J ddkhilJ. Intestine war, 

,J^b<-^ harh ddkhin. 
Inthrall, enthrall, JuXL^t itta^had. 

See Enslave, shackle. — ^Enthral- 

ment, jU«iw\ isti^hdd. 
Intimacy, i • fwLa^ mwdhahat, 

^•7c!^, ILU. i^M^a^. See Fa- 

Intimate, L^^r^ l.^^ musdhih,^j*J \y^ 
mmpdni$,^jujy muwannis,{^\s^ 
mukudif. See Familiar. 

Intimate, t^. U^^i^ ^arrafaho 
shar^. See Mention, hint, in- 

Intimation, ij\ji»\ iihdrat, JuL^ hi- 
ndyat. See Hint, information. 

Intimidate, v. v_ij£^ khawwaf. See 
Frighten, terrify. 

Into, jJ /f. See In. 

Intolerable, (>k^i Id yutaham$nal, 
QA^^jJ:. ghayr mutahammal. 

• ** ** Aft 

Intolerably, J-'^^^^^fy^ W- 

iMtt^^fn /d yutahammal, ^^y 

Ju«CLacl ^' wajhin Id yuhtamal. 

Intolerant, J^^^u^ ^^^i^ mtito- 

Intoxicate, v, ^^ sakar, Intoxi- 




cated, ^^f^ sakrdtu See Drunk. 
— To be intoxicated, ^^ seker. 
Intoxioating,^^Cyu« mtMJbr. Wine 
or any liquor which intoxicates, 
■Cuu^ muskir. 

Intoxication, j ( ..i sukr. See 
Drunkenness. — To return to 
one's senses after intoxication, 
-;^^^cr*L5^^ «aA! min assukr. 

Intrench r. (fortify with a trench), 
^^j\s^ J^ ^amal matdris. See 
Trench, invade, encroach. 

Intrenchment, s, {j*^j^ tnatdrU, 
Intrepid, jy^Mp^ j'asur, CSjM fatik. 
See Brare, bold, courageous. 

Intrepidity, ^J^, hafsh, Ij\m^ ja- 
Bdrat. See Courage, bravery. 

Intrepidly, ij\*M^J^ hikol jasdrat. 
See Courageously. 

Intricacy, intricateness, Islfw khalt, 
JU. khalal, Jh:>^\ ikhtOdl, 
JuAAj ta^Md. See Perplexity, 
confusion, difficulty. 

Intricate, jJbc^ mu-^kkad^ LiiL^*^ 

mukhialitf j^^jc^^t muta^ assir. 

See Difficult. 
Intrinsical, (^\j zdtl, ^X^\ asll, 

^Jf^A^ haklkl, (jryjt^ ma^wi. 

Intrinsic (real, internal), ^Jgif>. 

^ihibf. Intrinsically, d^ljjlj 

iLA£^\^ fU haklkat. 
Introduce, v. (to a place), J^jI 

adkhal. Introduced, J^Ju* 

mudakhkhaL An introducer, 

J^J^ mudakhkhil. 

Introduction, Jlr^ol tif^^AdZ, J^ J 

dukhul; (to a book), ^Ljj <^. 

' «... 

Intrude,!?. ijU-J^^^ J^Oi^^/ 

mm ^Aayr ijdzat. 
Intrust, entrust, v, Ci}j wada^, Jact 

iULtl a^a^a' amdnaL 
Intuition, ^JjiHi^ii^^ ma^rifai 

hinazrat al awla\ m\^\ ilhdm. 

Intuitive, ^^"iMJ^hi nazrat al 

awla\ Intuitively,^j31^^1^^ 

min annasMrat al a%ola\ 
Invade, v, ^ hqfam. See Attack, 

infest, assault. — To invade a 

country, JjA^I^JjO ta^adda' 
al hudud. 
Invalid (of no force or advantage), 
ij3 <0 U md laho kuwat, JLLcU a!L« 
md laho fd^liyat, jLb bdtil, 
JUaJ hattdl; (weak, 8ick),v.Jjjju? 
^t}f* L/k/^ Morid. An in- 
valid, JjIa^ tnadul. 

Invalidate, r. J-Lj hattal, ^ 

foiokh. See Weaken. 
Invalidity, ij^^vXc ^am k^M^aX, 




faskh, ^Ji^ huiidn. 

Invaluable. X^^^Jtt mdlaho hltnat 

Invariable, JJo^j^ ghayr tnuta- 
ghayy0r. See Constant. 

In variableness, JL>LJ/«iXc ^adam 
taghayywr. See Constancy. — ^In- 
variably, Jiji^j^^j^ min ghayr 
taghayyur. See Constantly. 

Invasion, iSz' hamlat, (^y^ hujum, 

A nocturnal invasion, ^U*^ kahs^. 

Invective, «. <U^ aabhe, ^^sJ^ »hatm. 
See Censure. 

Inveigh, v, w^-^^ Bob, mpJU »hatam. 
See Abuse, censure. 

Inveigher, a. ^L2» shdtim. 

Inveigle, t^. 4/^f aghawa*, jC gharr. 
See Allure, entice, seduce. 

Invent, v, (find out), c^r>,S-l 
ikhtara^, Cj<A»^1 akdas, f^^ 
ahda^. See Discover, forge, 
falsify. — Invented, PjSLsr^ m«M- 

Invention, Cj\j^»-1 ihdds, jU^ 

•&<i^^. See Fiction, forgery, dis- 
covery, [mubdi^. 
Inventive, ^^-£«X-j had^, ^«V^ 
Inventor, s. ^Ju^ mti^(^'^, fj^Ls^ 
mtiJbAtori^, cl?A <g^ muhdis, 
cJLu^ muhtadic. See Forger. 

Inventory, «. <Ujli kdymat. See 

Inverse, inverted, ^^^aJjc^ mtm^aibiff, 

{jM^jL^ ma^hu, ^\l\^ tnuip- 

^J>^LL• mdkluh. See Contrary. 

— To be inverted, jjyJoOl in^kas, 
u^Jijt inkalab, 


Inversion, ^^^^ilc ^a^«, ^jmLJjOI 

•n^fj^tf, cJUa^t inhirdf, c^lftjf 
Invert, t?. l-^ ^o/a^. Inverting, 

/?ar^ \^^\j kdlih. 
Inverted, c,j>j 1b^ makluh. See 

Inverse. — Invertedly, inversely, 
^^^Jjilb bil^aks. 
Invest, 1;. (in an office), -^ ,? 

samma\ To invest with posses- 
sion, v_i^^,<k^l a^to' tcaarruf^ 
<^ix^ manah. See Give, grant. — ^To 
invest with a robe of honour, «Jl£>^ 
^Jlx: khala^ ^la\ ^>xl:>^s\^2£^ 
j^U a^dh khal^ah fdkhirah. 
See Dress, adorn, decorate. — To 
invest (surround), l?L»-t ahdt, 

-tfl>- hdsar. See Besiege, sur- 


Investigate, v, 
fait ash, 

"V. yunfahu, 

7 hahai, ^Jmj:j 
tafahha»f tMM*ae^ 
\ ihtahas. See 

Examine, enquire, search. 




Investigation, ^^^r^Juj iaftish, 
j^^^As:^ tafahhus, ^{^\ iftik&s. 
See Examinatioii; inquiry ^ search. 

Investiture (in office). v^^*.>riv j 
tansih, JuILJ tcJclld; (in pos- 
session), cJ^^ tasarruf; (with 
robes of honour), <uL> khal^t. 

Investment. See Dress, garment; 

Inveteracy (oldness), <L^^.J^V^ 
thaykhahhat ; (obstinacy), j]j^\ 
isrdr, jLjx ^ndd. Inveterate 
(old), aJJuJ kadtm; (obstinate), 

Invidious, J^m^^ hasud, ^joJu^ 
mubghid. See Envious, malig- 
nant, hatefuL — Invidiously, J^ 
Jjl«X£ hiJcol ^ddwat, iXua»-J^ 
hikol hasad, Invidiousness, Juaa»- 
hasad. See Envy, malignity. 

Invigorate, v. ^jjfj kawwa\ See 
Strengthen, animate. — Invigo- 
rating, adf, ^^JJL^ mukawwi, 
Invigoration, <0^ tahwiyaL 

Invincible, ^^LfL^j^yhayrtnayhlnh, 

Inviolable, ^»aJuJ\^j::..4«^ mumtani^ 
annakd, ^**^i Jj,<Um.># mustahll 
al/askh. Inviolably, j^^flA3-*i^-« 

Inviolate, ^^faJiz^:^^^*^, ghayr mun- 
In visibility, v,.,^jtH al phayl. 

Invisible, v-^.l^ ghdyih, 
muhhtafi. The invisible world 
(the world to come), u...^ii.H JU 
^lam al ghayb. To be or become 
invisible, ^i^U ghdh. Invisible 
things, C^LjUII alghdybdt. In- 
visibly, LjU ghdyhan. 

Invitation, i^J da^at, L^Jcul 
istid^, c^^JJ? ^<^3. An invi^ 
tation to an entertainment^ ^ajJC' 

Invite, V, (ask to any place), /^ 
^%am. See Ask, call, bid. — To 
invite to nuptials, ^j^yiLJ^^^ 
^oMm Ul^rs, To invite to an 
entertainment, i*j£ ^%am. To 
invite to supper, luu«U^«^ ^aaafu 
/f7 ^mA^. An inviter, 15^^ <^ 

Inviting, adj, c-Jjlsj- y^dsf^. In- 
vitingly, ^u^iiL^JC^ ^fXo/ 
jdzibiyat, [Inge, flood. 

Inundation, Jmm» «ayZ. See De- 
Invoice, i(jy\i futtUra. 
Invocation, U J da^, if^ J da^atf 

irl^-U.^ mundjdt. 
Invoke, t;. (.^Ijc^jt istaghda, Uj 
i^a^d. To invoke the name of 
God when beginning anything, 

dUt^^Mj^^'^Md samma* hiam aUah. 
See Ca\i, \m^\oT^. 


Inyolre, v. (inwrap, mtwi8t),u.iJ laf, 
la^^ kharhat, 9*^;^ hharda^ 
See Complicate, blend, entangle, 
confase. — (to imply, comprize), 
_LcJL.^«bJL-^1 iMamal cala\ 
Livolved, c— f^«l>^ malfafy uJ:Jl« 
multaf. See Confused, dark, ob- 

Inyolontary, Ju^L hUd koid, h 

XpS^\ hild ikMiydr. Invt>lan- 
tarily, [^ajij hild ridd, j^c^Mj 
hild ikhtiydr. 

Involution, kl^ khdU. 

Inutility, iljjli/«J^ ^adam fdyidat. 

Invulnerable, -.,^l«.jcu^ mum- 
tani^ aljarh, ^-j^x^i Id yunjmrih. 

Inward, ^b hdtin. See Interior, 
intimate. — ^Inward, inwards, in- 
wardly, J^Ij ddkhU. 

Inweave, v. See Interweave. 

Inwrap, enwrap, v, (.jL! laf. 
Involve, wrap. 

Inwreatbe, enwreatbe, v. 
Intertwine, wreatbe. 

Irascible, ^y^ ghadnhy ^L.^ 
ghadhdn. See Angry. 

Iron, JjiX»- hadid. Hard iron. See 
Steel. — An iron mine, iron ore, 
Jj Jk>.^jji/f ma^dan hadnd. 

Iron (made of iron), «^«X^ 

646 IB£ 

coloured), JjJk^tJ-1^ mtii/ ai 

Iron, V. (smootb with an iron), 
v^j^ kawa\ [hadddd. 

Ironmonger or smith, s, o\>\ r*^ 

Ironical, ^y*^ taJuikhumi. Ironi- 
cally, jjLfJiS^^^ hi wajh al 

Irony, j^^i tahakkum, ^\^^ istihxd. 

Irradiance, irradiancy, irradiation, 
jly^ tantclr, qU^ sha^d^. See 
Badiance, ray, illumination. 

Irradiate, v. %Jti. n ^ sha^ha^. 

Irrational, ^li^ ffkayr ndUk, 
{^^^\^ sdmit, fjish hild ^M. 
See Absurd. — An irrational ani- 
mal, jH-kU^j^\^-^ haywdn 
ghayr ndtik. 

Irrationality, LiLU^Jo: ^damal 
ndtikiyaL JiUSf^Jx ^adam al 



^adfdi. Eesemhling iron (iion- 

Irrationally, JiLc^^^r^ min ghayr 
Irreclaimable, w^ »ifJ \ ^^^j^^j^s. 
ghayr mumkin attahzlhy .;^**^J 
la yuiasaUah, t^^J^S^ w ^j^^ 
mumtani^ attddih. See Despe- 
rate, hopeless. 
Irreconcileable (implacable),^ l.^^ 
Id yutasdlah ; (inconsistent),^^ 
JjS ghagr Idyek, j;i\^^ ghayr 




Irrecoyerable, J-^^^ Ai yutahoB" 
aal, d\JL.'i Id ^Uaj hho. See 
Irremediable, irreparable. 

Irredncibley c»7^]uL«^ (fhayr magh- 
lnh. See Invincible. 

Irrefragable, irrefutable, JUjU JLjU 
md hihi md yukdl, ^j^Ji let yur/ad, 
^joy-^ -ix ghai/r mar/Ud, 

Irregular, c^^^^JJL hUd tartth, 
ifj^liUlv-JU. hhildf <a hd^idat, 
/•IkjJtwJ^ ^dUm al nitdm^ \i 

^yi^ hild kdnnn, vJylS^^Ai^r 
kdnanlf /•UajL hild nizdm, Irre- 
g^arity, ifj^UJl/»J^ ^adam al 
id^idat, ^yUi!1/«J^ ^adam al 
kdnun. Irregularly, /♦UoiL htld 
nizdm, (^^%^ J1> hild tartlh. 

Irrelative, ^tc,^.M,.-.- \^^ ghayr 
muntasih ila\ 

Irreligion, ^^^/*«^ ^am addin, 
y^ kufr. Irreligious, ^^oL hild 
din, ji\^ hdfir, Jh*^ mundj^. 
See Impious. — Irreligiously, ^ 
^Uj\^j^ J^ min ghayr din wa 
la imdn. 

Irremediable, ^^'hfi Id ^ildj laho, 
1jOa!L« mdlaho datod, (^^tjcj) 
Id yutaddfca*. See Incurable. — 
Irremediably, i\^\*Xytj^^ min 
ghayr muddwdh. 

Irremissible, ^AiJl^xiUb^ mumtani^ 

al ^/a, jSJuJ Id yughfar, 
Irremoyeable, Cjj^^ Id yuta- 

Irreparable, .^"^"i Id ytUasallahy 
^^jSf^^ii^^J %anh Id yunmaha\ 
See Irrecoverable. — Iireparably, 
(^l/i^j^fj^ min ghayr ghujrdn. 

Irreprehensible, irreproachable, tt 
u,,^*;r<<jlr. md ^ihi ^atab, /^lii 
Id yuldm, l^J^\^ mdlaho zanh» 
See Blameless. — ^Irreprebensibly, 
irreproachably, JUl^^^ min 
ghayr muldmaL See Innocently. 

Irreprehensible, l^^cx<u1lcU md 
^o/lAt ^tah, S-'^[) Id yu^h. 

Irresistibility, /^^\hjiijfJ kuwat Id 

tatakdwam. Irresistible, /•jUr^S 

Id yutakdtpam. Irresistibly, e ^ 

it^jU^Jl^jjUw^ hi naw^mumtani^ 

al muhdwamat. 
Irresoluble, ij^k^A^ fihi hirai, 

jfp^ yuhayyir. See Indissoluble. 
Irresolute, jr^\.^,J^jI— <t# mutc' 
hayyir/i amrihi, (^\;i^ hayrdn, 
jI». hdyir, ^^\Ji\^^^>h^ mwta* 
haUib arrdy. Irresolutely, (J^ 
ijf^ hilol hirat, JJjjJij hikol 
tarcMud. Irresolution, JJ^ to- 
raddud, i,^^>^ hirat, 





Irreirieyable. See IrreooTerable. 

Irreverence, >»|I^.JL.»-\>»JkC ^adam 
Mirdm, ^^j /•J^ ^adam ra^yaU 
c^jtidi hiOat adab, (^]/^/^^ 
^adam (Jtrdm, Irreverent^ )Lj 
^jf hid adah. Irreverently, 

/♦I^^IJOlL* hi kiUat iktirdm. 
Irreversible^ JjcSl^jcjw^ mumtani^ 
al tagkayymrj jlx^^i Id yuta- 

ghayyar* Irreversibly, jImJUj 

hild taghayyur. 
Irrevocable, jjocl^^:cji^ mumtani^ 

al taghayyur f ^ApSi Id yuta- 

rdja^ Irrevocably, j^^ hild 

taghayyur, iU-p-L^^^ min 

ghayr murdja^at. 
Irrigate, v. ijoJi^^J^ saka^ al ard. 

Irrigation, fjoJi\^JL» »aki al ard. 

See Watering. 
Irritate, t^. i— ^>fl.rl aghdah. Irri- 

tated, ^\,..*,,,Ar ghadhdn. See 
Exasperate, provoke, fret. 

Irritation, ^jo^js^ tahrid, ^JMJ^ 
tahwUh. See Provocation, stimu- 
lation. — (anger), i^^h^t ghadah. 

Irruption, /^ys^ hujutn, <i \ -4. -'v 
hamlat. See Incursion, —(forcing 
an entrance), J^«> duhhuL To 
make an irruption, i^s^ hajam. 

Is (third pers. sing, of to he), yb ha., 
lachury, ^^Sji^^ ^UT al howl, 

iJ^^t^jMLi>-\ ihtihdi al bawl* 
See Retention of urine. 

Isinglass, f^ ghird. 

Island, isle, s, Iji >- jasarat (plur. 
jdj^ Jo^pr). 

Issue (egress), '^^j=>- khuruj, ji^ J^ 
sudur; (termination), <i m iLx. 
^kihat, <bl^ nahdyat. See Con- 
clusion. — (event), <U-jj wakl^, 
4^^ natljai. See Consequence. 
— (progeny), Sij\ awldd, 4jw" 
no*/, JT aal, J-^1 asl. See Fa- 
mily, offspring. 

Issue, V, (as water from a fountain), 
wJ naha^, ^^ jara\ To issue 
or sally forth, -^ f>- kharaj. To 
issue out money, -^j-^^^- kharaj, 
(jJu nafak. To issue out a de- 
cree, jS^^j*y^^ asdar huktn. 

Issueless (without offspring), Si^^'h 

hild awldd, <lJU<UIw« mdlaho 

Isthmus, s. (neck of land), /Ixc 
^j\ cunk ard, ^^t^ij^J^^U 
[jij=^, li^dn ard hayn hahrtn. 

It, yb hu. 

Itch, 8. S-^/>^ yarfli. See Scab. — 
An itch (longing), (j^yb hawag, 
\yb hawd, iy^ shahwat. See 

llc\\7, JsifP;- jarhan. 




Item, Ldb\ aydan^ Cj^'d^ kMolik, 
See Also. 

Iterate, v. Ji karrar, jU ^d. 
See Bepeat. — Iteration^ jij^Lji 
takrir, j\jCj tihrdr^ i jUl i^dat. 
See Bepetition. 

Itinerant, itinerary, i^^L^ »&yeh. 
See Wandering, unsettled. — An 
itinerary (book of travels), l^\s^ 
jL^ kitdh »afar. 

Itself, yb hn. The thing itself, 
j^\^jiJu naf» al amr. 

Ivory, JJl1\^ sin al/ll, ^U ^dj. 
Ivory (made of ivory), ,<^^ 
^fi/'l ; (like ivory), —Ull JJl^ 
mul al ^o/. 

Ivy, ^^Luy«Jl J.^ ^3/ a/ fTUMci^fn. 


J is uniformly expressed by ^ , as in 

{j**j^ jaras, a bell.' 
Jabber, v, ^j^s^^A^takaUamhild 

ma^na\ See Chatter. [hajjdk. 

Jabberer, ». CSle. ^alldk, jLasT 
Jacent, ^ '''^ munsatih. See 

Lying, supine. 
Jack-pudding, «. JjL{ ) hahlaJ, 
maskhara. See Buffoon. 


jdhal, ^^ wikih. See Coxcomb, 
Jackdaw, ^.^Lc ghirdh. 

Jacket, «. ^U:^ mUtiydn. 

Jacob's staff. See Astrolabe. 

Jade, » (sorry horse), JtU^Ua»- 
AmSa ^d^t7 ; (a mean sorry woman) 
^yJ^ sharmnta. See Bunter, 

Jade, f;. ^jl latowaih, L^^nj\ at^ab, 
See Fatigue, harass, tire; de- 
grade; tyranise. — (to grow fa- 
tigued, lose spirit), Cy^tJ te^eh. 
Jaded, ^^L^nJ ^a^3d». See 
Fatigued, dejected. 

Jag,t;. (make like teeth), ^t JjjJ^ 
e^amal danddna. 

Jackal, 8. JU>- jakdl, t^^^ wdwl. 
Jackanapes, ^\jjimi sa^ddn, JbbU>* 

Jail, «. (jyi*f>- Aa3a«. 

Jakes, ^UUkrjl adabkhdne. 

Jalap, Ll^ya/a^d. 

Jamb, «. (post of a door), c^UI Jip-j 
r^'l al hdh. 

Jangle, v. \jcj\:J tandta^. See 
Dispute, quarrel, wrangle. — (to 
make a discordant sound), ^^L^Us 

January,^^j(^^y l^ kdnUn al akhar. 
(jyi^yl^ kdnUn attdnl. 

Jar, «. (vessel), *^ jarrah ; (dis- 
cord), ^h^\ ikhtddf. See 
DisaenAion, dieXM^Xj^. 

Jargon, laLc ffhalat, ^J^ lahn. 

Jasper, mmj yashm. 

Javelin, «. hj^ harhat. 

Jaundice, ^^ji ywrak&n. 

Jaimty V. (wander about), j\*i ddr, 
aI^ hdm. See wander, ramble. 

Jauntiness. See Genteelness. 

Jaw, i, u^ fak, i^^'*^ hanak. 
The upper jaw, ^lei\iL^JL]\ al 
Jah' al a^/a'. The lower jaw, 
jA^llui^t alfak cX asfal. 

Jaw-bone, «. ^jLit« m&daghat. The 
two jaw-bones, c3lCi^\ al afkdk. 

Jay, ^J^\(^\JZ ghirdh al hayn. 
See Magpie. 

Jealous, j^-J^-^ yhayynr, Jij^ 
ghayrdn. See Emulous, sus- 
picious. — To be jealous, jlc ghdr. 

Jealously, ^^ J^ hihol ghlrat 

Jealousy, jealousness, ij^ ghlrat, 

Jehovah, ^b y&hu, JUjf^^ allah 


ta^&la\ See God. 
Jellied, ,\a, „'<l^ munjamid. See 

Jelly, Jjk^^i^ munjamid; (of meats), 

UrtJ)!^- jeldtind, [tspdnloh. 

Jennet, «. ^J^Lma^^Uo^- hisdn 
Jessamine. See Jasmine. 
Jericho (city), la^\ arihd, 
Jemealem, ^oiUlIc:^ 6ayt ol 

650 JOC 

wuMoi, (jmJ^I alkudi, (jmiXaJ^ 

^j^\ awra,mm. An in- 
habitant of Jeiusalem, ^^Ja^ 
maidasl, j<m»jj kudH. 

Jest, «. \jf>J^ isHkuL, (Jj-J^ Aosb/ 
(plur. kZjUyb hoMUydi), ^j^ 

Jest, 9. ^gji *;m^\ istahza\ 

Jester, s. »^j^ muharrij. 

Jesting, '• 9-j/« tnazdh. See Merri- 
ment. — Without jesting, jesting 
apart, i^jJ9^Jy^\^^ 
khaUi al mazdh cola^ taraf. 

Jet (fossil), ^^ytjS^ hajar musc^, 
A jet or jet d*eau, ij\^fawwara. 

Jew, «. \^^^„ yahudl. Jews, J^ 

Jewel, «. SJbj>- jawhara. See Gem. 
— My jewel ! (my dear ! my 

yd kalhlf ^<^^ ya ^aynl. 
Jeweller, », i^j^^^ jawdhirjl. 
Jingle, V, ^J^a:^ tantan. A jingle, 

,,r^ tanln. 
Jockey, s,\[^\^ j'dnhdz, jJ-^S-cUj 

bayyd^ khayl. See Horse-dealer, 

groom ; ako cheat. 
Jocose (jocular), c^^^jl^JlcjLial 
\ lat\f a( xMAhrah, 




/ocoseness, jocosity, jocalarity, 
^t^i^l inshirdh. See Merriment. 

Jocandy ^JaJti^^Ujb; zahrdtci al 
iab^. See Merry, gay, lively, 
cheerM, pleasant. 

Jocundity, -.^ farah. See Plea- 
santness, cheerfulness. 

John Nokes and Tom Stiles,^j Jj : 
tald wa ^mr (fictitious names, 
used by lawyers and others). 

Join, V. J^^ ioasal, ^.s) laham, 
^JhuJ lasak. See Add, subjoin ; 
unite, associate. 

Joined, ^^^^^^ mawsul, J.«dL« 

muUasil, (^.iJl:^^ mutaalif, ^^/^ 

makrUn, ^ 4. •; 5^ mujtami^ 

^yAJs^ mqfmn^. To join or be 

joined, jjj^ftj^ inkaran, J-^^l 

Joint, «. if AA^ ^Mkdat, fj^asut mafial. 
Joints, Jy.tfL.i.^ mafdsU, The 
space between two joints, ^-^^l 
an^fi^, (J«ai^ mafsalf Jyi^Li^ 
fnafdsil. The joint of a reed or 
other plant, ^«\ac ^kdat. Out 
of joint, \*^ °--* mtm/a^. To 
pull the fingers till the joints 
crack, An j,>L^l*,,J^ farka^ 
asdhuaho. The joint of a 
slaughtered animal, a joint of 
meat, y^e- ^adu (pi. Lac! a^dd). 

Joint, 9. (divide into joints), ^jJ^ 

«AarraA, .Cij-^voi kcuaab. 
Jointly, jW'b ^» Utihdd, \^ Mwd. 

See Together. 

Jointure, t, IjjJ cfo^S. See Dower. 

Joke. See Jest. — Jole. See Face, 

Jollity, joUiness, ^y farah. 

Jolly (gay), ^\o^ji farhdn. 

Jot, 8, »jj tarrat 

Jovial, J ji^^***^ nuurUr. 

Journal, «.^J daftar, Jli/^-. 

Journey, «.^^ safar (plur. Cl?|^ 
safrdt), A nocturnal journey, Jmi) 
(JJJl «a^ar a/ /!/. A journey by 
post, ArtiOj* Hw^B.M>J! (usafar 
ma^ al posta, A long journey, 
XjUjSU^ safar ha^d. To under- 
take or begin a journey, ^X^/^J^ 
jSL^\ ^tam ^M auafar. 

Journeyman, s.jsXm*^ musdfir. 

Jou8t,«.(touniament), -.U; rammdh. 

Joy, '^^} ihiihdj, aLcjI ibtiadm, 
j^j^ surHr^ A-jc^ bahfat, -y 
fa/rah^ Ij^^ muturrat, tlwy^t 
m^Md^, -.I^M^t inshirdh. To 
show great demonstrations of joy, 
^jaJI^I m^ al farah. 

Joyftd, ^^L->-^ farhdn, j^j»**^ 
masrUr, JU\j)j^*-u^ ma«rfir a/ 
6dJ. 8e© CVv^x^i Ts^^TT). — 




Joyful news, ^Uj hishdrat. To 
make joyful, -jSfarrah, 

Joyfully, ^IfiilcXj hikol ibtfidj, 
j^j*mJ hi mrUr. 

Joyfolness, -y farah. See Joy. 

Jubilee, s, ^-^ ^oro^, ijf^ hahjai, 
tLuJl inbudt, ijMtyt moiorraty 
.^\%bt%hdj. See FeatiTity. 

Judge, «. ^U ^<^. Judges, ift^ 

^iK^a^. Myorourlordjudge,bSj^ 

^U!l mocrtena a/ ito(^. The 

judge of a city, jJull^li hadl 

al halad. The judge of the army, 

J^mji\^^ kddl d ^askar. The 

decree of a judge, QjJ^\jS-^ 

hukm ash $har^, i^ hujjat The 

actuary who writes the sentence 

of a judge, C/IC^ sakkdk. The 

chief judge, ii^\^\j kddl al 

kuddL The greatest judge of his 

age, ^UjIULsiiUacl a^mkuddt 

uszamdn. To appoint a judge, 
_-^LJidLJu.^«k.£ ^malaho kddi. 

To go <yr appear before a judge, 

^^\j^\ aX^\j0^;>' heder amdm al 

kddi. To cite before a judge, 

lil mushdra^t amdm al kddl. A 

bribe to corrupt a judge, tJ;*^ 

hartil, iy^j rashwat, A judge 

(a peraon capable of deciding on \ 

the merit of anything), c-».%»^L0 
ij^ sdhib khihrat, Jacu;^o-U 
8dhib ^akl. 
Judge, r. (do justice), ca,.a3\ afuaf, 
J*Xc ^dal; (decide law-suits), 
l»X£»^ hakam, L%yas^\^^^ fowl 
al khusUmat. To judge (form an 
opinion), Jia tan, (jwUSJ^ 
^mal kiyds. See Criticise, dis- 
cern distinguish. 
Judgment (opinion), J^t zarm, i^\j 
ray, ^Jo tadhlr, j^Lj kiyas] 
(understanding). Jit cakl, U J 
far ami \ (the sentence of a judge), 
\^y^ fatwa\ jS-^ hukm (plur. 
I*lip-1 ahkdm), Cjj^\S»^ hukm 
ashshar^, LiS kadd. See Doom, 
condemnation, sentence, decision. 
A judgment (punishment from 
heaven), ^dllLaii kadd allah. The 
day of judgment or resurrection), 
iULftJl ^^ yawm al kiydmat. The 
judgment-seat, IaL^^ mahkamat. 
See Court of justice (tribunal). — 
To pronounce judgment, ^jyj^j^ 
^amal fatwa\ J^^^^kcl a^ta' 
hukm. See Judge. — Soundness of 
judgment, JJulli^pj kuwat al 
cakl, A man of sound judgment, 
JiuL--^^:>-U sdhih ^akl. Men of 
Bound judgment, Jyuw'lsr^l 





oihah ^aJM. Without judgment, 

Jadicatoiy,« (courtof j U8tice),44ijc^ 
mdkkamaL See Court. —-(distri- 
bution of justice), J JuJlJ^l jjr& 
al ^atU. Judicatore, L^ kadd, 
jjL»^ hukm. See Jurisdiction. 

Judicial, judiciary, \^j^ shar^. 
Judicially, Vc^ ihar^n^ (J^^y* 
CyduJl tnutpOfik (uhthar^ De- 
manding payment judicially, 
_ talah hakkaho 


Judicious, (J^v.^^^»-U0 idhib ^akl, 

fardsat. See Prudent, skilful, 

Judiciously, ^J/^^J^J^ *«^^ 

^ojl/m wa fardtat. See Wisely. 
Jug, i.j^knz, <ul^ /&d«tf. See Gup, 

pot, tankard. 
Juggle, V. ^jT^j %a^har ^ala\ 

^^mlc ghoih. See Deceive. 
Jogglci juggling, «.^^t^ toM^hwr. 

See Imposture, deception, trick. 
Juggler, %, j^y% mtaa^ir. 
Jugular, fJ^ halkh The jugular 

vein, Jj.^l J.;!^ hahl al world. 

Juice, J^ ^ak^ ^jf^J '^^^^a^j 
ius:^j rashhat (plur. c:jIk-»i 
tmAMO. The pressed juice of 

grapes or other fhiits,^;**^^ I'^r, 

S^Ldc ^itfdfYi^. Juices of styptic 

plants, lJlS\ ahdkid. Lemon 

juice, ,j^-«J^ fMHfyat laymHn, 

Jujube (fruit), ^.^^Ifi ^ndh. The 

barren jujube tree, [^^jij wy- 

Julap, i^Ji^ jaUdh. 

July, i^y^}i f/^liiU, jyii Utmmiiz. 

Jumble, 9. lal^ khalat See Con- 
found. — ^A jumble, Dl^- i^M^. 

Jument, «.(beast of burthen),(jMj«\^ 
iiyt^^ kidish humulai. 

Jump, f;. ]aj nat. See Bound, spring. 
— (to agree with), J^\j wdfik. 

Jump, «. ^dai nattat. See Leap. 

Junction, JL^l Utisdl, J«ti»^ u^m/. 
See Coalition. 

Juncture, J..dA^ fiwi/%a/(plur. J^^U^ 
mafd8ii),y^ codn. See Junction, 
joint, articulation. — (time), (^^j 
namdHf vjuJ^ wakt. 

June, ^;5/tJ*" kiuayrdn. 

Juniper, jLs^ ^ar^dr. 

Junk (a Chinese ship), iyi<^^^^j^ 
markub slnl. [mMshtari. 

Jupiter (planet), ^y* «» 4> W al 

Juridical, ^^j^ %hair^. See 

Juridically, U^ tha/r^n. Juris- 
consult. &QQ'\a^^^. 




Jnriadietioni iu^C^ Anihljiia^, L^ 
ladd, fi^- kmimf i^^ unUdyaL 
Exerdsii^ joriBdiotion, ^\^ wdU. 

Juiispradenoei ^ Jilh, ^^t Jif 

Jnsty JjU ^il^ ^}^Ju^ mu^d, 
^ sdUh, jjU iOdik. See 
Equitable, boneet, goodi virtaous. 
— (aceorateX ^^^ iohlh. See 
Exact, Ml, completei regular. — 
Just weigbt, i^^^fjij^ WMn todfu 
To difttingniah the just from the 
unjust, JlfU^^J^k.! jy farak 
al kak min ai bdtii. 

Just, adv., ijt^JlCj hOcol dikat. See 
Exactly. — (alike), Jl^ misL 

Justice, Jjic ^adlf il\sC' ^addkU, 
^g—jl .Jj^. hakkdniyat, JLijui^ 
ma^kU, cJla;t ifudf, ifUjJ^ 
ihari^, ^yJii thar^, J>^ hak. 
Public justice, ZmiImJ\ assiydsat 
Distributiye justice, ^tju«J\ 
^^..sUJt al ^addJat al kdsmat. 
An administrator of justice, 
iJ^^i^j^ fnufri al hak. Ac- 
cording to justice, ^jJji\%^^*MS^^ 
b% haaah ashihar^ Contrary to 
justice, QyJi^\i^(i rw kMldf 
askthar^. To administer justice, 

io do juBtioe, J^^k,5;>"^ ^^^* 

al ^adl, 4— a>fljt amaf. The Lord 
Chief Justice, SUjU\^Ij kddi 
Justifiable, ^L^ sdUh, ^JLLj^ 

hakM, cJ^\L^^i fv; hi ha»ah 

aih ahar^ See Right, defensible. 
— Justifiableness, -JL.^ saldh, 

XjU»- hdkkdniyat. See Becti- 

Justification, J J^ ^ugr,jij^ tahr^r, 

j^jcx\ t^^ttsdr, ^:;^^ iasJnyat. 

See Vindication. — (purgation from 

sin) \j^\ tstibrd, ^l^ khalds. 

See Pardon. 
Justifier, «. justificator, ^/^ ^^ 

harrir. See Defender. 
Justify, V. jji harrar, ji^ ^asutr, 

^\ %akka\ See Absolve, de- 
fend, vindicate. 

Justle, f;. ajL^ tasddam. See 
Clash, encounter. 

Justly, jJ\i bilhak, ^1 Jlc J^ hikol 
^addlatf L^\y^\i bUsawdh, See 

Honestly, uprightly; also just, 

Justness (accuracy), ^J dikkat^ 

JU^ kamdl. See Exactness; 

<dso justice. 
Jut, V. (to shoot into prominences), 

j<LcuJ^l aahraf^ala', ^l^^j 

rama' ^a2a\ See Project 




JuTenile, c^ Ll shdb. The juvenile 
age, <W^*^ ihibM^at, 


K, in English, has one invariable 
sound before all the vowels ; and 
is expressed in Arabic by CS, 
i^{:^ kitah, ' book ;' and (with a 
stronger effort in the throat) by 
^J, as i;*X-j kudratf 'power/ 
^»3kL« mukaddas, holy/ jj 
hark, 'lightning.* Before » it is 
silent, as in knife, hnee, pro- 
nounced nife, nse, [Calendar. 

Kalendar, a,j^»&,j takwlm. See 
Kali, JJ kalL Alkali, Jill alkalh 
Keen (eager), Jk>- ^<k^; (sharp- 
edged), ^l^ kdti^. See Pierc- 
ing. — (severe), jjJJL shadid, A 
keen-edged sword, -^ '^'■_° . i.,ut 
#aj(/' hadd. Keenness (eager- 
ness), ij j.r ghlrat, is^ 
shiddat. See Ardor, zeal, vehe- 
mence. — (severity), A— ^1 

tardmat, i^juc ^t^n/*. See As- 
penty. — (rigor of weather), ^ Jl^ 
J^aJI shtddat al hard, j-iji^j 

Keep, 9. (take care of, preserve), 
ha/oM, , «4k>. kama\ See 

Guard, protect — (to detain), 
i^Mi^ m^Mil. See Stop. — (to 
last), /*LJ kdm. See Remain. — 
(to maintain, support with the 
necessaries of life), cl^\j kdt. See 
Feed. — (to restrain), iauJ dahaf, 
^Jw« fnana^. To keep company 
(with anyone), u.^'wl.g «dAa3, 
^U ^d^A^vr. To keep in or keep 
close (conceal), i<i2>-l akhfa\ To 
keep off, keep aloof^ Juu ha^^; 
(to hinder), ^Jw« mana^. To 

keep under (oppress), Jic zalam, 
j^ kahar. To keep on (advance, 
go forward), ajJu takaddam. To 
keep one's bed, ^\jSlA\^S^ 
ka^ hil firdih. To keep or 
dwell (in any place)i ^^^ »akan. 
To keep house (maintain a family), 
cu^^ fatah hayt. To keep 
the house (to be at home), Juo 
KX ^;, \\S ka^ fll hayt. To 
keep out (prevent entrance), ^i/t 
J^jJl^ mana^min addukhul. 

To keep a promise^ J^l^ij wafd' 

al ^hd. 
Keeper, «. laiU- hdjk, ^j^ hdris, 

Jo\j ndzir. 
Kept (guarded), )ffyLs^ mahfikn, 

^jkj^^s^ mahfhU ; (detained), 




Kermes^ J«^ 

Kemdy «. (of a nut, etc.), 

hah, i^y niwa\ c^ lib, ^^t 

hM, [pot. 

Kettle, «. ^^ htatdn. See Caldron, 

Key, «. ^liA^ muft&h (plur. ^li^ 


Kibe, «. (chap in the heel), ^JJ^ 

Kick, t;. ^j^j raf(U, iaJ i<»&i^. 
Kick, «. ^Uui; rafiat. A kicker, 
(jmUj ra^«. A kicking horse, 

Kidney, «. i^ ib^a^ (plur. ^ 

kali), ^^% kal&wh . [luhii. 

Kidney, s, {or French) bean, ^J 

Kill, t;. Jsj hatal. To kill animals 

for food, ^J sa^aA. Killed, 

JyJU maktul. Killed by poison, 

^^^4MkM^ nMwntlm. See Poisoned. 

Killer, «. JjU ;[^W, Jlw ib«fi/. 
See Murderer. 

Killing, part. Jjli kdtil. 

Kiln, «. ^^ /wm, jyj tannur. 

Kind (benevolent), ^ p ^ ^^ /a^f/, 

JuLJi shafik, mJ^ karim, v,-^^*:^ 

mtf Atf3. See Beneficent, friendly, 

Kind (race, sort, species), ^Ji*:^^ 

. jins (plur. (jywL-i— 5»-l tf;itd<), 

^y natp^, (plur, ^\y\ anwcl^y 

Human kind, ,.A,^JV 
^onf a/ hashar. Another kind, 
c yji^ ghayr natc^ Of different 
kinds, ^iJci^uJU^tfl mi»<7/ 
mukhtaltfat, iJ^z^c\y\ anwdc 

Kindle, «. ^^J^^ ahrak, Ja^\ 
<wA^a/. See Inflame, set on fire, 
exasperate, animate. 

Kindled, S-^^^ tnalhuh, J.icJL^ 
tnuihta^. See Inflamed. 

Kindling, jvor^. aJo^o^ mudtarim. 

Kindly, a^J^L^ ^'^/ i^am, 

Ukolmuhahhat. See Benevolently, 
favorably; a&o congenial, homo- 
geneal; mild, softening. 

Kindness, ^, cUi /u^, ^^kc ^ti^tl^, 
ij'\j r oaf at. See Benevolence, 
beneficence, favor, love. 

Kindred (by blood), li\Ji kardhat, 
u,.>^«u'> na«a3 (plur. c^Lut 
ansdh). See Eolation, relative, 
sort. [Congenial. 

Kindred, adf. v.^-J karib. See 

Kine (jp/mt. of cow), --5»'^— ^ 
maM7a«Af,^ bakar. 

King, «. (J.^L« fnoZ^A;. A king of 

kings, a great king, ^ILLi 

^^^LJl sultan asMldtin. Be- 

\ \oTi^Ti% 1a the king, (JUaLi 




sultanh See Royal. — ^Kings, 

cUS^ tntUuk, 
Kingdom, «. dJl^i^ mamlakat, 

il^J daiolatf iULLd saltanat. 

See Dominion^ empire. 
Kingship. See Boyalty, monarchy. 
Kinglike, kingly, ^JLlaLj stdtdnl. 

See Eoyal, sovereign, august. 

King's evil, «. ^\j^ sardjah. See 

Kiss, 8. i^y hatpsaty ^lLJ kuhlat. 

Kiss, V. {jm\j bdi, JIj kabhal, ^ 

Kissed, fJtsLt mtUtasam, A person 

or thing kissed, (Jfi^ mukabhal. 

Kissing, 8. J^*- Ji ■ 3 takbll, ^ 

Kitchen, 8. U^ia^ mathahh. 

Knave, -acuL* muld^hfi, j\jlc 
ghadddr. See Rascal, scoundrel. — 
Knavery, .Jlc ghadr, <^-L>- Af^^, 
^^^M^ftJj talhi8. See Fraud, dis- 

Knavish, j\ Jlc ghadddr. See Knave ; 
n&o dishonest, fraudulent, mis- 
chievous, waggish. — Knavishly, 
il^\) hil hllat. See Fraudu- 
lently; waggishly. [rukah). 

Knee, «. i^j ruhbat (plur. t^-^ 

Kneel, f;. ^^ roj&a^, Jcp** «<i;ai. 

Knife, «. ^^^J^w siiifn. A large 

butcher's knife, jjLL> «d^iir. 
A pen-knife, i/^j/A^ kalam 
tard8h, \j^ mabrd. 

Knight, 8, j*^^^ kawdlUer. See 
Cavalier, hero, champion. — The 
Knights Templars, ^^^«\Jt 
adddmyat. The Knights Hos- 
pitallers {or Knights of Malta), 
hj&^\ al Ubitdriyat. 

Knit (unite by knots), v. tXie ^akady 

(to unite by texture), CSS»^ 

hayyak. See Weave, tie, join, 
unite, contract. 

Knock, 9. J J dak. To knock at a 
door, ^.l;Ul JJ dak al bdb. To 
knock down, i^^,*^ darab. To 
knock on the head (kill), JiJ 
katal, L^j^ darab. See KiU. 

Knock, «. ijj^ darbat, X4LI latmatf 

Ju jLa^ mtuddamat A knock at 

a door, c^UljJ dak al bdb, 

A knocker (one who beats), 

c^li ddrib. The knocker or 

ring of a door, c,i>Lii<LLL^ 
halakat al bdb. 

Knot, 8, itX a r. ^kdat (plur. 
jif ^ttj&a(0. See Difficulty, in- 
tricacy, association, cluster, col- 
lection. — ^A knot in wood, JtXie 
^ykdat. Solomon's knot (or 8ieal\^ 




To knot or make a knot, J^ 

^akad. See Entangle, perplex. 

To unloose a knot, SjAiltcl^ 
/ok al ^ukdat. 

Knotty, JJU^ mu^akkad. See In- 
tricate, difficult 

Know, r. cJ^ ^rff fXs- ^elem. 
See Comprehend, understand, dis- 
tinguish. — Knowable, 

yun^arif. A Knower, cJ;U 

Knowing, part, and adj. [J^j^ 
^fdnj uJ^U ^(Bififf JU ^Um, 
See Skilfi}l, learned, conscioud, 
intelligent. — Knowingly, J^Lj 
^j-A-^j^Jif h%h>l ^Umin wa 

Knowledge, Ae> ^tkn, j^ Juhm, 
^yi/t ma^fat (plur. uJiU^ 

funUn), i^S^r^ hikmat. See 
Soience,leaming, 8kill,oognizance, 
understanding, acquaintance, in- 
formation. — Certain knowledge, 
■ gLi^. Ae. ^pm hakik^. A know- 
ledge of laws, dJiiJl Jlc ^Im al 
fikh. Desirous of knowledge, 
Jj^u^lL tdlih ^Um. Without 
knowledge, (L^yu9j^^ min 
Sfhayr ma^faU Belonging to 

Known, uJj^yi^ ma^r^f^ (^7^^ 


L preserves always the same sound 
in English, and is expressed in 
Arahic hy J ; as JJ layl, a 
night' ; ^^.^^Ji? talah, 'a call/ 

Lahel, 8, (title to a book, etc.), 
f^^y^ ^ontrdn. A label affixed 
to a piece of doth, marking the 
price, j^j rakam. To label (put 
a title on a book, etc.), ^\yxw^^ 
c^li^l toada^ ^ntcdn al kitdh. 

Labial (pronounced by the lips), 
_ibU^ iht/dhl. Labial letters, 


huruf shtfdhiyat* 
Laboratory, 9, S-^^^j^^ duldh, ^^am^ 

mammal, dj\s^^ karkhdnat. 
Laborious, r. J^sf* mujfid, (JJi^ 
ahaghghlL See Industrious, dili- 
gent, assiduous. — (not easy), 
\^^,^sx^ sa^. See Tiresome. — 
Laboriously, J^^^^Jks*- JC^ Hkol 
jaddin tcajahd. 
Labor, «. (hard work), ^^^n •;>^JjLii 
shughl mut^h ; (work, action, 
endeavour), J^ carnal, fjju Ji^, 

»X-^r>- jahd, .^s^- jad, J n A 

\ iXugKl. ^)^ ^dustry, endea- 




Toiir. — (pain, trouble), 
ta^. Labor in vain, 
if jjU)b ta^ Hid fSiyidat, ^jui 
JJ^li M^I hatil. To oppress with 
labor, v.^^w«Jil at^ab. With- 
out labor, {^^t ih hUd ta^h. 
See Easily, gratis. — ^With great 
kbor,iuLjL«^^^^J^ hikol tacob 
wa muihakkat. Labors, ^Im^ 
itMid^f Jlfl a^mdl. A laborer 
(for hire), ^l.^ sdni^; (workman, 
etc.), «jli0 8dni^, 

Labor, v, (toil), _)uj «tf^f, Jl^ 

jW; (to labor under difficulty, 

disease, etc.), ^rj^ tawqffa^ 

^\ atala\ To labor (to be 

in childbirth), <>::,■.^L)1^ tHkaL 

Laboring, part, and adf. ^l^ sd^, 

tX^JXjs^ mujtdhid. 
Laborsome, i^^tt*;^ mu^^i^. 

Labyrinth, «. 'ff?^ ^''^rf;', S-^j(jO 
duldhy ^^ tnagMatat, l^j^ 
wartat, <Ui£ ^iahat, ^ iayh. 

Lace, jlsr» «a;'£2^, ^JiSj^ Juuhkash. 

See Fringe, edging. 
Lace, 9.(adom with lace), y*Sj^^ 

^mal kashicuh. 


ioihkik, iMsieanLtBdf Jjjs^ mttUh 

kkaaai. [need. 

Lack, 7. ^l2».t fA%'. See Want, 

Lackey, s. a^^XsL kMddm. See 

Footman, servant* 
Laconic, j^awp^ miMtatarn See 

Brief, concise, short* 
Lad, t* jjj t^iiiadl. See Boyc . 
Ladder, s. Ju4 iuHam. 
Lade v. (load), jJil». Aamffurf. — 

Lading, Ji4^Aam/« SeeWoght^ 
burden, cargo. — ^Laden, Jam^ 
muhammal. See Loaded. 
Ladle, t. jSj^ kafkir. 
^^7' '-^y ^ iUd^an (pL cdUjJU. 

if Ju«j saydat. — ^My lady, ,J<^b 
yd M^l,~Lady-]ike, (ju«%Jl Ji^ 
mt«/ asnt. [mMcda^. 

Laid (jvor^. preUr. of lay), ^ %^j^ 

Lain (|Mir^. pr0Ur. of lie), ^JS^ 
muUakl, tAj^^»*^ muffarfA. 

Lake, «. ^;«e< hi haiyrat. 

Lamb, «. uJj^ kha/r^f. 

Lame, ^^1 t^^^^i laA** Mohst. See 
Cripple. — ^To lame, ^jS, ^aj. 
Lameness, — yr ^^ u^-^T^^ 
^ajdn. See Crippleness. 

Lament, v. ,XuJ taihakka\ i^J^\j 
taassaf, .U ndA. See Bewail^ 
deplore, Y^emooxii morasii* 



Lament, lamentation^ LA ( A 
Bhik&yat, \^ thiiwa, ICj hika, 
uX^l; taauuf, ^X£J tathahkl, 
£»Jj nadbai. 

Lamentable, ^X^ «niiatti, (^y«^ 
ffHi^'fi. See Monrnfiil, Borrow- 
M; pitiMi miserable. 

Lamentably^ jL#^^yj hi naw^ 

mubaki^, . 
LamentoTi i» ^L& «Adib, ^yj 

nawwdhf ^SJmS^ mnUoBhaXkl 
Tiamina (thin plate), u 
Lamp, «. 4f \;-««* tor^;, 

tfuurafat, ^^^^^^ mi$bdh (plor. 

< (plur. Jj jl;j ibnSift/). The lamp 
of the state, DjjJUt^ mtS;' 

. addatffUU. See Lustre. — The wick 
or match of a lamp, <Ll^>rJ fatllat. 

^ SeeHatch. 

jLampoon, «. ^isr^ Aa;il. See Satire. 

Lancei s. ^j rumh (plor, ^t«^ 
rtimdA), ^tit;^ armdA. 

Lance, v. (chirorgically), ^j~^ 
jIImJU ifora^ 3i7 lUMA^r. See 
Cat, pierce, scarify ; o^o to dart. 

Lancet, 9,jJLj fuuhtar. 

Land (region), fjOj\ ard, jL halad, 

CJL^ mulk. See Country. — 

(earth), ^j\ ard; (immoTcable 

poBsesaon), C^Xtt aml&i. Bee 

660 LAN 

Estate. (the surface of the 

ground), fjop^^j wqfh alard; 
(nation), ^y kawm, jjifw khalk, 

LL^ miUaU See People. — ^By 

sea and land, ]^a<^ \ji harran wa 
Land, v. (set on shore),^^^\jJj3 

iMst7 »'&>' a/ W. [See Army. 

Land force8,^\^^LM£ ^kar al bar. 
Landed (brought to land),^l t^^^U 

ndzd fit bar\ (come to land), 
j^\pA afd Id bar ; (possessed of 

an estate in land), w/Xtlc^^^^l^ 

sdhib atnldk. [Inundation. 

Land flood, 8. J-t*^-*^ '^y^* See 
Landholder, s. ^^\j\l^^'*-\^ MdMi 

arddJi, Landless, ^\j\i^V^ 

mdlaho arddl. 
Landlord, s, jfJjl^^^u^^'wl.g sdhib 

al lokdnda. See Landholder; 

innkeeper, host. 
Landlady, ifJJ l^^ \ <L^ L0 sdhtbat al 

lokdnda. See Hostess. 
Landmark, s. ^itlil^ic ^aldmat al 

ard. See Bounds, marches. * 
Landward, ^ \ uJ^LS lataraf al bar. 
Lane, «. jJjbJ dahlli,j^jL^ ma^bar, 

(J^^^J zukdk dayyik. See 

Alley, street. 
Language (speech) ^U ^dn (pi. 
\ <:.JL\ aUunat\ ^ loghat (plur. 




LL>\kl loghat). See Tongue.— 
The Arabic language, ,<>/t!\^LJ 
l%9dn al ^ahU The Persian 
language, _^KfB^l^^yU ludn al 


^'aml, ^j\a1\ al fdraU The 
language of the modems, ^LJ 
^^p^l:L«it luan al mtUdkhkhirin, 
Expressive language, c-^tXc^U 
^LJl liian ^mib albof/dn. Meta- 
phorical language, i^j^^ inqfd%i. 
A language master, Jui^ mu^aUm, 
Languid, cfl*.iuff da^f, Jli fBltir. 
See Faint, feeble. — To make 
languid, u-oa^I ad^f. To be- 
come languid, i^m^ de^f, 

Languidness, v— q n Ji du^. See 
Feebleness, weakness. 

Languish, f . JjO debel. Languish- 
ing, parL >• Ic ^djiz, J li fdtir, 
See Languid. — To languish (look 
with tenderness or softness), 
a;^ JJj dahbal ^yunaho. 

Languishingly, ^cQt>a ) hidu^n ; 
(looking tenderly), <0^ J^^jou^ 
Mosor hi ^yikn dabldnat 

Languishment. See Languidness. 

Languor. See Languidness, lassi- 
Lank, ii— fl;yup da^f. See Lean, 

thin, limber; languid. — Lank- 

a du^f. 


Lantern, «. lanthom, ^y U fdnns ; 

(a light-house), ^l ■ \ .f Jandr, 

Lantem-jaw'd, ^^jJljjJn— *« 

mu^arrak al khaddin. 
Lap, «. ^^;«a>- Am^. The lap of a 

garment, (Jj J i^/. 

Lap, r. ^ «ar, u^ laf. See In" 
Yolve, wrap, fold. — To lap (as a 
dog), etc., (^^M^ lahas. See Lick. 

Lapdog, 8,jJufit^M kalb saghlr. 

Lapidary, 9, t^/\ C .rv. hakkdk, 
i^j^^^ jawdhirjl. To lapi- 
date, lapidation, a^t^ rqfam. See 
Stone, etc. 

Lapis lazuli, ^j^j^^ hajar Idtward, 
' Um.^ mind. 

Lappet, 8. j£ J dayl. A lappet of a 
head dress^ Jj J (fay/. 

Lapse (&11), 1?^ ncito^; (flow), 
J^t^irf 9oyl\ (error), ILc^ ^^^d, 
Dlc ghalatfjfk^aSLi MuHff y^ Mhn, 
]asL» »akat. 

Lapse, V, (glide), ^Jj^ jota^ ; (to 
make an inadvertent slip), LLc 
ghelet ; (to fall from truth or per- 
fection), laA^i Mib^ ; (to pass 
away), J|j id/. See Elapse. 
Lapwing, «. vji^ylt idtwlU 
Larboard (left hand side of a ship 
when you ^Uii<i^^ ^^^"^ iw»\*i 




the head), U;.^\ JU^ shimal 
ai marJtah, ^UaJI ahkdia. 

Larcli (tree), ^^j^ iharhin. 

Lardy jjxor 1 ^uc^ shakm al khamHr. 
See Bacon. 

Lardefi ». ^j^tvj:^ haiytalmiinaL 

Large (wide), j-a'j irfi**^, (^ys 

i9»iM^t(7M^. See Broad. — (big), 
^ ^fr, j^ ^flsslw, j,--M5r 
jVwiin ; (abundant), ^^^ ib<lr, 
^^LJ fHyid, ji\j tpdfir. See 
Copious, plentiftil, liberal, diffuse. 
— Largely, at large (diffusiyely), 
l^^Lt mufatalan, Ix^^JCi hikol 
was^at. See Extensively, widely. 
— (copiously), 1;--^ kiuiran ; 
(bounteously), ^^j^iJL^ Hkol 
karmin, s^^st'JiCj hikol sakhdwat. 
See Liberally. 

Largeness (wideness), ^jl^^ ioas^at, 
Is^ fashat, ^jOj£> ^rd. See 

Extension. (bulk, bigness), 

^las ^a9amat,j^ kuhr. 

Largess, «. /*LjcJt tn^&m. See 
Gift, bounty, present. 

Lark, 8. ij^ kunbarat. 

Larynx (top of the windpipe), 
Ij^^hn ghaUamai (plur. ^ic 

ZtusoiviouB, ^^^v.^..^^Lo <dA»5 

lybi^.^-.'^^litf «dA»& ^m^, i^^^^ij 
n/^Bdnl, J^li /d#»i&. See Lust- 
ful, wanton. — ^LasciTious amuse- 
ments, ^<ib)U maldhl. 

Lasciviously, {j^y^j^ybj^ kikol 
hawd tea hawas, i^^J^, hikol 

Lasciviousness, i^^ thahwat^ j^ 
ff^ar, ^LuJ JUk. See Concupis- 
cence, lust, wantonness. 

Lash, «. )oy^ sawt, ji>- fold, ^^ji 
darb; (the mark of a stripe on 
the skin), ^j^ darb ; (a thong, 
whip), ^jA^^ makra^at. See 
Scourge; also leash, string. — 
(stroke of satire), yf^ hqfu. See 
Sarcasm. — The eye-lashes, ^ji^ 

Lash, t;. jj^ jalad; (to satirise), 

^^ys^ haja\ ^y^ ta^an. 
Lass, s,jL bihr, 4U««p sdbiyat. See 

Girl, maid. 
Lassitude, t.-^^ ^^o^ (plur. c^U}t 

at^ah). See Fatigue, weariness. 
Last, ^^T dhhlr. The last day, 

A^j^l aMtr yawm. The last, 

)ll a/ akhir. 

Last, «. (on which shoes are made), 

(^j^^lc^U ^d^ cd markuh. 
Last, r. /«\ J ddm, f^\j kdm. 




Lasting, aij, ajLS kdym, m^\*^ 
ddyim. See Durable. — ^Lastingly, 
UjLS kdyman. See Durably, 
perpetually. — ^Lastingness, ^j3 
Jtardr, j\j4r, ■■.>! igtmrdr, aIjJ 
datPdm, oU 8ahdt. 

Lastly, in the last place, at last, 

Latch, #. (of a door), Jo hwfl. To 

latch, Jii hafal, 
Latchets (of a shoe), ^jJjO na^n. 
Late, ^ *a^l, i^^^^i haVi oL 

haraiat, ^Jb^ mubtl. The late, 


^^y fnarhUm. See Defonot. 
Lateness, jttj lata. See Slowness. 
Latent, ^^c*2^^ mukhtafl, «^-^l^ 

gh&yih. See Concealed, hidden, 


Later, -^T dMfr. See Posterior. 

Lateral, ^^U-yaniif, J^J^tarafi, 

j^^-»i>" yonJf . See Collateral. 

Latest, ^T akkir. 

Latiier (froth of soap and water), 

^^ LJ \ iykj raghawat aMdlan. 
Latin, ^J-^ latlnl. 
Latitude, ^jC- ^ard. See Breadth, 

width; room, extent, space. A 
degree of latitude, ^JCJfi\i>-JJ 
darqjat al ^d. 

Latitudinarian, «. Xjr^ mtUhid, 
See Unbelierer. 

Latter, ^^ \ dJMrm See Modeni| 
late. — ^The latter part, jm3^^\ 
aldhkir^ \j^ ward. 

Lattice, «• SjLJL^ nuuMakai. 

Lattice, r. uXJi skalai. Latticed, 

^^^*- -f mushaibai. 
Laudable, .JL«il1^»^t^ wdjib ul 
madh, ^^Mb^U*^ mmtakionf Jlj»» 
hamid, ^^J^^-a^ wumdnh. Lau. 

dable actions, i^^-^JLjcJl 
a/^l hamidat, ^Ij^ ma<toyf%, 

Laudable qualities, itXfA^(JL^\i^ 
sifdt hamidat. The laudable quali- 
ties of your Excellency, J^W^ 
Jo jUmiajICvj tnahdmid wa wuh 

kdrim ia^datikum. Laudable en- 
deavoun., i^j^f^L^ m^d^I 

mamduhat. The more laudable 
qualities, ifju.4^fuJL«0^tjL4^! 
akmad dl awidf al hanOdoL Laa* 
dableness, cjL^^ wa$f, ^Ju^ 

madlh (plur. ^ J^ fMM^yA). 
Laudably, ^^Jk4^^^^ M vqfkm 

Lave, J^^ taghaual, ^^^*A£^ 

ighiaaal, v.a. ^Jms. ghatal. See 

Wash, bathe. 
Lavender, xjjji Idwanda. 
Laugh, r. s^^ss^ dehek, KmS>sf^ 
Is. iadahhak ^akf. SeeDeride, 

scorn, ridicule. 
Laugh, ff. CS^ d\Kk« K. \sai^ 




^ laugb, ^1^1* ItaMtahah. See 

Laagher, 9. uL^li ddhtk. 
LaagbiBgy part, lLx^L«^ ddhik. 

Laughingly, ^-fJ-|J|^^u^'^ 

hidihiin wa kahkahah. 
Laughter, lL^c:^ dihk. 
Layish, tiA.*.,^ mtihiTi t^jm.^ 

mwrify uJJr— /» mtftff/. See 

Prodigal, proftiBe. 
Lavish, t^. ci^^ euro/, j Jj &aiiir, 

Laviflher, «. u, qJj^ mtUlif. See 
Lavish, prodigal. 

Lavishly, uJ|;«i>|^^u.iJjJ^ ^t^/ 
talqfin wa isrdf. 

Lavishness, im^\j.^ isrdf. See 

Launch, r. (a ship into the sea), 

j^\i^(^jAJ\^,.^ tuuhab (d 

markab fil hahr, (^^jA^S^^Jj 

jS^^tS noKMol ai markab fil hahr. 

Laundress, s. ^wc ghaM&lait. A 

laundry, J LuL£^Aa««d/. Give my 

linen to the laundress, ^^^ 

" iLJLjiU^\,>M<.f a^ phaoh lU 


Laureate, laurelled (crowned or 

adorned with laurel), ^Ulb Ji^ 
mukaUal hU gh&r. A poet lau- 
reate, vjl^J^Ll ih&^r divodnl. 

Laurel, «. ^J duJU,J^ ghdr. 
Law, ^Li-i >SibA ; (divine), f 

^^ 9hari^t; (rule, custom), 

^yLS jtontln, ifjLcLJ kd^tdat, 

jji^i^J dastur; (right, equity, 

justice), J». Aoi^, ^\J^ ^ai{di;if^, 

ciLoj! t'lMd/. See Edict, decree, 

statute, custom, process. — The 

holy law, dJL^jJL~l\^jJ^\ ask- 

$harl^t oshshari/aL Learned 

in the law, ^jJLA\(J~^\ aki 

ashshar^y <ULiJ1Jjb\ oM alJUh. 

Agreeable to law, according to law, 
c yuJ \ ^ \y muwafik ashshar^, 

^^^j^J^ 9har^. See LawfiiL 
— Contrary to law, c^^duJ^c-iiU^ 
khildf ashshar^f (^\r^ kardm. 
See Illegal. — Laws, ^^\j^J^ 
shardyi^ (^y^j nuum, ^jA>> 
hukuk. To observe the laws of 
friendship, <U^lj^-ft-^4^^^^ 
ajra' hukuk d muhahhat. To put 
the laws in execution, i^j-p^^ 
c Jj^\^yL^ ajrui hukuk athshar^. 
Lawful, -.L^ mubdh, ^j^ thar^ 
Ji»- hdldl^ J^ hak^ O^^Y^ 
\,^^jtl\^j!^ muwdfik ashshar^ 
Oihsharlfi y\s>^ jdyisL, A lawful 
witness, J jUjJbLl thdhid ^dM, 
To be lawful, J5U haldl To 




make lawful, JU. kaUal See 
Legalise. — ^To oonaider as lawful, 

Lawftilly, U^ %ha/r^% ^ JLJlj 

M «AarI^a^, J)lLb hH haldl. 

Biches lawfully acquired, JL^ 

JIU. mal haldl. 
Lawfulness, ijOjJ^ shari^, JLJIjk^ 

^addlat. See Justice. 
Law-giver or maker, «. 9 jLi* «^rf^, 

(jM^Ufwi^fj wddi^ al ndmQSf 

^y UJ1 wi^l^ toadi^ (d kdnUn, 
Lawless, 9;J^h hUd shar^, i*Xc\jh 

lild ka^dat. Lawlessly, ^^^^ 

^J^ mm ghayr 9har^, 
Lawn, «. (open space between 

woods), (^^Ju^ mlddn. 
Law-suit, 8, v^^^ da^a\ or f^J 

da^d, Ju^ai kadiyat, ^-tcJl 

mtmdta^ (plur. CL^lejU^ mw- 
ndsa^d^), JUm^Ut^ mukhdsamai, 

A>^^yA*C iUtMilma^ (pi. d'UA.^tfik- 

iUtMtlmd^). To carry on a law- 
suit, ^1^ rdfa^. An adversary 
in a law-suit, ^*^ mudda^. 
Lawyer, s. CjmT^^^ mutasharri^, 

iUii fakih, l^jJ\ J-^^ wakil al 

yj>j'^* ^ miw^itAf, ^j 

rakhu. See Loose, slack. 

Laxatioui \^ji^\ utirkhd, Jl^t 

Laxative, Jf^u* Aittf At7. A laxative, 

y^j^ nwrakhkhi, J^ tnulayym. 

Laxity, laxness, VfL^ roi^Ad, i^UL. 

rakhdwat. See Looseness, slack- 

Lay, V. (place), j-,ij w«(i<i^, -^ 
tarah. To lay or spread carpets, 
etc., kuuj ^Mo^, ^^^^ farash. To 
lay down (deposit as a pledge), 
^jJbj rahan ; (to quit, resign), CS^ 
iarak, jS^ hajar ; (to advance as 
a proposition), i^]j(^^ kaddam 
ray. To lay hold of, CJi^^^ 
fnetek. See Seize, catch. — ^To lay 
on (taxes, etc.), ^.jLlUcLJt-.^ 
tarah attakdllf. See Impose. — 
To lay on, lay at (beat), f^j*^ 
darah. See Strike. — ^To lay open, 
j^\ azhar. See Expose, show. — 
To lay out (expend), uJ^ saraf, 
^j^ kharqf; (to display), j^\ 
anhar, 4.jLuL^ kasha/. See Dis- 
cover. — To plan, arrange, JU 
noMam. See Dispose, contrive. — 
To lay one's-self out (make an 
exertion), _aw 9a^a\ See En- 
deavour. — To lay to one's charge 
(accuse), ^S^^ Mtaka\ To 
lay to (apply with vigotV vi^ 




9S^J^ ^amal M jdhdaho. To 
lay together, t^ jama^ See 
Colleot.— To lay eggs, c;.^U 
h(ldai. To lay a wager, ^j^^j 
Hihan. See Wager, bet. 

Layer, «. (JL>\i kdt, ^La^ tahaka. 

Layman, 8. l<^^ ^<3mml. 

Lazar, «. (j<0^t oirM. See Leper. — 
A lazaretto, ^UcJjl^ kdrantina. 
See Hospital. 

Lazily, J>am^ hikaaal. 

Laziness, iLllLj hatakU, Jl^^ lAmd/, 
4jdiM^ ihita/. See Idleness, slug- 

Lazy, JiU yAd/^, ^jULm^ iM/dn. 
See Idle, indolent, slnggish, slow, 

Lead, ^^j rasds. 

Lead, i^. L,^.<y^ sahabtjS^ jar, jlS 
itdi/. See Draw, carry. — To 

guide, J J daU; (to induce), 
sj^j"^ harrad. See Persuade, 
prevail. — To lead about or round, 
j^*} d4»wtcar. To lead an army, 
J>Mji\j\j tdd al ^askar. To lead 

astray, ^^ doll. See Seduce. — 

To lead back, j\&\ a^dd, ^j>^ 


Lead (first place), jXa sadr. To 

give the lead, jJ>»«g-Hti^da». 

hattdhofll iodr. Lead (guidance), 

Sj\J hiyddat. 

Leader, «. A-jl-i Ad^, At«X&« 

mMJbtom, |«U1 amdm. The leader 

of an army, ^^Imjs^IjjIS l&yid «/ 
Leading (showing the way), adf, 

JljAiA\^}y3j dam attarlk; 

(principal), ^X^^ <Mft, jJix« 

mutlak. See Chief. 

Leaf, 9. (of a tree), iij^ warakat 
(plur. ^]j^\ awrdk). A leaf, 
sheet, or thin plate, ilS^^jJiff 
tahak tanak, uXj^^Va^ Mftkat 
tatiak, Aleaf of paper, jj^iu^^ 
tailhiyat warak. See Sheet. — 
The leaf of a book, <^^\s^isuje^ 
iohl/at kUdb (plur. i.jbW^ 
aahdfftf). To strip a tree of its 
leaves, y-^^jb^^*^ >rorf 
ouTdii; auajar. The leaf of a 
door, c-.»Ulcly,d^ mMTd^o/ M. 

Leafless, j\;^l<UU mdUho awrdk. 

Leafy, ^^ muwarrak. 

League, ». J^ ^a^ i^ 9kmrt, 

j\q^\ ittihdd. See Confederacy, 
combination. — To league or enter 
into a league, ^ JJbU^ljli^ ^mmaH^ 
mu^hadat, 1^-i-Jlar^ iahdlaf^. 
See Confederate. — To obeerre a 




league, %x^f vlX^b^ meiek al^hd, 
ai^ahd, A written league, ^Ijj^ 
^hdndtna. Leagues, J^ ^ud, 

it " 

^j^yymawdAk. Leagued, J^^U 
League, s. (parasang, three miles), 
^jifarsakh, J-^ mil. 

Leak, s, Jh^ shik. A leak in a 
ship, s^^j^\}^^ shik hihnarkab. 

Leak, r. (of a ship), U J^ ^amal 
md, ^JJ^\ inshak. 

Lean, v, (incline against), ^Jj^, 

%ttaka\ JCmmJI ttuanad. 8ee 

Becline. — ^To lean upon a staff, 

jSju ta^akkaz. To lean against 

a wall, <Xm^1 iruanad. To lean 

or be in a bending posture, JL« 

mdh See Stoop. — To lean to a 

side (to be partial), ^'JL« 
mal %la\ 

Lean (not fat), u.Oj'V nahlfj ^^i uf Lo 
da^if, Thelean(ofmeat),^Atf^. 
Fat and lean, ^J^jJb hahr tea 
duhn. To be or grow lean, cjzm 
de^efy ujLfit^Up sdr nahlf. To 
make lean, y^inj^ da^^af. Lean- 
ness, L.M^ du^. 

Leap, r. k; naff Uj kamM, See 

Jump ; overleap : fly ; start — 
To leap (as a horse does a mare), 
Jic tdh. See Cover. 

Leap, 9. iiaj nMai, iyti kafiuU. 
See Jump, spring. 

Leap-year, <W;.o<fc>^ sanai iabUat, 

Leam, v. (gain the knowledge 
of), fXfu fa^aOam. To teach, 
Jl£ ^aUam. To teach and leam, 

fXfu^sX^^aHamivaia^Uam. To 
leam by heart, )ai>- hafam, Jjti 
LAe^ ia^aUam ^hdifhan. Learned, 

t«i;U j.drt7, wi /oAfm, Jji^ 
mtf^<i/2tm. See SkilM, knowing. 
— ^A leamed man. J^^lJ^j 
raful cifi/iim. Leamed men, 
iijM^t^L,^!^] Oihdh mu^fat, 
Ulx ^ulamdy Uil»- hukamd. 
Learnedly, fX^JCj hikol ^Um. 
Learning, «. ^ \ r ^An, ^lJ^a-^ 
mu^ri/o^, ^ /uAm. See Enow- 
ledge, science, skill — ^Desirous of 
learning, Jl^ii^lL tdUb ^ikn. 

A learner, tXyib ^o/mis, jLiC^ 
muta^Uim, J ,.n— ^ «iM^«^Ufft, 

Lease, «. (of a &rm, eto.),jl>-t a^'dr. 
To lease, ^^T djar. To take on 
lease,^^l:;«i1 istdjar. 

Leash, <• Jui ibiy<?. See Band, 
thong, strap. 


Leasts adj.jLA Mgkar, Jil akd^ 
Uj) adnd\ ^ado. in the lowest 

degree), ^^Q^ci^^ ^^ *^ 
ydkan. At least, jS^ walaw. 

Leather, jJl>- jiZi (plor. 4>jL>- 
jftlud). Morocco or Cordova 
leather, ^^Li^ sakhtiydn. Bed 
leather, j^ ^trr. A leather 
sword-belt, l^q^1j^:.»j land 
assay/, A leather-dresser, iUj 
dahh&gh. See Tanner, currier. 
— ^To dress leather, ^ J dabagh. 
See Curry, tan. — A leather seUer, 
^^Li^cLj hayyd^ saJthtiydn, 
j1>-cLj hayyd^jUd. 

Leathern, jl^^ minjUd. 

Leave, ^l^^ i/dtat, ^jf tisn. Leave 
to depart, <Uarv.j rti^A«a^, jf^ti 
dastUr. See Permission, allow- 
ance. — ^To ask leave, Sjl^-lc^^JJ? 
tdlah tfdzatf j^i^Jk^\f talah 
dastHr. To take leave, c Jj 
wadda^ See Farewell. — To give 
leave, Jjlsj-l Jacl a^to* f;'tf8a^. 
See Permit 

Leave, v, cSj^ tardk, jS^ hajar. 

See Desert, forsake, relinquish. 

— ^To bequeath or leave at death, 

u-^Jb^ wahah, ^^ u>assa\ To 

leave out (omit), J^l ahmal. 

To leave a remainder of any 

668 LEE 

thing (to suffer to remain), ^Jj\ 

ahkt^. To leave one's affidrs to 

another's care, ^ \ aLLI Jui fottiffi 

shuyhlaho ila\ 
Leaved (having foliage), ^j;^^ 

laho awrdk. 
Leaven, ^;«-^^ hhamlraL Leavened, 
y^^ muhhamtnart j4sJs,^ mukh- 

Leaves (plur. of leaf), j\;^^ awrdk. 
Leavings, CjLjIj hdkiydt, \Ah 


Lecher, «. fj,\\ %dn\. See Whore- 
master. — Lecherous, JU««li fdsik. 
See Lascivious, lustful. — ^Lecher- 

ously, jMUMja^^fl J^ hikolshahwai 
wa fisk. Lechery, lecherous- 
ness, i^^ shahwat. See Lewd- 
ness, lasciviousness. 

Lection, iV^ kiraat. See Beading. 

Lecture, s. c^^lkfw khitdh. A public 
lecture, i^lf c^Ua^^- khitdh ^dm. To 
lecture, ^^j^i darras. A lecturer, 
^jkA^X* mudarris. 

Led (part of lead). jU:^* munkdd. 

Ledger, «. j:jj dafiar, j^^\jjj 

daftar al kahir. See Account- 

Led-horse, «. c1$jj yadak. {_^alak). 

Leech, s, Jla\ s ^alakat (plur. ^jXe> 

Leek, s, iJLA^ knrrds. 




Leer, «. Hj^j nawra. To leer, jjj 

%au?ar. [Dregs. 

Lees, J^ tahl, Ls. ^kar. See 

Leeward, ,«C;!tvj:.'«ra^ taht arrih. 

Left (part, of leave), <^ A^ matrUkf 
JU haki. 

Left (not. right), jUyj yasdr, JUJ* 
ihmdl To the left, JUllMl 
tla^ ashshimdl. The left wing of 
an army, ij^i^^ maysarat. To 
the right and left;, 2y*A^^<CM«M^ 
maymanat u>a maysarat. Left- 
handed, Lgf^]j***^ ^turdwl. 

Leg, «. jL «dil. Calf of the leg, 
jU^tb h&t assdk. 

Legacy, s. L^^ wasiyat. Legacies, 
(iSji tarakat (pi. (JD^Ji tarakdt). 

Legal, c JuJl^JuiW« muwdfik ash" 
shar^, ^jJi» shar^. See Lawful. 

Legality, ^.s^ sahhat. See Lawftil- 

Legalize, v. _x^<lJlj c0ma/<»^ 

Legally, U^fAor^an, )ls^A<»te/an, 
ijUjj^\j bishshari^t, J^V ^^^ 

Legatary, 9. legatee (one who re- 
ceives a legacy), a1 ^y* tnuwassa' 
laho. [Testator. 

Legator, b, ^^y^ muwa%A, See 
Legate, legation. See Delegate, etc. 

Legend (inscription), ^j rann, ^ij 
rakam; (memorial, relation),^l^ 
hikdyat. See History, chronide. 
— ^An incredible legend, fj[l^ 
^Xaoji hikdyat Id tutasaddak, 

^gg^9 jLna^ laho 9dk To sit 
cross-legged, wj^Jl-aJ ka^ 

Legible, tj^/^ yunkairiy ^/^ 

Legion, *. J^^ farikf X>^ jund 
(plnr. jLf>-1 qfndd)^ jyi^ tdhUr 
(plur.^ljt ^au'd^fr). 

Legislation, ^yUJlwi^^ t&a<2a^ oZ 

athshardyic, ^\Jm\\^^j toada^ 
ashshardyi^. Legislative, ^^^^aC 
wj[1^.-juL)1 yukhui ashshardyi^, 
,^5^ shardy^. 

Legislator, », f j^ «Adrf^, t*^!^ 
^yUJl wddi^ al kdnHfif %-*^|4 
«^LuJ\ foddi^asJuhardyi^, See 
Lawgiver. — ^Legislature, wi^^Sy 
«^lyuJl Aiilu'a^ wad^ashhardyi^. 

Legitimacy, J^ haldl. 

Legitimate, J)L^jJj u^a^cK^ haldl. 
To legitimate, J)U-jJj<i^—L»r. 
^malaho wcdad haldl, Legiti- 
m&cy, fj;>- hak, <LsL^ sahhai. 
Legitimation, Ji»^<^»:b,jlJ>» r 
^ama{ iinoho KatoiU 




Legume, jr^^ae^ k/mdraU 

Leisnie^ i^^ fimrtat, {,s^^ taakt, 

^tjj rawdkai, i^loi faddwat 
Leisurely, at leisure, leisurably, 

iJ\^jJCj hikol raw&kat. 
Lemon, «. i^yA^ laymun. Lemon 

juice, ^yA^\\^ md al lajftnUn. 

Lemonade, \j[jy^ laifmUnddd, 
Lend, v. (money), ^j^ karad; 

(goods), jU t5r. To lend with- 

out interest, u-&Ju> sidlaf. 

Lender, ». ^J-i*^ mttdayyinf ^J^ 

mukridfj^jL^ mu^fr. 
Length, J^ tnh The length 

of the neck, Jnjjy^ till al 

^nJt, Length of time, iJ^ 

muddat, jIjc^I imUddd. See 

Duration. — ^Length and breadth, 

\j^j^ji}^tillwa^d. In length 

and breadth, l<^£j ^^ Hlan wa 

K^ardan, Extended in length, 

Jjlk^ mutawwal, iJiy^ tawll. 

According to the length, l^'^mip*- 

J^l hasah attnl. At length, 

^'i^ tulan, J^Lj hittnl. At 

length, adv. \j^\ akhtran. 

Lengthen, r. (make long), Jjlt 

iawwal. See Extend, protract. — 

(to grow long), {^^^J^ 9dr tawll. 

Lengthwise, Xjl?^fi/<in,Jjyb^»/<u/. 

Lenient, lenitive (mitigating, soften- 

ing), ^Ji^ mulayyin, A lenient, 
lenitive, ^^;J<J^ mulayyin. 

Lenify, v. ^jjS layyan. See Miti- 
gate, assuage. 

Lent {part, of lend), jU^ mu^&r^ 
y^^j^Ju^ makrHd; (a time of 
abstinence), j--Cll/tj^ Miwfi al 

Lentil, «. (jm<X^ ^ada». 

Leo (sign) xJ\^ji hurf al aid. 
See Constellation, lion. 

Leonine, i^X^\ asadi. 

Leopard, «, S^fahd, 

Leper. *. ^^j^^ ahras. 

Leprosy, ,^^ haroi. 

Leprous, ^a^^ ahroi. See Leper. 

Less, Js\ akkal. More or less, 

Jiyi^f aksar am akkal. Less 

(in a lower or smaller degree), 
jJlA atghar. 

Lessee, «. (one who takes a lease of a 
farm), i^^Zj**^ mustakrl. 

Lessen, v, JJi kallal. See Diminish, 

Lesson, «. (admonition), 

nasihat, A.m.,^j tatiblh, » Y\r.y 
mawcazat. A scholar's lesson, 
^jkA^ J dors. To receive a lesson, 
^jj j^\ akhaz dars. To lesson 
or give a lesson, ^j*^ darroi, 




Lessor, ». (one who gives the lease 
of a farm), u[;^ fnukri. 

Lest, HJ llaUd, 1^ kayla. 

Let, V, (aUow) ^Isj-l^Jxcl a^a* 
ijdtat, <U3£wjj^kcl a^ta* rakhsat, 

^^J-^ khaUa\ See Permit, suffer. 
— (to hinder), ^i^ mana^ See 
Oppose, obstract, forbear. — To 
let, or let out for hire, ^^ hara\ 
j>-\ ajar. To let blood, v.a. 
A on 1 faiody v.n. <\ *n fl )\ 
tnfasad. To lei in, ^^ J dakhkhal. 
See Admit. — ^To let out (allow 
to go out), ^^jarij[^p^\^li£] 
a^to' ydsa^ /f7 khurnj. To let off 
a gun, bJ^j\^\^jfj kaunoas al 
bdrndd. See Discharge, gun. — 
To let slip an opportunity, iJL^JJ 
1^ja1\ fawtoat al fursah. Let, 
cj[^Ct mukrl. See Hired. 
Lethargic, d^^i>^ sttbdti, ^U^Lc 
ghashydn. Lethargy, d 



marad a«- 

Letter, «. (of the alphabet) 

harf^plvLT, *— ij^ hurnf). The 
letters of the alphabet, ^^j>^ 
\^s^\ huraf al haja ; (written 
character), m^j rakam (plur. /♦yj 
rtiibilm). To repeat the letters of 
the alphabet, ,<— f^ tahajja\ 

Letter by letter, (^ 
AdT/Sn 3f harf, A letter (epistle), 
<^^^ maJUilh, ^L^ riidlai. 
Friendly letter, ilsr^(^j:jL9 
ffuMuh tnuhahhat, Boyal or im- 
perial letters, letters patent, 
^t«yS farmdn. Letters super- 
scribed by the king's own hand, 
ujb^li£>^ khat iharif. Conso- 
latory letters, XJlmJ(^,^^LX« 
mukdtib tasUyat, Congratulatory 
letters, 4»:^^^LL« muidiih 
tahniyaU Letter of attestation, 
notorial letter, ifj\f.t»<»y .C .^ 
moi^a^ shahddat, Submissiye or 
supplicatory letter, c,,;j % (^ 
l«U-^1 maktuh ittirhdm. Letter 
of apology, jljCLcl^JUiC* fnaktuh 
i^izdr. Letters of recommend- 
ation or intercession, (^^IC« 
i^y mukdtih tawnyat Threat- 
ening letter, jjj^CyjyX^ maktiih 
tahdid, A letter or bill of ex- 
change, ^^-^^ poUaa, i^\y»^ 
hawdlat. See Exchange. — A 
letter-carrier, c^^lCiiJIJ^LJ 
ndibZ a/ maktuh. See Carrier. — 
Sending letters to one another, 
JLLdL^ murdiolat, LjVJ^ mu- 
kdtahat, A letter sent by a 
pigeon, ^^k) batakat. 'I^^'vit^ 




letten, i_ - -"^^ — _ -^ ktUab mu- 
kdHh. To break the seal of a 
letter, to burst it open, mj^-CJ^ 
c^jiC^l fak khiiim at makM,. 
The forms of letter writing, a 
collection of letters, luJi inshd. 
The cover of i^ letter, ^UJ 

Letter, v. (stamp with letters), ^a^ 

hurnf, i^^jB^^gjL^ ^Uam hi 
hurnf. [See Learned. 

Lettered^ Ur^>.f»l.g i&hib ^Um, 

Lettncei ^^MbcL kha$, 

Levant, Jjj^^ oJ mashrak, j)Lj 
jyLlt bilad mUharl. 

Level, adj. J*****^ musattah, LmmJ 
hasU, See Even, flat. — ^To level, 
J^^ sattah, )sLj baasat. To be 
level, J9***^j^ sdr musattah. 
To level ground, ^ j^^ J^ »ahhal 
al ard. To level or take aim, 
^^luLJjt r^l a^Aas nUhdn. To 
level a cannon, vi«x»JL>fcMi> J 
nayihan al madfa^ ^jr^U^ 
Aarrar attawh. 

Level, «. (plain), ^^Ju^ tnlddn, 

(Ji^^ saU. See Plain.— Level 

(rate, standard), jLx ^tyar, ^^^ 

i^i»»; Cequalitj of rank, etc."), 

^jU^ mukdranat; (proportion), 
^L^L/« mundsahatf ^LLiSy mu- 
wdfakat, «^^^ tasdwl, dAjUx« 
muidbakat* The level of a gun, 
^j'^l^lwLJ itlfAdn attawh. 

Levelled, J9***^ musattah. 

Leveller, s. J9***^ musattih. 
Levelness, i^ULu^ musdwdt, \j:>^\ 

istiwd, <Lj^auJ7 tasmyat. See 

Equality, evenness. 
Lever, «. ^Ocx ^tlat. 
Leveret, s.jJt^i.^j\ amah saghHr. 
Levite, s. levitical, ^5^ Idwl. 
Levity, <U>. khiffat. Levity of be- 

haviour, ^,fl rv. khiffat^ <Lu^^-«« 

\^A ft-Jl sur^t attakalluh. See 

Levy, V. (troops), jjLmS.MH^ lam 

^kar. To levy (collect) tribute 

or taxes, ^^ji^^^}^^ ^^ ^^^ 

Lexicographer, s. {j*jy\.J^\n(3^ 
musannif kdmus. 

Lexicography, ijillljx &t7m alio- 
ghat. A lexicon, <UJJtc^l»:L^ 
kitdh alloghat, ^j^^^^J^ tarfamdn, 


\i kdmus. 


Liable (not exempt), ,c^^^y^ 
mu^ad ila\ ^g^K-^j^ ghayr 
sdlim min. See ObnozioaB. — 
1a«\A^ \a \udia\K)8ition, ^j .lr>^.< 




yjiy mubtah /! marad. Liable 
to error or mistake, laLJl^iS^fflig^ 
taM al ghalat. 
Liar, «. c^jl^ katih^ c^l j^ kasgdh 
(fern. iLj jL^ kdzibat). To prove 
one a liar, c-^j^ iossod. See 
Give the lie. 

lAh^, B. y^i^\:^ kitah h(^UL. See 
Satire, defamation ; accasationi 
charge. — To libel. See Satirise, 
defame. — ^AlibeUer. See Satirist. 
— ^Libellous. See Defamatory. 

Liberal (munificent), ,c*=^ sakhlf 
s^iS karim. Of liberal extraction, 
v^^ sharff, j>^\^^^ kafim 
al ^(ur. Liberal (polite), t--.^>-l^ 
c^jt sahib adah, 


Liberality, a^ karam, [sr* sakhd, 
i^[sr' takhdwat, J^s>- jud. See 

Liberally, >*^^J^ J^ hikoljndin 

wakaram, ij[sr*jCj likol sakhd- 

Libertine, «. (dissolate), (JU %dni, 

/d«i^. See Licentioos. — (irre- 
ligious), jliLjw^ mundfik. See 
Impious. — Libertinism (dissolute- 
ness), i^^ shahwat, \jJb hawd; 
(impiety),yft^ ku/r, jLJ fasdd* 

Liberty, dj^ hurriyaL See Free- 
dom. — (exemption), ^^LiLiu^ 
mu^fdh. See Privilege, im- 
munity. — (relaxation of restraint) 
jlLtl itldk; (leave), JjLsr' 
^'dsa^, <<>rarwj rukhsat. See Per- 
mission. — To set at liberty, j;it) 
ailak, ^jAs^ khaHoi. See Free. 

Libidinous, (Jl^fl aAaAt^finf. See 
Lascivious,luBtful. — ^Libidinously, 

«7<MAaAe0a^. See Lasciviously. 

Libra, ^j\j^\^j) hurf al mUdn. 

See Constellation. 
Librarian, «. c^-^9 w hayyd^ kuth. 

Library, 4. <^^:^f^ kuthiyat, <L:;jL« 

Libration, ^jU^ mu^ddalat 
Lice (plnr. of louse), J4 ibm/. See 

License, S^\— m« „>- Jasdrat, \j^\ 
ijtird. See Liberty, licentious- 
ness. — (permission), i[;l^f ^•^m^i 
Zia>-^ rukhsat, ^j\ i%n. See 

Liberty. — ^To license (permit), 

Licentious, uXh-:^ iratfnAamii^, 
(juJli fdlU, JU^ 9haku See 
Insolent, presumptuous. [wat. 

Licontioud^, i^ViJ^J^ \>>]kft\ iMIkd.- 




licentiooBneas, ^^La^ ihakdwat, 
ImaJ^ ^adam dM. 

Idok, 9. (with the tcmgae), ^^^k. 
kAoi, ^JmI la^; (to beat), 
(.71^ darah. To lick up, ^L 
hida^, ^::j\ ihtala^. SeeDeyoor. 

Liok or licking 1. (with the tongue), 

^^M^ lahi, 4iuk. lahsai; (a blow), 
iijj darhat. Licked with the 
tongne, {juy^ malhiU; (beat), 
^jj^A,^ madrnb. Anything 
licked (or that may be licked), 
^^sr^malhiU, Alicker, ^jt^^t 
Idhis ; (beater), ^^U ddrtb. 

Lickerish (nice in eating), ^j**J6 
nafu, ijjJ^ sharlh. See Delicate, 
Bqueamish, greedy, gluttonous.— 
Lickerishness, ijJU sharah, Jubl^ 
ihardhat. [^assus. 

Licorice, (jw^ *u«, ^y*^^^j^ ^rk 
Lid, I. (of a vessel), Iki ghata. See 
Cover.— The eye-lid, ^^^ jafn 
(plur. ^\a>^\ ajfdn). The hair 
of the eye-lids, ^^^l^ tha^ 

Lie, «. v^j^ kiMb. To give the He, 
C7J J^ ^ssad. To lie or tell a lie. 

Lie, r. (recline), ,X-3l attaka\ 
4>a^" tamaddad. See Lean, rest. 

—To Ke hid, ^^is^l ilWa/a'. 
To lie in prison, ^yMb^liJuu ha^ 
hU hobs. To lie down (take re- 
poee), -1^1 utardh. To lie 
under (to be subject to), ^^zj\ 
%btala\ To lie upon (become an 
obligation or duty), Jp-^L-tf 
«cir ^. To lie with (as man 
with woman), ^^\i>- jdma^ 

Lieutenant, «. aUU^LJ kdyim 
makdm, v.^U ndi/ib, J^^ waial 
(plur. K^ fcukald) ; in the army. 

Lieutenancy, lieutenantship, iAj 
niyabat, iA\S^ wakdlat. 

Life, ji ^mvy iiL>- hay at. The 
present life (this world), JU!U«XJb 
AasS a/ ^dlam. The life to come, 
^rJuiftmUk.! al haydt al ^atidah. 
A long life, Jj^l?^ ^fnr tawil. 
To expose one's life, ^LoT^lf;^ 
khdtar hi haydtihi. 

Lifeless (inanimate), ^^^m.>-<lJL^ 
mdlaho has, (Jjl^u*^ y^^r 
muiaharrik, J^\^ j'dmid. See 
Dead. — (without power or force), 
ijfjil\^ mdlaho kuwat. Lifelessly, 
i!L»y^^^ min ghayr haydh. 

Lifetime, ^^^U'x« muddai al^umr, 
^ Lift, v^ lift up, ^j rafa^f 


mom}. See Elerate, ndse, exalt 
— ^To lift up one's yoice, ij^^^le- 

lofted, lifted up, 9^i/« wuirfa^ 
Lifted up with pride, ^aC:^ uttito- 
hMiff j^f^ maghrikT* See 
Arrogant. — ^A lifter, wjlj rfkfi^ 

Ligament, «. JuS hvyd. See Bond, 

Ligation, ligature, if^J Ha^oi, 

ZcjU^ mMiidsa^a/. See Ligament. 

Light (by which we see), j^ »tlr, 
L^ (?iyd. The dawning light, 
fojvr. See Dawn. — The 
mddy light of the evening cre- 
pusde, ^jLl Bhafak. To bring to 
light, J^j\^\j^\ aihar tTa' al 

vnffud. To come to light, j^ 
J^^ %eh&r hi wufnd. Light 

(instruction), l^ Jb tddib, aJlaj> 
tadtm, ^L^y iarbiyat. See 



Light (lucid), j|^ mi^nt^. See 
Clear, bright — ^Light (not heavy), 
t^»A:s. khaflf. Light-minded, 
unsteady, ^^U? ULyuh. See In- 
constant, trifling. 

Light, r. (set on Are), Ja^ iha^. 
See Inflame, kindle. — To light 
(from a horse or carriage), y^i^j^ 

675 LIG 

huOn. To light (as a bird on a tree, 
etc.), ifJS^\^^}Jj neul ^Oa' 

asiofara. To light or fell upon 
by chance, ^^ ^ad,^^waka^, 
^pu\ attafak. [mash^. 

Lighted (as fire, ftc.), J^«xu^ 
Lighten, v, (flash with thunder), 
^ harak; to shine like light- 
ning, ^ harak ; (to illuminate), 
jJU nawwar; (to exhilarate), 
Jb[ji^\^ hahqf al kkatir. 

Light-footed, yLjiS^^j^ sari^ al 

Light-headed, j^«4!L/t masher. 
Light-hearted, ^J^^^farKdin^jy^u*^ 

fnasrHr. See Cheerfdl, gay, 

Light-house, s, i^U^ mandrat (plur. 

^U^ manaylr)t ^jwyli/fintl*. 

Lightly (without weight), ^asL J^ 
Ukol khiffat, ^\aJl:S^ khaflfan; 
(without cause), u>'^*.*il> hild 
whc^i Uy ^ry^y^ii bUd mHjih ; 

(not chastely), ^l^)L bildtah&rai; 

(without steadiness), «]^)L hUa 

Light-minded, JiuIfwJJ^ khaflf 

al ^ail. See Light. ikhiffai. 
Lightness (want ot ^^^^i^gi^^ 




Lightning, ^ hark. lightning 
darting along in the form of a 
ohain, XaJli ithUat. 

Lights, 9, j\y faw&d (plnr. if Juit 
afyidat). See Longs. 

Lightsome (exhilarating), ^U^^ 
farh&n, '^J^ mufrth. See Gay, 
cheerM; (not dark), jjJ^ mun- 

wir See Luminous. 
Like, adj. Ji^ mUl, J:^ maAlf 
(jii^y muwdftk, J^Ua^ mutdhtk, 
ij\jL^ mushdhih, J jIa^ tnu^ddiL 
See Equal, resembling, likely.— 
To be like, ^uLl shdhah. See 
Kesemble. [resemblance. 

Like. See Likeness, similitude, 

Like, adv. Jl^ mul, ^JtA^ kamisL 
Like the first, Jj^il^ kdlawwal. 
Like a bird in a cage, j j Ull—^ 
j^^^*«i5Jl^ ^<^Jr /t? ^a/iw. Like 
writing on the water (leaving no 
trace behind), Ull^jLC^ji-i-Jl^ 
kannahh ^oM al md. In like 
manner, U^ kama, ul^ J^ kazalik. 

Like, V. ^jMjmJ] istahsan. See 
Approve, choose, love. 

Likelihood, JUi>.l thtimdL See 
Probability, appearance. 

Likely (probable), J^^i^r^ muhta- 
pmI; (probably), J-LjJJl^^ 

Liken, v. See Compare, represent. 
Likeness, ijy^o mrat, J^^^^^J Umail, 

mtM^^t^a^. See Similitude, i^ 
pearance, form. 

Likewise, I *n A dydan, lI^J^ 
hoMlik. See Like manner. 

Liking (approbation), ^^l, m. ■<U»\ 
iatihsdn, ^^j^MacT" iahsin. See Li- 

Lily, I. Mf^^ <ii«an, Jhf3j %anbdk. 

Limb, «. ^^.oc ^ae^il (plur. Lo^l a^<{d). 
Disabled in the limbs, ^aoiiSI c ^lak^ 
maktu^al^adu, A limb (edge, 
border), (^^l>- jdnih, ^U^W 

Limbeck, ^jU^i an^ljl. See Still. 

Lime, ^^yJ^ kUs. Lime or bird- 
lime, ^ J dibL Lime (a sort of 
lemon), ^^^ laymun. To lime. 
See Cement, plaster. — To ensnare 
with birdlime, ^- •1^ r^^c...^ 
^jJb mMek ^Mdjlr hildihk. 

Lime-tree, 8, ^yj-ij taytafun. 

Limit, Jck- hadd. See Bounds, 
border. — ^To limit, JJt^ haddad. 
Limitation, JjJ^s^ tahdld, «x>- 
hadd. Limited, t^^tXs^ mahdud, 
JJu-sr^ muhaddad, 
\ L\m^\d, 9dfl, 




Linden-toree, ^. (j^i^J loysq/tlfi. 

line, 8. lifL ihoH (plur. ^k:^ 
khuiat)fja^ satr ; (a small cord), 
ij * . fv ^^. The line, the 

equator, \fJi\\A:S^khaitalutHca. 
The equinoctial line, Jjoji^k-;. 
khatt mu^tadU. A right line, 

parallel line, cf;|^-:L^ki. khaU 

mutawazl. A curved line, k^ 
^<i^L« ^Aa^ munhanl, A crooked 

lino, — JSc^Lri^ khatt mu^wwqf. 
A circular line, ^ Jcu^^LsL itAa« 
uttM^oi^r. A perpendicular line, 
J^hfhi. khatt ^amud, A diameter 
line, IjS^lLfl;. khatt istiwd, Jai 
katr, Badial lines, radii, tjLfw 
A^U-1 Mtt^ii^ iha^d^f/at Any 
line or mark in writing which 
points to an interlineation or 
error, ILiJliar;. khatt al khatd. 
The foundation lines of a house 
(marked on the ground), m «j 
ratm. Lines on the palm of the 
hand,^ %ar, jlj\J\ asarir. A 
fishing line, *jL^ stnndra, A 
line of a book,^^ satr. A line, 
verse, or heihistich, c L«*a-^ 
mtard^ A line, lines (military 
trenches), t^^^ matdrU. A ( 

line of battle, ujL^ iaf (plur. 
cjy^ «(/¥)• See Battalia.— 
A family line, lineage, J u» „r 
»a«/, c,,«MyuJ nojo^, ^ddUMLi silnlahf 
J-el a«/; (railway), JjJkLllis;. 

Line, v. (a garment), ^^ hattan. 
Lined, ^Ja^ muhattan. To line 
with fortification, ^j^a^ hassanf 
{j^j^iS^^ ^amai matdrU. 

Lineal, linear (composed of lines), 
^Jsj^k:;- khutittl, jLm^ musattar. 
Lineal (genealogical), ^^J^\ ash, 
^ V ,,fctJ notf/f. — ^LineaUy (in a 
direct line). 



hikhattin mustaklm. 

Lineament, j~ij\^\ asdrlr. See 

Linen, ^\s^ kuttdn, c-^ kinnib. 
See Cloth, flax.— A linen cloth 
wrapped round the middle when 
bathing, j^L^lijy fnfat al 

Lingot, 9. i <j „.i Mbikat (plur. 

w1>jLwj Bobdytk). 
Linguist, *. i^cL^UJ Jji^ mu- 

^allam loghdt kaslrat. 

Liniment, >-J^;-^ marham, ^^i^-JbJ 

<^iln. See Balsam, ointment. 
Lining (of a gaxm^nV, ^\fc^^ i«2^. 




Mdnat. HaTing Uning, 

Link, «• (of a ohain)| jiji>^ 
Makat jamlr. The linkB or 
rings of a ooat of mail, ij^j 
taradat ; (a torob), Ji»«i-A ^ 
Mot^oJ, -.Ldu« wUAdk. A link-* 
boy, ^<JS*^*^ motil^fl^f. 

link, 1^. (concatenate), ^Ji^^^ J.^ 
^wuAjoKAr. See Connect, join, 
unite. [al huUdn, 

Linseed (lintaeed), ^^|^ ^sr 

Lint-stock, «. (for firing cannon), 

Lint, L,>^S kinnih. See Flax. — 
Befose of lint, (^^oaJI^L^^ 
mushdkat al kinnih 

LiDtel, », (over a door), LjlSJJLcx 
^tahiU fatokdniyat. 

Lion, «. Jurfl a«(^, wmi <a&&. Lion- 
like, ^jmJI Jl^ iftM/ a%iah^. The 
lion of the faith, ^jJl Jui^ Mod 
addln. The lion of the state, 
^jjJljurf) atad addawlat. The 
lion of Ood, ^1ju»1 asad allah. 
(These are often conferred as 
titles of honour). The lion's 

nose (two stars so called), 
JuaSlu^^ anfal oiod^ 

Lioness, 9. ij^ lahwat (plnr. (Ji^\^ 

Lip, t. ^jlI 9hijfki (plar. $\JLm 
skdfBLh). The lip or edge of any- 
thing, J Jum. See Brim. — 
Full to the lip, <UJ^1^ maian 

M tmtmah. 
Liquefaction, c^.^,jjOlJ tauwih, 

JJiar taMlL 

Liquefiable, S^^Jcj ytdadawwah. 

Liquefy, 1^. ^-'^O dawwah ; (to be- 
come liquid), ^^\ J ^&. 

Liquescent, ^-'^J^ yadnb. 

Liquid, ^U tndyl^, S^^^ i^jrt^. 
To render liquid, ^-^ J dawwah. 
See Liquefy. 

Liquid, «. ^L« mdyi^. See Liquor. 

Liquidate, r. (pay debts), Jm^ 
c:^^bLuLl r<t«a(; a/ hudbdt. 

Liquor, tt md, %-£t« mdyi^. See 

Water. — To macerate, soak, or 

dissolve anything in liquor, «Jj 

naka^ J.^ hal; (strong drink, 

spirituous liquors), <^\jJ^ ihardh, 
iC,^jx e,anhari. 

Liquorice, ^jm^ 9ii«. 

Lisp, r. CjJ ladagh. 

List, «. (catalogue) X^*^ fmhru$&if 
«UjU kdynuU, jiiJ dafUur ; (jm- 
closed grounds for combats or 


tilts), ^f Jw« Mi(^» (pi. ^i>L« 
mayddfn) ; (border of doth), jU^ 
lumAr, ^w^L>- hdsMyai. See 




Border ; alio strip ; desire, choice^ 
willingDess. — To list. Bee En- 
list ; desire, choose ; e^elose. 
Listen, r. • 4> »■» 9&ms^ ^A*\»d\ 
utama^ w>iLu3 ttuamma^ See 
Hear. [tdinU^ 

Listener, %, ^^^m*,^ mustami^ t^^ 
Listening, «. cUcl«s\ XBtimd^ aUw 

9am&^ Listening, /)ar^. wfauw^.^ 

Listless, JiU ghdJU, jyi^Jc^U 

mA ^ndahofarh, L:i£^{ JJi hM 

al i^tind, J^4bf« muhmU. See 

Careless. — Listlessly, JU^^J^ 

biJtol ihmdL Listleesness, J 1^1 

Literal, J^^ harfi, ^J^ laftl, 
^Ltfl mU. The literal meaning, 
^^^^:Jt^ ma^^ laghatol. Liter- 
ally, u-i^^u-i^ ^flr/i» W harff 
Li^ karfiyan. [men. 

Literati, Ulc cu/amd. See Learned 

Literature, i^Si\As> ^Im al adabf 
isjL^ ma^fat. See Learning. 

Litharge (of gold or silver), (J.x3^ 
martak, l^'^C.A.s^ mard&aank. 

Litigant, b. (one engaged in a law- 
snit) **dsw kh<WHf ^<^^«X« mudd^, 
c jlx/« mtmdzi^. Litigant, liti- 
gating, <5^^«>^ mudd^^ tJ^ 

Litigate, v. ^b rfd^**' U^ 
9ia»i&, M^\^ kkdiam, I^jUJ 

Litigation, 4/^4) lin^fffi, or |^<^ 
da^d,lfi>j \i^ mund%a^tf /♦Uc^ \ 
ikhtisdm, A^yo^ khuiUmaif ^^^^ 
kuditfot, !j6\j^ murdfa^t. See 

Litigious, ^J^ mundst^, Uy'*»*-t# 
c |j} «(ZAt3 msd^. SeeQuarrelsoi 

Litter (earned by men), 
muhdjfai, Ja^m:^ nuthmal; (carried 
by camels or elephants), ^«3y^ 

Little (in quality), J^JJ kaM; 
(small), jJu0 %agh\r. To be or 
become little, JJ hal, j ^, % .^^ 
sdr saghlr. 

Little, *. (small part), (^jjj>- i««if I ; 
(a small space of time), iiJj 
dakikat, iJoL. lakuit. SeeUomcnt. 

Littleness, yL^ iighair. See Small- 
ness, meanness. 

Liturgy, s. ^jJHo Udss- 

Live, V. (to be alive), ^U ^h. 
To live in a place, ^^^ ioian. 
See Dwell.— To live well (volup- 
tuously), 4jcJ tana^m. To live 
or cohabit with, ^^^Vi ^dsh 

Livelihood, ^ j j riik, ^J;iS«^ wafc>A%V. 




Liveliness, ^^laJ^LluJ noihdt at- 
tdb^f ij\/>^ hardrat, SeeYivacity, 
sprightliness. [lasting. 

Livelong. See Tedious, durable, 

Lively, l^luJ J^ htkol nashdt. See 
Brisk, cheerfdl. 

■Liver, «. (one who lives), (j*^^ 
^yiih. The liver, J^kibd, jIa^ 

Livery. See Badge. 

Lives (plur, of life), j\i\ a^mdr, 

livid, ^l^ifca^l, J\^idlih. Lividity, 
lividness, ijL^ kabdwat. 

Living (alive), ^-^ hay. Ever living, 

^^y^LS^ Aoy Id yamUt. 

Lixivial, J^MAjtUjt«^L« md ramdd 
/»7y^«f/; (to wash with), ^ ley 
hnghdda, jl^ ramdd. See Lye. 

Lizard, « ^^jy\ abu hurays, ^S^ 
^^,4>m\\ hayyat <iihshami. 

Lo! lijJ^U hdhwazd. See Behold. 

Load, 8. fj^ haml. See Burden. — 
A court-yard in inns, etc., where 
they load and unload beasts of 
burthen, ^U^ khdn, A bearer 
of loads, J^U- hdmil, Jl^ 
hammdl. To lay down a load, 
J.^4^1 Jjj nasauil al hand. 

Load, r. JJt*^ hammdl. To load a 
cannon, «i»iJu«JlciJ c^a^ al 

Loaded, ^^a^s^ m,uha'mmal^ J^W 


Loader, «• Jas^ muhammU, 
Loadstone, 8, ^^^m^LLm nu^And^. 

See Magnet. 
lM!t,9,^^jLJijraghlfkhulm. See 

Bread. — Sugar-loaf, ^■(,>rfc,.Jli 

Loan, «. (of goods), S^L^ ^ydnU ; 
(of money), ,^^^ Jbr(?, ^^J diiyii. 

Loath, a<^'. See Unwilling. 

Loathe, v, ^jokj hayhad, d^ k&reh. 
See Hate, detest. 

Loathful, ijX^ makrnh. See Hate- 
fid, detestable. 

Loathing, s. <i,-j-fel^ kardhiyat, 
i\Jc^\ utikrdh. [Detestable. 

Loathsome, ^j^;^ mtfi&rfiA. See 

Loathsomeness, ^^ nafrat, <Ljb\S 

Loaves, J^iL&i^l arghifat khubz. 

Lobby, «. <^JLj «a^/^. 

Lobe (of the liver, etc.), <t«lc; 

Lobster, «. jj^^a^^^UizLi «a/to^dji 

&tf^I, x.^ karkand. 
Local, cil^^ maitani, .Xs^ mahaOi. 


Locality, ^l-X« tnaJbdn, /%LX« 

makdm, J^*^ mahal, 




liocatian. See Placingi sitaation. 
Lock, 9. (of a door, eto.), Jii kufl. 

Locks, JUit akfdh 
•Locksmith, s. i^T;^^ aankarh 
Lock, V. (Jii kafal. See Shut up, 

confine ; unite, join. 

Locked, JaL« mukaffal, fJJuL:^ 

Locomotion, i^j»^ harakat, i^^^j^\ 

St^^S^^^ a/ mariab (inndri al 

Locust, «. ii}]^ jarddat. 

Lodge, V. (afford one a temporary 

dwelling), sx^s^auL^ sakkanaho 
^indaho, <ir.j.-j<,i^LJp nasssUaho 
f\ haytihi; (to reside), ^jC«i «aibfi. 
See Dwell. — ^To lodge at an inn, 
8Jj\^^\di}jJ neid fil lohdnda. 
To lodge with any person, ^^^ 

Lodge, 8. c^^ ^ay^. See House. 
— (a small house), ■Jt.<nj;.«*i^ 
hayt Boghlr. See Hut. — ^Lodged, 
ffJi^ mvMm, ^\^ sdkin. 

Lodgment (accumulation or colloca- 
tion), «-/!>- jtf 171^; (possession of 
an enemy's work), ^^jliL^b^ 
J jjcSt daU rmUdris al ^adaw. 

Lodger, «. m < «># m^Hm, ^L*i^ 
fntMo/fr-, jjjj nasi/. [makdn. 

Lodging, *. J^ JiwrnsMrf, ^IL» 

Loft, J[LL tahakat. See iloor. — 
A cock-loft, Lj\jyi\SA^ tabakat 
al fawkdniyat. 

Loftily (haughtily),yjiicj bitakahhur, 
[jj^Jij hikol kdbriydj <ulaf.J^ 
hikol ^fMmat. See Proudly. — 
(on high), ^Vc^ldj ^> makdn 
^d/i. See Sublimely. 

Loftiness (haughtines8)jIC3^a^iNr. 
See Pride.— (height), ^LA-Jjt 

Lofty (haaghty),^^Jc^ mutakabbir, 

j^jt^ mayhrar. See Proud. — 

(high), ^U ^aft. 
Loggerhead, ». (^'^^*>^ haytpdn, 

^jy«-J ^4, jl^ Atmdr. See 

Blockhead, dunce. 
Logic, j;l3:^ mantik, ^W^aWAc 

^mal mantik. Logical, ^^^aL;i^ 

matMil^ /a&f7m a/ mantik. A 
logician, j!bi>^fXf^ mu^Uim 
mantik^ l^^^^^^ fMfttakl. 

Loin, «. loins, ^,.>^l..<^ n</5. 

Loiter, v. JJJLj takd$al, See 
Linger, to be idle. 

Loiterer, s. ^^X^Sz^ fnutakdstlf 

^JL^ buidn. See Idler. 

Loitering, J 1^1 ihmdly ,^J^ koMi. 
See Lingering. 

Lone, loneeome^ Vsu^^j^ «^' 




munfarid. See Alanei solitary, 
single. — Loneliness, loneness, 
i^j^ hhaUoat See Solitude. 
Long (not short), Jj^ tt^L Long 
and broad, ^^j^^fj^jip tawil 
wa^rid, A long time, ifjj«x«jfjt^ 
muddat madid^% To be or be- 
eome long, J^ tuwel. To make 

^Mmalah0 isMlL Long ago, ^ 

XJj^SjL* fiiffi muddat taiwilat. 

A long way off, J^ju ^&f el. See 


^Q^f ^* jLi^i^A^ uhtdk. See 
Desire, wish for. [Boat. 

Long-boat, 9. ^j^ kdrih. See 

Longevity. J^ <«/, ^^.*«Hil^ /«fe^ 
a/ ^tfffir. 

Longimanus (long-handed), J>^^ 
^^jy\ Utwll al ayddl. 

Longing, «. i^ mghM, j^ 
shawkf jL::^! Uhtiy&k, See 
Desire. — ^Longingly, jjLi-ilJ^ 
^t'^o/ ishtiydh 

Longitude, J^ ^ft/. A degree of 
longitude, J^t^jJ dttrajat 
attul, [clemency. 

Long-suffering. See Patient; also 

Longways, longwise, "ijb talan, 

Jj}s}b hittnL [Clown. 

^^*7/ J-^" ^«*J/, LS to5a. See 

Look, r. Ja) n^sur; (to be cireom- 
i4>eot, vigilant), aSLj^ j <{dr hdlaho. 
To look for (expect), jkij \ intasMr, 
To look into, ^jcsf^ tafahhat. 
See Examine. — To look on (re- 
spect, regard), ^^^W'^^^or. See 
Esteem. — (to be a spectator), ^\j 
rda^ JJbLl shdhad. To look out 
(seek, search), Ji^ fattoih ; (to 
behold), j^ funar. To look 
through half-shut eyes, la^ lahm^ 
^r.^r^ ; U*« lU tdUa^ hi taraf 
coynihi. Look I Jojl unsur. 

Look, Aaj namr. See Sight. — 
(appearance), A5»-» u^a;.^, J^i^ 
^ra^, ^ • ^ mantar. See 

Looker, looker on, ». J^li nd%ir. 
See Spectator. 

Looking-glass, «. l\j^ mirdt. 

Loom, «. (for a lady), jf******^ tnan$i^', 
(for a weaver), Jy naW. 

Loose, V. (untie), uX* /aX, J.>. 
halt (to disengage, set free), ^jiolfi^ 
khaUas, To loose a knot, Jk»- 
ilj^\ Aa/ al ^ukdaL To loose 
the belly, Jj^\ ashal. See 
Under looseness. — To loose a 
belt, CSi fak. To loose and 




Loose (unbound, untied), J^^^^ 
mahiiLl; (reiaxed)^ ^^>yiM^ mtu- 

tarkhl; (hanging down), j;l«^ 
wtu^aUak; (indeterminate), ^^ 
^j^iM^ ghayr mu^yyan, Cf^^Xsr^j^ 
ghayr mahdiUl, See Vague. 

Loosed, J^ljc^ mahlnL 

Loosely (not fest), *j^^^ hfrakhd- 
wat; (without bondage), ^\jjh 

hldribdt; (irregularly), ^^jh 
hUd tarfih, /^^h bild ni%am; 

(carelessly), J^l^J^ blkoltahd- 

mtd, SeeNegligently. — (meanly), 

j^£>^cyj hinaw^n Aaitfr.— To 

sew loosely, JJli shal, [part. 

Loosen, v. J^ hal. See Loose, relax, 

Looseness (unfixedness), j|^l^«Xc 
^adam al kardr, (flabbiness, 
laxity), ijL-^j rakhdwat; (ir- 
regularity), t^-w^l^tAxi ^adam 
al tartib, AVt v H>Jlc ^adam 
annizdm; (want of chastity), >«\£ 

^1^1 ^adam attahdrat, i^^ 
shahwat. See Dissoluteness. — (a 
diarrhoea), J 1^1 uhdl, ^ lln. 
To have a looseness, J^aaJI 
insahaL See Flux. — ^To give a 
looseness, J^l o^W. 
Lop, V. (trees), jLk^JII^ koMh al 
ashjdr, 2"^ kata^. See Cut. 

Lop, lopping, s, i^\^ koidhat. 

A lopper, -U»^ kaudh. 

Loquacious, ^KJ]^ ^■■f.iT ibwfr a/ 
kaldtn. Loquacity, ^Klli^jL^ 
kaiirat al kaldm. 

Lord, «. (English title), J;jl hrd^ 
(as general qualification), Ju^i 
aayyid, "iy or ^yt mawla\ My 
lord, i^Ju^b yS sayyadl. My 
Lord (to God, etc.), ^Jj^ ya 
rabbi; (or My Lord and God), ^Jj^l 
^1j ya ra^^» wa Ulahl. See 
Sovereign, governor, ruler, master, 
noble. [neer, govern, rule. 

Lord, V. J^ hdkam. See Domi- 

Lose, 1^. (opposed to find), 
dayya^; (opposed to gain), 
khe$er. To lose one's labour, 
(J^^^Uu^jL^ dayya^ ta^ako 
^as, jLUUc^ U^ebbabdM. 
To lose the way, JJ^bcli dd^ 
bH tarik. See Wander.— To lose 
hope, \p^J\^ai kaUt^arrqfd. 

Loser, «. ^Xd^ mtMisyyt ^, ^)|^«m£w 

Loss, ^^diAJ nakifjj^ darar, iJLttS^ 
khasdratf i^]j***£>^ khturdn. See 
Deprivation, destruotion, miss. — 
To be at a lo8s,^l». hdr. 

Lost, JjMu* ma/kud^ ^^«^ div.<^v^ 




^\i gh&yib. To be lost, eli 

Lot, «. ^ '^••nj noHh, ^UywyJi ib^nna^, 

. £^». Aii«aA or Auio^ ; (dice), 

<U^ kur^t. See Luck, fortune, 

portion. — ^To cast or draw lots, 

LoteiXree), ^^Si^handakak. The 
Egyptian lo te tree, 4,j^^<ia^ jy JCk>- 
handakuk mMrl. [Washing. 

Lotion, ^Q J Vtui 3 toihtif. Bee 

Lottery, «. Afi^ ^ur^oA, <>^.^j«fljl> 
yd luwf ft. 

Loud, (^y ^iri. See Noisy, cla- 
morous, turbulent. — A loud wind. 
L,Ac\c\^ hawd ^tif. See Wind. 
— A loud voice, ^Uc->^ sawt 

Love, fjMS^ ^uhk. The love of 
one's country, ^^!v.^^^>- hibh al 
watan. To be in love, (jj^ 
^hek. See Like, esteem, value. — 
Distractedly in love, ^jii^^^U 
^shik maft^n. To make love, 
fjj^ ^kek. For the love of 

God, ^^ J-;w^4 fi '^^^ ^^> 
6^\ L***^ hiihatan illah, Aleve- 
letter, ^JJ^n^iyX^ tnaktiLh ^hk. 

Love-apple, ij^Ci\j>^ handdnra, 

Loved, ^y^^'J^ ma^shnk, c. 
mahbub ; also a beloved object, a 

Loveliness, Jh^ ^hk; (beauty), 
^^^*M^ husn, Jl^sj- jamdl, iil^ 
tardfat. See Gracefulness. 

Lovely, i}^^^^ jamll, (^Jal latif. 

Lover, 8. ^^U ^dshik (plur. ^IwLe 
^tMAdl;), t^^m»r^ habibf l^^iv^ 
muhtb. A lover and his beloved, 
^yjjL^i^fJJ^\c ^Mk tea ma^" 
shtik, c,;^^;,^r^ju,, ^„ J ,,.f». Ao^i 

Loving, /tot^.^jmI If ^shik, \^^Kr^ 

muhtb. See Friendly. 
Loving-kindness, <Ud^ i9MirA0f9Mi^, 

See Mercy, tenderness. 
Lovingly, <LAtfr^ Jiu ^>^/mtiAa&M, 


Louse, «. <lL«j kandat. A wall or 
paper louse, ^ bakkat, ^tuLuS 

Lousiness, J^^^*^ ^al-ml/. 

Lousy, ^3^kL« mukammil. 

Low (not high), ^1j tra/f ; (mean, 
abject), j^;^ hakir, ^jj rfan, 
^J (fanf. See Dishonourable, 
depressed, humble. — (deep), ^J^ 

^_5^aKr^^^Urjb hddinjdn >raiyu\ ^mlk. 




Low, V. ^1^ watil. See Lower. 
Lower (comparative of low), ^jl 

awta', JaJ^ asfal. See Inferior. 

— The lower part of anjrthing, 

tS^\ adna\ Lowest, lowermost. 

^y^U Ji*«}l a%fdl mdyakUn. 
Lowlily (without pride), {-^^W^ 

hi tat€ddu^ ; (meanly), ^c jju 

jiJ^ hi mxto^n hakHr. 
Lowliness (humility), ^f\^ tawd- 

du^, c ^»ufw khushiL^. See Sab- 

missiveness (meanness), J J zil; 

(want of dignity), i^tiL^/^tXc 

^adam ^amnuU. 
Lowly (humble), ^«p\js^ fmUa- 

wddi^. See Submissive ; (mean), 

ji»A»^ hakir, ^^J dUn, JJ J %aiU, 
Lowness (want of height), /♦J^ 

^U3^1 ^adam irtifd^; (meanness), 

iiU»- hakdrat. See Lowliness. 
Low-spirited, K^A'^\\jy*S^ makiUtr 

al kcdb, Jh\s^\jyyS^ tncJ^Hr al 

khdtir. See Dejected. 
Loyal, ^^^\ amfw, jjU 9dd%k, 

^Ja^ mutl^j ^»aA1am^ mtM^ibm. 
Loyalist, «. ^Ijuo^J sa saddkat. 
Loyally, dUlA::u«»l JXj Mkolistikdnuti, 

iJ\iXaJlCj hikol saddkat. 

Loyalty, icU»l tVfi^a^, JUUjl^I 

utikdmat, Xilju^ ioddkaU See 

Lubricate, i^. ^^fc>;/« mardan, ^J 

dahan. See Smooth, make slip- 

Lucid, lucent, ^^;«i/« mMnlr, b«S 
tem^. See Bright, light, glit- 
tering, transparent. 

Luck, (c.^ haikht^ L-^«>fl3 lUMf^ 
<UmJ humat, ^It ^d/t^. GK>od 
luck, luckiness, JUt tiJUd/. Bad 
luck, yttJB^ nahs. See Fortune, 
chance, accident. — what luck ! 
a;ft*.rf^U9^^U yd laho min 
tdli^ ta^d ! 

Luckily, JLSlj^jui-aJJj Mwl 
sa^mwatkhdl. See Fortunately. 

Luckless, ^^^ manhiU, d]U 
^,i»a3 mdlaho naslh. See Un- 
happy, unfortunate. 

Lucky, JutMA.^ muB^ad^ \__-r^\^ 
y.z.^^ sdhib hakht, ^s^^^^ 
k^pi^ kawi hakhiuho iayyih. See 

Lucrative, Jui« mufld, ^U ndfi^, 
^j^ m^rhih, if Ju U i^fiMfdyidat. 
See AdvaiKtageoos, profitable. 

Lucre, 9dJ\i fdyidat, ^ naf^, 
v,^^^ C ^ ma^o^. See Gain. 

Lucubrate, v, (study in the night- 
time), J-JJV(jm;0 dor at hil layU. 

Ludicrous, ^jJef*^ ma%khara. Lu- 





khara, LtidictousneM, 

Luggage, L^LJi asbah, ^'^ 
hawdyij. See Baggage. 

Lakewarm (moderately wann)y\i 
fitir, JjcjK^ mu^adU. Lake- 
warm water, ^liU i«fl fiitir; 
(indifferent, not zealous), Jj\i 
JfHtir, ij^^\^ mdldho ghlrat. 
Lukewarmly, JljCLcb bi i^iddl; 
(coldly, indifferently), Jj^^ Jiu 
bihl burndat ; (indifference), 
ij^ J burudat, i^/^^Xz ^adam 

Luminary, 9,jyi ntlr, Lip dtyd. See 
Light.— The greater and lesser 
luminaries (the sun and moon), 
^jjj^ nMn, The greater lumi- 
nary, Ja&dl1^\ anntr al a^m. 
See Sun. — ^The lesser luminary, 

JlJI\j^\ annir at asghar. See 

Luminous, ji^.^ iMttifunr^j^^ mimfr, 

^^3 l&mi^tjyi t ^lu idU^ annur. 

See Bright, light, shining. 
Limacy, \ J^ lat^^, ^y^ j>i«iiGii. 

Bee Madness. 
Lunar, t^yM kammrl. 
Lunated (like a crescent or half- 

woon), J3L;J^ Ji^ ww^ <>^ A«fe/. 
Lunutio, ^yJB^ mBJniin. BteMad. 


Lunation, «. (revolution of the 
moon), jAsl\jyi d€fwr al tamar; 
(month), ^^ thahr. 

Luncheon, «. (meal), Ijkitjlj tdnl 
yhadd ; (a piece), isJiaii kit^ai. 

Lungs, s, ^J\ mriyah. 

Lupine, «. (j^^^ ^tinmM. 

Lurch, tr. See Deceive. — (to de- 
vour), ^Jj hUa^. 

Lure, «. ^Ani? ^a^fTio^, hj^ jmtbMi. 

Lurk, 1^. , cdk^ takhahba\ 

Luscious, y»> huliky s^sc cuM. 

See Sweet. 
Lust, if^fil Bhahioat (plur. CL>U^ 

«A«^e^#), ly^ ^iird. 
Lustfol, jH>^li/8fffiE;, ^JLij na/ktnf. 

A lustful man, (jt ; sdnf . 
Lustfully, »^ J^ ^'Jto/ «ilaAiM^. 
Lustily, iyjjij bikol Hwai. See 

Vigorously. [See Vigour. 

Lustiness, lustihood, JJJ ihitMf. 

Lustration (water for), ^^ wada. 
See Ablation. 

Lustre (brightness), L^ diyd. See 
Splendor, glitter. — (renown), 
^^Joe ^awmat, i^\^ kardmmt. 

Lusty, (^y kaw\. See Vigorous. 

Luxate, «. (disjoint), ^Jb;^ khala^ 
CSifak, :^ foiakh. See Dis- 
locate. — Luxation, ^ fmskh, 
^ls^\ inkhildc. 




Luziiriaiieei Inzoriancy, \9\jk\ tfrdt, 

i^ hmraty iji^ wafrat. 
Lnxorianty j^ koAr, j3\^ t^Jlr, 

f^\i fdyid. 
Luxuriantly, ^W? ^^ ^ naw^ 

w&fr, \j^ kasfran. 
Luxurious, itb\jJ^ H''^^ ^ ^^ 

thardhat, mscs^ mutafm^i^m. 
Luxuriously, ^^jcJ Jij hiM tana^i^wn 
Luxury, luxuriousness, ^<i,.v,,7 

Lycanthropy (a kind of madness in 
which men have the quality of 
wild beasts), i^Joi iatrdb. 

Lying, 9, (telling a lie), c^!j^ 

haudh ; (reclining), «Cj; 


Lymph, >» v . ■>» ■ ^* ^^^j^^^***^J i J w^ 
CL^lJij^^^A.^ nhddat Uuri f\ 
4i^9dm al haywdn wdl nahdt. 

Lynx, s. s^ fahd, 

Ljrre, «. J^ cu^ See Harp. 


M has in English one unvaried 
sound, and is expressed in Arabic 
by /♦ ; asy4i hamar. The moon.' 

Maoearoni (thin paste), ^j^^;^^ 
ma^karAnf J^^JX^ mdkaroni. 

Maee, «. (sceptre), c^-^j.ijil kculib; 

(a dub or staff plated with 

or gold carried befoce great men), 

Macerate, v. (make lean), ujul^ 
da^i^afi (to mortify the flesh), 
^^Jci\^ ka»qr annafi^ O'tt^ 

Maceration (making lean), ujlyt^S 
tad^f; (mortification of the flesh), 
ijVt] amdtai \ (steeping) ^u ntik^ 

Machinate, v. J \i^\ thtdl^ XJu». Jbf 
^omo/ Af/o/. See Clontrive, plan. 

Machination, <iJu»> AU^, JU:i^»^l 
fA^i^d/, Ju^ %<{. See Con- 
trivance, fraud. 

Machine, s. ^T dM, or ZiT SM 

(plur. CL9S\ oMd, (-r'Sj^ <^«^^. 
See Engine. 

Machinery, ^3j<^ <^ftMM. 

Mad, ^y»^ mofiiiln. To be mad 
with love, ^f^ maflikn. 

Mad, madden, v. (make mad), ^jiip^ 
f'mman, ^yur^AU^ ^amiUako 
tnqfwAn ; (to be or become mad), 
^^yjr^ltf idr mqfnUn, ^^ Jan. 

Madam, UbU iiidiiarma. 

Mad-brained, mad-cap, ^j '»ir^ 
4fM2ffi<n. See Mad. 

Madder, irp /«tf^A. 

Mad dog, 9. J^s^ kM iaibdn. 

Made (jiori. qI Taakft^^ ^^^ 

MAO 688 

ntaf^aJf ^^1*^^ moiHU^f Jy*'^^ 

Mad-house, «. ^^^j^ marst&n^ 

Madly, ^^^ hif9mnn,^jyj^\ Jt^ 
mM al mqfnUn. 

MadmaHi i, {^y"^ nu^Mn. 

Madness, ^y^ jun^n. The mad- 
ness of youth, i^\ji^\^y^ 
JunUn ashshahdh. 

Madrigal, 9. (pastoral song), if Ju«aji 
_e|^l katidat orrd^I. 

Magazine, «• f^^}ss^ fnakhjum ; (of 
arms), JLJUj ddr aisiUdh, 

Maggot, ». ^Jj J dudat. 

Magi (worshippers of fire), f^y^ 
mujus. One of the Magi, ^^y^ 
majUsl. The religion of the 
Magi, i^ys^ majiUiyat 

Magician, ^^L) sdhir^J^^ sakhdr. 
See Enchanter, necromancer. — 
Magicians^ ijsr^ saharat. 

Magisterial, .^( r« ^ mutaiahhirt 
<UJbu;.''«>-li0 «d^A hayhai. See 
Arrogant; lofty, proud. — (such 
as suits a lord or master), ^««^l»- 

Magisterially, yf^ ^' takabhur. 
See Proudly.-— (suitably to a 
master), .^fj^^Jla^ hi hukmin wa 
^ amr, ^LiLj^.jX^ hihol riyd^ai. \ 


Magisterialnes8,^^I0 iakdbhur. See 

Magistracy, JL«yl>- Atiihl»Mi^, ^)^ 

wdldyat, 'L»\ij rtydsaif tdS ibid. 

Magistrate, «• iS^ hakim. 

Magnanimity, 44Jb himmat. 

Magnanimous, JuJbc»i^i».lig «dAt& 
himmat, iji^\^ls> ^ah al himmat, 
cl^ shufd^ i^J^i^^'^\^ adhib 
shawkat, jy**^ jasHr. Magnan- 
imously, iAJblju hi^H himmat. 

Magnet, ^^jVi^tr^ maghnatU. See 

Magnetical, magnetic, ^m^\.n^ 
maghnaHsi. See Attractive. — 
The magnetic needle, ^U^Jjl 
ktblat ndma. 

Magnetism, ^,*\-\\it a \\^\yj:>' 

khawd8 al maghnatis. See At- 

Magnificence, l^yJ^ skawkat, ^^]ar 

^azamai, J^L>* jaldl, H 1U»'»- 

jaldlat, JlL^\j Jus^ mqfd wa ijldl^ 

JLifj^j J dawlat wa ikhdl, 4.J^ 

sharaf. See Grandeur, splendor. 

Magnificent, JJLs^lc^^.'v-lig idhih 
al jaldl, iiyi\\^^»J\^ adhih al 
aizat, jj^ ^zim, J0S kakVr, 
jjj^ ^aziz, JJj>- jam, u-fl^ 
iharif, (^^^ mufakhkham. See 
Qt^xid^ ^mpous, splendid.— 




Moat magnificent, f>J\ abnm, 

Ifftgnificently, ^.^lar.jG hUtol ^wuh 

mat, (S^jj^iJ^ ^^^ t.^ ^^ 
jaM. [mufiMkham, 

Magnified, fiax^ mu^aaam, f^^ 

•I * 
Kagnifier, «. Jax^ mu^aiam, (^^^ 

mufakhkhim, yc^ mu^im. 

Magnify, v. ^ fakhkham, Ja^ 

^tsam, mS karram^js. ^oss. See 

Extol, exaggerate, exalt, eleyate. 

Magnitude, ^Uujj tous^t, 
fashatfj^ kubr. See Size, large- 
ness, bigness. 

Magpie, i. ^JmSs- ^^{^, A green 
magpie, ^j\j^ shakrdk. 

Maid, maiden, «. c:^ ^n^. The 
Virgin Mary, J^l^^^ mofyam 
al hatuh 

Maiden, adf.J^ hikr. 

Maidenhead, maidenhood, ^LJIj 
hakdrai. See Virginity. — ^To take 
a maidenhead, ^ICJl J\j1 mdl al 
hakdrat. See Violate. 

Maidenhair (a plant), j^MjQ^ 
haharat al lir. 

Maidenly, c::.^! Ji;^ mM al hint 

Maid-servant, s, K^jUw khddtmat 

or S^\s^ khadd&mai. See Slave 


]ICail (annour), cjJ dir^ (plor. 
fjjl adru^ &jjJ<^Mra^). Armed 
with a coat of mail, &jjc^ 
ifMf^adlam^. The intertextore of 
the rings of a coat of mail, Jij 

Mail, «• (bag, letter-bag), (^m^ 

il^lCJl ;(f« a/ makdM. See 

Maim, v, )aSL^ sakkat^ j^ ^mowar. 
See Lame, wound. 

Maim, %, kLa 9akat, ^Pr j^^* 
See Wound, lameness, defect. 

Maimed, ^}j^ tnqfruh, ]aL^ sakaL 

Main, adf. Jjl awwal, /^jJL* mtf- 
kaddam. See Chief, principal. — 
(important), ^ mtiAfm ; (forcible, 
violent), (^y Jb«7f, Jj Jj» shadld. 
The main (chief part), ^^iiSf-yaifi^, 
^^ kasarat, k^Xr\ aghlah. See 
Sum, total. — Main or main force, 
if jJa shiddat. The main or ocean, 
k;jBr^|^^ ^o^ir a/ muhit. A 
main (hamper), J^J fuinbU. 
See Basket. — ^The main chance, 
j^^\^j»Ju nafi ai amr. The main- 
land, main, or continent, y W. 
See Earth. — The main land and 
main ocean, toTj^ ^ ^^ hahr* 

Mainly, VAVi. gtolQ^OH^IT^ ouamOUmik, 




See Chiefly. — (powerfully), JCi 
iy hikd Hwat 

Mam-masty s, ^^M^i^^UJl assdri 
0I kabU; The main-sail or main- 
9heet,j^\^j kal^ ai kdbir. 

Maintain, v, (affirm) j^ horror \ 
(to defend by argam«it or proof), 
^jJb^ hmrhan ; (to continue), >«jl J 

Maintainable (justifiable), ,«^lesX[ 
Ale yutdh&nuf t,afmoko. 

Maintenance, CL?^ ihl^, A^umjc*^ ma- 
^U^. See Living, food, suste- 
nance, livelihood. — (support, de- 
fence), <iajU^ m^ih&fmot, f»U»- 
him&yoi. See Continuance, de- 
fence, support, protection. 

Hain*topmast, 9 jr^^i>^J^^ij*^^j 
rds assdfi oi Mir. 

Majestic, ^y^ mulukl, J^^Jls»- 
Jalil, 4dMJb«^.^....».L0 8dhih hayhat. 
See August, imperial, pompous, 
splendid, magnificent, lofty, sub- 
lime.-— Majestically, I A Vir. JJo 

hiM ^atamaty iJi^JCj hihol 
Miyeety (dignity), iJlip^ jaldlat, 

A^Jb hofhoit ; (king's address), 

ijoc^ kadrot. 

^^Mom, See Greater. 


Migor, «. (military officer), ^j^^^j^^ 
Mn hdahl, A m^cwdomo, A9U 
.^^k«l\ nazar td mathakh. The 
major (first proposition of a syllo- 
gism), 4^^ kuhra* ; (of full age), 
4Jb hdligh. 

Majority,^! akutr^ (full age, end 
of minority), 4 ^ hdikgh. To 

arrive at majority), ^l^L^ tdr 
Make, r. Jju /a^o/. See Act, do, 
practise, perform, execute, form, 
construct, compose, create, com- 
mit, compel, force, cause. — To 
make away, make away with 
(kiU), JiJ hatal. See Ell, 
destroy. — To make account 
(reckon), u^L^ Jif ^omalhUah. 
See Compute. — (to believe), ^j^\ 
aman. To make account of,^^l 
iUahar, See Esteem. — ^To make 
free with (treat without oere- 
mony), uJJicJl^J^ ^At ^" 
tdklif. To make good (prove), jj 
harraryj^\ azhar, c:-^ mbhat. 
To make love, Jhu^ ^osheh, ^ 
<U^^ ^amal muhahhot. See 
Court; an<^tm^love. — ^Tolnake 

of (produce effect), Jl mmt ; (to 
undeFstaud), ^ fehmn. See 
Com^\^\i^iid. — ^To make out (ex- 




plain), |4i fdkham. See Prove. 
— (to make dear to one's aelf), 
cL^ j1 ai^'ok. To make np (re- 
oonoile), ^U %alak\ (to oom- 

ponnd), \,^j rakkah ; (to com- 
plete), ma3 tammam. 

Make (form, stature), ^^y^ji tarkib, 
ijya $fLrat, JCmi ihakl. See 
Fig;are, shape. 

Maker, $. J^U ^amil, J^ li fH^d, 
^\^ 8dni^, [See Disease. 

Malady, b, i^fj^ marad, ^^j icafa^. 

Malapert, malapertness, etc. See 

Male,^J zak^r (plur. j^J suitor), 
Male and female, l<^|j[^^ takar 
wa tmta\ A male animal, J^::^ 
fM. See Stallion. 

Maladministration, 2n t j) I > Jlc ^tuknn 
altddrah, A V> v H^Jlc ^adam 
annhdm. See Mismanagement. 

Malcontent (dissatisfied), ^\jj^ 

ffha^fT rddl. See Discontented. 

Malediction, «. d^jJ la^nai. See 

Male&ction, c^^wJJ «m&. See 
Crime. — A malefactor, aj -y^ 
fittjfrtm. See Criminal. 

Malpractice, kj'^jjf ^amal radi, 


Malevolence, malice, maliciousness, 
malignity, ifjl J^ railatMi^. 

Malevolent, malicious, malignant, 
^^J;^LJl fASAn ftN^. The 
malevolent (men), iXAk.t<i^b;^ 
arhdh al hdkad. 

Malevolently, malioiou8ly,maKgniiy^ 

""'^ig^* ^A>M^» W^A^attk 

radiyah, [tious. 

Malign. See Unfavourahle, infeo- 

Mall, mallet, 9. ^j^^ ehAhi^. 

Mall, malleate, v. ^^Ls)b jj d§k 

ha ehdkaj. 

Mallow (aplant), ij^^^ khubhayuat, 
(^L>- khubdzh 

Malversation, XJu>* hikU. Sie 
Eiiavery, artifice. 

Man (mankind), ^Lj\ midn^jJLi 
baehar; (a nude of the human 
species), (J^j ni;o/. A common 
man,^ nafar. 

Manage, v,J)J dahhar,^\j hMar, 
S»- hakamy \}^^^/^^ afn^ml 
^amal. See Govern, conduct, 
treat. [jatiadi^r. 

Manageable, ^jJusJf Jj\S kdhtl 

Management, ^JJ tMlr, ^L« 
mukdiharut, £L«U^ imt^dmabi^, 
Jbf ^mal. Bee Administration, 
conduct, dexterity, practice. 

Manager, s. j^V^ m^<k%K\T> >^^ 




waklh See Conductor, governor, 
Mandate, «. S»- hukm^ j^\ amr, 
^S^y tawAjfoh. See Command, 


Mandatory, (jT^^^ amri. 

Manes, JL^ khaydl. See Ohost. 

Mange, «• manginess, ^^ jardb. 
See Scab. 

Manger, %. t— d-U^ ma^f^ (plor. 
LijUU^ ma(,dlif, JjtX« madwad). 
M«Bgy,f^\jj^jarhdn. See Scabby, 
Manhood (in opposition to woman- 
hood), i^^j rajaliyat. 
Maniacal, ^fi^ majnan. 
Manifest, ybll? zdhirj ^\^ wddih, 
Mf^^^^muttadihf,, y^^^i^^ mustabin, 
^\) hdyin. [discover, explain. 
Manifest, v.j^\ azhar. See Show, 
Manifestation, manifestness, j\^\ 
issMvyj^ sttAflr. See Discovery, 
publication, clearness, [yvsihar. 
Manifestable, -JbLl? tdhify Ja^ 
Manifestly, l^li? zdhiran. See Evi- 
dently, clearly. 
Manifesto, «. Jlk.1 ijyc aUrat al hdl, 
Manifold,yl^ mutakdsir. 
Mankind, /% Ji. j^ hani ddam, i >mJ.>- 

• r 

Manna, ^ numn, lalbashar. 

Maimer, ^j iffaj'h, (jijo tarllk, 


ij\^ manwdl, cL^^ui «t</fii^ if jU 
^dat. See Habit, custom, way, 
mode ; (disposition of the mind), 

Jb\sL khdtir, i^jJL^ maahrah, 
^\j^ mfk4; (sort), a. mi, .i kum^ 
W*^J*^t f y fMw^. See Kind ; 
(air, cast of the look), ^^ toajh^ 

Jcu na%ar. See Mien. — ^Manners, 

u-^bT dddh, j^\ ahhldh. See 

Morals, politeness, civility, cere- 

Mannerly (polite), <^«Xf« maluaaab^ 

muaddah See Civil, ceremonious ; 

(politely), ^(ililj^ hikol hUf^ 

^Iua1>«1J^ 3tib/ ihtishdm. 
Mansion, s. ^^^^^, hayt, jlj ddr^ 

J^ manzal, aIL* maibam, /^^^ 

makdn, ^^ - x matron. See 

Abode, house, residence. 
Manslaughter, (jMUlJiJitatfafiiicU. 

See Homicide, murder. 
Mantle, «. Ja:^.^ manto. See Cloak. 
Manual, i^Jj ^a(^ (performed by 

the hand), jJl<U:i.^ san^talyadd. 

A manual (small book),^;ywi^\2^ 

kiidh Boghir, 

Manufacture, J^ ^mdlf -* * • ,r 
san^t, Sjy^suiVt mdni /attara^ 

Manufacturer, «. vjL^ sdnt^n See 
Maker, artist, artificer. 




Manumission, J^^ ^k, CSi fok. 

The manomission of a slaye after 

the death of his master, ^jps. 

i^^ LtfCJy* Juu JljJ \ ^atk al ^d 

ha^mawtsdhibtho. An Arabian 

formula of manumission, u:^1 

<LjL} anii Bdyhah (•'. e. You are 
free). [.aUtJt. 

Manumit, v. fj:s.\ a^ak, j;iLI 

Manurable (capable of cultivation), 

9»^ J ff^ yanfailih wa yamari^ 

Manuscript, Jjkf^^t^l:;^ kitob khat 

Many (a great many), jJi^ kasir. 
How many? *Xs>^\^Jkamtcdhidf 
Many times, gj^L2j\y ^larrdt 
katirah. Many colored, ^^^J^ 
^Ijlil ka^r al ahodn. Many 
words, (^^ij^ kisrat kdldm. 

Map, 9, ^d^^lsL khdrita. 

Mar, V, j>c dar^ j*M^ khasaar. See 
Harm, hurt, injure, spoil. 

Marble, ^.^^ tnarmar, (^\^j rikhdm. 
Marble (made of marble), ^^^^'^j 
rikhdmi, iJr^r^ marmari. 

Marcasite, UauMJjU or llJtJ^l^ 

March (month), j\j\ addr. 

March, v. ^J^ meshi. 

March, s, ^^J^ mashi. [limits. 

Marches. See Borders, oonfnes, 

Marchpane, t, \yA.^^ halawd (plur. 
C^UjIl>. hidwiydt). 

Mare, 8. i^ faraSf ^^ farasah. 

Margarite, «. ^j! luliyih. See Pearl. 

Margin, A^\^ hdshiyah. The mar- 
gin of a page, ^uJ^\^ h&Bhiyah 

(plur. L5^^^ hawdsht). 
MarginaL A marginal note, ^LJ»W 

hd8hiyah* To write marginid notes 

on a hook, i^\^^^^i^ katah 

Marine, ^jB^, hahri. A marine 

(soldier), ^^j^^^^f^***^ ^kari 
Mariner, s. lJj°^ hahri. [.hahri. 
Marjorum (a fragrant plant), (j^^ 

J-iJl hdbak al fil, ^^fTjj^ 

Maritime (belonging to the sea), 

i^jS^, hdhri; (bordering on the 

sea),^^lJ>.L» Jlc ^a^ sdhU 

al hahr. 
Mark, s. ^.^)Le ^e^mat (plur. 

CL^UIU ^aldmdt), ij\j^\ ishdrat. 

A mark or proof, jLc ^ydr. The 

stamp-master's mark on gold or 

silver, iJ^J damghah. 

Mark, v. Jx ^aUam, l^^J^ ^mal 
^aldmat, g^j raaam. To mark 
with orthographical points, c^^l 
a^ah, ]aSj nakkat To mark or 
take notice oi, ^a>^i lOLKoak. "^^ 




mark weights or measoret, jSx> 

^yyar. [Mdrat. 

Marker, «. J^U»S1 J«U ^mU •! 

Market itr market-plaoe, «. ^^ 9QJc, 
iljb &Asdr; (buying and seUing), 
LA^^ j > ^^ 19a «^d[. A 
market-day, j^jM^(«;^ ymom al 
hdfL&r. The market or current 
price,jl9tJll^lj kdynuUtUoi^r. 
Belonging to a maiket, v/;|jV 
&<Zsdrf. A dull market, JLJ 

Market,v. i^J^ ]^ ^, hd ^wa uktara\ 
^s»*\j tdjar. 6ee Deal« traffic. 

Marketable, \^j ^i^i ^lL& ^alayhi 
hay^ tea Mrd, ^Ub<ulc ^layhi 
hdzdr, i^j\af tijdrl* 

Marksman, s, ^^a^luLJ nUhdf^'i. 

Marmoset, s. ^\jjf^ sa^ddn. See 

Marriage, ijx^j %ljah. A marriage 

entertainment, ^j^ ^«^«. 
Marriageable, terjJl-.^^ kharj 

atzljat\ (arrived at the age of 

puberty), f-^b hdligh (fem. lxl\i 

Married, t^'J/* muz^u^q; (rem. 

Jl>-«J^ mtaatcwajat. A married 

woman, 4^ji^-^^l^l amraah 

Marrow, J jj %iU. The spinal mar- 

Marry, r. (take a wife or a huaband), 

(to join a man and woman in 
matrimony), ^^j sMwwqf, 

Mars (planet), fC/* fnarrikh, ^UJf 
al kuhir. The two malignant 
planets, Mars and Saturn, 

Marsh, «. J^ t/^aA/. 

Marshal, g. .Cuj^p» «tr ^ct«i&ar. See 
General. — (a harbinger) ^U^ 
dUdr, L^^J^. hayshariUh, 

Marshal, v. uJ^uJ^i^ J^ &amii/ 
mfafmfuf, uJ-tf «a/, Jai iMieaM, 
See Arrange. — To marshal or 
lead the way, //^j/^J^ ^ojnn/ 

Mart, 9. (city of traffic), j Jo; handar. 

Martial, ^^ ^wJl, ^^as^ 

harhaji. See Warlike. 
Martin, martinet, martlet, «. uJUa^- 

khattdf. See Swallow, 

Martingale, «xJu.d salaband. 

Martyr, «. «X*f<^ shahld (plur. f J^ 
ahahadd). To martyr, AjiAAJai 
katalaho shahtd. See Murder, 
destroy. — ^Martyrdom, ifjL^^ 
shahddat, A place of martyrdom, 
Jbfu4^ mashad. To be martyred, 
\ ,Xi^CjV% m<lt %haftl(f. 




Manrel, v. 


Manrel, s. 



^t^y i^\/B^\ 

istighrdh See Wonder. 
gharib (plur. 
j-jjj Itidl^. See Wonderful, — 
Marvellously, L--^*iS^^f yj hi 
naw^in ^ajlh. 

Masculine, ^^ muzakkar. See 
Male. — ^The masculine gender, 

ii^ mmakkar. To put in the 

masculine gender, j^Ssi\^c^ 

wada^ attasJtlr. A masculine 

woman, ^iLs^ fahlat 
Mash, 8, confused mixture, iaL>. 

khataty y^Lsr^ muhhtaUt To 

mash, U^ hhalat. 
Mask, «. (visor), 6jsf**^i^^ wajh 

maukharah ; (a subterfuge), ^Ju». 

Af^^, ^lIc ^t7^^ See Pretence. 

— (a revel), tjs^**^ maskharah. 

See Masquerade.. 

Mask, V, (conceal with a visor), 

^^ir^ maskhar. 
Masker, -i****^^ mumaskhir. 
M[a8ked,yi***'*^^ mutamaskhar, 
MasoD, (stone-outter), Jf li fii*l, 

jIje^ Atf^ar ; (a builder with 
stone), uJ hanndfjVtJt^ mu^mdr. 

Mason's rule, s, ^fij %ij, jUL/t 

Masquerade, gjS.'^^ maskhara. To 

masquerade, ijS^^^i^ ^amal 

Mass (large quantity), f^ kasirat, 


mukddr ^osim ; 
yam^. See 

Massacre, il^l^ tnaktalat, Jsj katl. 

To massacre, ^J so^aA, J:;S 

i&a^a/. See Murder. — ^Massacred, 

Jyi£« maktul. See Murdered. 

Massiness, massiveness, Ja) tt^7. 
See Weight. 

Massive, massy, M^iae- ^im, J^ 
sakll. See Large, weighty. 

Mast, «. 4^1-j «arf, plur. ^J^y^ 
sawdrl. Oak mast, tJj haUnt. 

Master, 9. Jjc^ mu^lim, ^^.^^L^ 
«dAt&. See Lord, chief, possessor, 
proprietor. — The master of a 
house or fiimily, L;:>^j,Jlcy><f>.l^ 
sahib id hayt. The master of a 
feast, ^L«aJ\c.^'«efe^ »dh%b ad- 
diydfat, A master or teacher, 

Jjc^ mu^o^tm. A master of any 
art or trade, jli^i) im^i^, ^U 
mdAtir. Master, mister, or sir, 
<t>-l^ khawdja, A master cook^ 




A young gentleman, ^Ji 

hhatodja Mghlr. 
Master, v, (conquer), t^Ah. ghalah. 

See Overpower, govern, rule. 
Masterly, adj, Jo\J^ sh&tir. See 

Masterpiece, «. iSjf^^fXff^fJJLii 

ifCmA\ shughl mu^lim nddtr f\ 

assault. Mastership, mastery, 

Masticate, r. ^1^jx> ^lak. 
Mastication (chewing), cliOuc ^Ik, 

wid^ madgh. 
Mastic (a gum), ICk.^^ mastdkd. 

Mastiff, 8. j^i^A ^ Jcalh kaMr, 
See Dog. 

Mat, 8. Sj^r*^ htutrah, A mat or 
carpet on which they kneel at 
prayer, ^ jlsr* suffddah. A maker 
of mats, j0a^(^>>X's<* muhayyik 

hu8r. To mat, j^'O^J^ ^mal 

htur. See Twist, weave, entangle. 
Match, 8, (of a gun) a\^»3 fatllat ; 
(a match of hrimstone, etc., for 
lighting a fire), ci^^^ k%hrlt\ 
(game), l^ lu^at; (an equal), 
^Ji karin ; (anything resembling 
or tallybg with another), ^^j 
Mi9i ufc-A^" MJi. See Fellow, 

\«fi;- ^dal, ^j\j karan ; (to confront), 
JjU kdhal, ^Ij wdjah; (to suit, 
proportion), ^\^ wdfak ; (to join 
in marriage) «p.jj zawwaj. 
Matchable, «. v...«.ijl:M« munanh, 
(jj^y muwdfikf ^i Idyik. See 
suitable, correspondent. 

Matchless, aS^JIjI Id 8dnl laho, ^L§ 

,JaJ tndlaho nazlr, ^»,>A^b hild 

^— ••• • 

8'hah\h, Matchlessly, ^iKJiajS^c^ 
hinawt^ Id natir laho. Match- 
lessness,^^Ja:i \ i« J^ ^adamalntadr. 
Match-maker, 8. (marriage-broker), 
^\jl\ij\M*A^ 8am8drat amdj§i. 

Mate, 8, (husband or wife), ^^j 
%awf (fem. ^^j wwjat) ; (com- 
panion), J^^j ra/i^. Check-mate 
(at chess), cu'UdUi 8hdh m&U 

Material (consisting of matter), 
|j^^ hayuli, ^^t« rndddiyai, 
iS^^ hat/uldni ; (important), 
\^j^j^ dariiri, w^ muhimj ftji 
Idzim. A material causey aJlc 
<U jL« ciUat mdddiyat. 

Materials, (^L^l a8hdhf JLa^ 
ma8dlih. Materials for building, 
is>^ kartutah. 

Materiality, ^^^ mdddiytd. 
Materially, ^yJb^i^%i hiwifium 
to), ^icNx-\ kwj>^Vktv\\ (yow^rtantly), J^ 




ij^j^ hUtd darHrtst* Material- 
11688, ij^j^ darHrai. 

Maternal, ^^\ umml* Matendty, 
^J^\ ummlyaL 

Mathematical, ^ \jj riydii,^XJb 

handasl. See Oeometrical. — 

Mathematically, u^^^j^^Jl^ 

JuJI[j!\jlc1^1 ^M mujib al 

kawd^ arrtyddayaL See G^eo- 

metrically. — A mathematician, 

^jmJCi^ mvhandis, j*y^ tnu- 

handU, See Geometrician. — 

Mathematics, Ju^Ij Jl^^jLJl dl 

^«/flm arriyddiyatf <S..i \v^ H Jlc 

^m al handasat, i^jUllj^ly 

^U^bJ\ kawdM al ^Um arrtyd- 


Matins (moming prayers), jsr \ l^ 
iolut alfajir. 

Matrice, matrix, Jip\f^\ umm al 
awldd. See Womb. — (a mould), 
i^li kdUb. 

Matricide, /*^^ J^ kail al umm. 

Matrimonial, ^(^f^pt^^doT yakhus 
asaijah. See Conjugal, nuptial. — 
Matrimonially, ^y^j^ ^'^y^lc 
^<sf\l\ ^akC majth ntsum azzljah. 

Matron, s. ^^y^ khdtun. 

Matter, *AA*^ ji^Wy ]Lj5 hiyuld, 
J^•^>- jawhar, i jL« madat (plur. 
J^^l amwdd). See Substance. — 

(afihir), ^jojor^- khu$iU,j^\ amr, 
JLf^U^ hdj'at See Thing, busi- 
ness, subject. — ^Purulent matter, 
^ iayih. See Pus. [hamm. 

Matter, v. (be of importance), ^ 

Matthew, ,^L« matta*. 

Mattock, J^^^ ma^^al. 

Mattress, s. ^\sai^^j3 farshek 

Matare, i^fM*^ mustawi. SeeEipe. 

Maturity, \jiJ\ utitod. See Com- 
pletion, ripeness. — (puberty), 
Lx^ hulUyhiyat. 

Maudlin (half drunk), ^\jL^i^j0aJ 
na%f aahrdn. 

Maul, V. ^j»a darab, 

Maund, s. J-->Jj zanhil. See Basket. 

Mausoleum, ^jj rawdah, ifjfA^ 

makharah, j\y« ma»dr. 

Maw, ijjf^ mUdat. See Crop, 

Maw- worm, «. ^jlaJlj^J dad al 

hatn. See Worm. 
Maxillary, Jjjikki. 
Maxim, a. »J^\j kd^idah, ^y^ 

kdnUn. See Axiom, rule, precept 
May (month), J y ayydr, 
Maybug, s. J«>- ju^, ^LmA-tL 

khunfese. See Beetle. 
Mayor. See Magistrate. 
Maze, 8. ujil^i^ diU4.\» ^^^Ij^-^^xs^^ 




(conftisioii of thought), 5j^ 
htrat. See Amazement, irreso- 
lution, perplexity. — ^To mazeyl^- 
hayyar. To he in a maze, jli>.f 
ihtdr. See Astonished. 
Me (oblique case of I), (^ f. Do 
you know what he said to me? 
^^JIsUUcJ^Ja M ta^f 
mdz& kal ll ? She said, make the 
experiment on me? Jas^^vjuJU 

w W "it 

^<Oy£CUY k&lat ff^ attajrtbat 
fiyya, — J ft in the dative case, 
and (J nl in the accusative case. 
Mead (meadow), ^j^ marf (plur. 

— ^^ muruj). 
Meagre, c-i^ nahlf. See Lean, 
poor, bare. [ness, barrenness. 
Meagreness, ujutj du^. See Lean- 
Meal (ground com), ^j-^ tahin, 

JhJ J daJ^k. See Flour. 
Mean (despicable), j^a^ haJtlr, 
(J J danl, ^jfjJ dun, JJo zaliL 
See Contemptible, base, poor, 
humble, pitiful. — (middling, mo- 
derate), Jjcjt^ mu^adil, LI-^ 
fnutawassit; (niggardly), J-*^ 
hakhlL See Sordid, avaricious. — 
Of mean birth, Ji^ldlU malaho 


Mean, s, (mediocrity), J1jcx\ 

See Medium. — (the instmmemt or 
measure used to any end), d,}aJ\^ 
wdaUai, ^<^^ VHUilat, c, \n„t 
iobab (plur. c^LmiI tuibdh). See 
Cause. — Meantime, meanwhile, 
in the meantime, U^xj haynmnd^ 
t«Jjx ^indamoL, \a^ flmd. 

Mean, r. (signify), ,-ift ^ma^ ; 
(intend), Jwai ibMOi^. See De- 
sign, purpose, intend. 

Meander (winding of a river), 
j^\^yij ta^awtffuf atmakr. 

Meanest, ^^^^J^^ <kA>^ >Md 

Meaning (design), mJs- ^tnm, j\^ 
mur&d, JuaJi kasd, \iyaL% maksHd, 
JufiiU maksadf ^jS- yharad, ij>\j\ 
irddaty Lj niyat. See Design, 
intention. — (signification), ,«i*« 
mac^nd' (plur. ij\x^ maz^dnl). 

Meanly, ^jUjJio hikol dandwnt; 
(without dignity), iiLi>-Jio 
hikol hak&ratf i^jJ^\i hildBharaf. 

Meanness, ^U»- hakdrat, jO tiU, 
See 'Baseness. — (want of libe- 
rality), {sr'/^J^ ^adam %akh&. 
J_£i^ hukhul. See Avarice, 

sordidness, niggardliness. 
Means (revenue), JL» mdl (plur. 

Jl^\ amwdl), ^jjj rizk (plur. 

\ v;^;j^ wiAk'^. See Forttme, 




wealth, riches. — ^By all means, 

2r^jl\ J.^^ mm hoi al w^j^h. 

See Doabdees, certainty. — By no 

means, )L^1 oilan, ULSj \,c\ adan 

2r^jSl iffofhan min al tcujuh. 
See N'ever. 
Meant, JyaL^ makaiXd, Jy ^ w^ 
ma^md. See Designed, signified. 
Measles, Si^^a^^ hashe. [kayds. 

Measurable, (jmLaJIJjU kdhil al 
Measure, {jm\^ kiyds, jSi hadar. 
See Proportion, mean, portion, 
allotment; measurement; quan- 
tity; moderation. — ^A measure, 
(jmLL« mihyas, A measure for 
com or other dry goods, J-j^ 
hayl (plur. JU^^ akyal), iX^ 
haylat. Poetic measure, jo5/r* 
■wimJI mtz&n ashshi^r. Verse 
without just measure, ^^^j^j^ 
ghayr fnawzUn, Above measure, 
(jw^LiL hild kiyas, "joli hUd 
hadd. See Immense. — As you 
measure it will be measured to 
you, jjtjJ^^jjU^ kamd tadin 
Measure, v. (jm\j kds, Jl^ kdl. 

Measured, J^;*^ makynl. 
Measurement, (jmIJ ktyds. Mea- 
surement of ground, ^-».Um^ 

masdhat. The aeiance of mea- 
surement (geometry), ^ Lm^J \ Jl^ 
^fifft al ma$dhat. 
Measurer, <• Jl^ kayydl, A land* 
measurer, ^Um massdh, ^W* 
(joJt\ massdh al ard. 

Meat (flesh), Ai. lahm. See Food. 
— (food), ^UL ta^m. Boast 
meat, l^\^ kahdK 

Mechanical, mechanic (skilled in 
mechanics), LuTJ] c,. ^J)J <J J Ig 
^Um fi tarklb al aldt; (belong- 
ing to an art or trade), i^jj 
yaddif (J^ ' dani. See Mean, 
servile. -"Mechanically, ^ \ r 

^Hm al harakdt. 

Mechanic, a. d^^l^L* idni^ (ddL 
See Artificer. 

Mechanism, mechanics, i^^^jA^ 
.ZJ'i'i\ ^Um tarklh al aldt 

Medal, s, ^S^ tikks^ ij^ kliLn$h. 
See Coin. 

Meddle, r. Js^^ljJ taddkhal. See 
Intermeddle, deal, busy. 

Meddler, 9. iJ^j^ kaiir yhalabeh, 
^y^ fadali. 

Mediate, «. ^da^fjj^ljj taddiiai 
wdiiiah, la^iy iauHwat, To in- 




Mediatioiiy i^XicL Mfd^, kli^ 

iawMtit. See Intercession. 
Mediatori «. Iiam*^ waHt, ^**i^ 

thafi^ A mediatrix, iJa^\^ 

Medical, ^Z!b tihhl. The medical 

art, L^JoSf Jl£ ^i7m o^^ii^^. 

Medicinal, ^ ^i^i, 4^ <^/^- 
See Healing, salntary. — ^Medici- 
nally, medically, ^^^'^y^X^ 
i^^^^SAs, ^M mUjih ^ilm attth. 

Medicine, « ^t%*, |^J dawd, 

Mediocrity, Jljcxl i^iddl, lio\L»^ 

Meditate, v. jLLJ tafakkar, jyau 
ttuawwar, Ji^'b toiunmal. See 
Consider, reflect, contemplate, 
think ; contrive, plan. — ^To medi- 
tate on the issne of anything, 
jj^Xl<uSlctJ JJi'Lj taammal fi 
^kihat al umur. 

Meditation, j ..C^so ta/akkur, iyij 
talawat, j~^,S) tadhlr, J^'\j 
taammul, Jy^i taaatowir. See 

Meditative, J^*\s^ mutaamil,SJcL^ 

mutafakkir, larrum. 

Mediterranean sea, s. j^^J\^ hahr 

Medium, k^j^ woMt. See Middle. 

Medlar, g. jj^ej %a^r. Tlie 

medlar-tree, j^j^j^y^ Mjarat 
Medley, $. UsL khaU. See Mix- 
tare. — Medley aij.^ L^Jl 

makMai. See Confused, mingled* 
Medullary, l*^ mukhkhl. 
Meed. See Beward ; present, gift. 
Meek, i¥«i»- hallm, ^Jus sallm. See 

Gentle, mild. [See Soften. 

Meeken, v, aJl»- ^ ^amalaho halim. 
Meekly, Ji>.Jio hikolhUm. 
Meekness, J^»- Mm. SeeMildnesss^ 

gentleness. [suitable. 

Meet. See Fit, proper, qualifled. 
Meet, v. (on the road, encounter), 

uJ jLtf 9&daf, See Encounter. — 

(to assemble or meet together), 
cj>-\ ijtama^; (to engage, en- 



U- hdrah. See 

Fight. — To go out to meet a 
person on the road on purpose, 
J.;U:;u^1 istakbal, ^Ml^di J^ ^mal 
laho mulakdh. Meeting (part.), 
(jL« middki, uJjLx« mtuddif. 
Meeting, a, (assembly), ^- ^ ^ 
mq^'lis, iUx^of- jam^yat f\^^ 
jama ^, Jiisr* mahfdl. See Assem- 
bly. — (encounter), iliJU mulakdh, 
jL»j wisdlf iSAy muwdsalat. 
The meeting or conflux of streams, 
Jmm^ maall, j^jt ■■v»JV 




majma^ anfMhrin, ^<a-^ or \ksLt 
multdkd, Meeting-hoasei ^/Jus^ 

Meetly^ meetness. See Fitlji fitness. 

See Head-ache. 

Melancholy «. \jy^ sawdd, ^ 
^Aam, <i. jJ^jcil^ milankholiah. 
See Grief. 

Melancholy, melancholic, cHL^ 
^^^^ UJLT"^^ maAsiZn. See 
Gloomy-minded , dismal . — To 
make melancholy, ax ghamm. 
To dispel melancholy, i^illj'j' 
asd/ al gham. To he or he- 
come melancholy, ^1 angham, 

MelUot (plant), uilfllJJ^l tkhlal 

Meliorate, v. See Better, improve. 

Melliferous, (prodacing honey), 
JUufi ^oMdL Mellifluent, melli- 
fluous (flowing with honey), J-iU 

Mellow, (^yu*^ mustawl. See Ripe. 
— (soft), ^ U na^m ; (intoxicated), 
^y^ sakrdn. See Drunk. 

Mellow, t;. (become mature), ^yLj\ 

tstawa* ; (to make mature), dl>^ 
^^^Lwyj khalldh yastawl. 

Mellowness, t^:;^! istiwd. See Bipe- 

ncss. — (softness), ^yi* nu^umat. 

Melodious, LmJfJa^ mutrtb. See 
Musical. — (melodiously), ^CJ^ 
^Ja^ hisawtin mutrib. 

Melodiousness, melody, LZj\y^^\ 
ijja^ Mwdt mnUribat (plur. ,j***»- 
ij^\ hum annaghmat); a^ 
naghmat (plur. CI^Uju naghmdt). 

Melon, 8, <iac\la> hattlhhaU A bad 
or unripe melon, (jMy^i fakkui. 
A water melon, ^/*^ jaha». 

Melt, r. (make liquid), c-->jO dawwab. 
See Dissolve. — To melt gold, 
V— ^J^ J^, X»> sakab dahab. To 
melt silver, ^ rf*\_ - ^ ^ «a^ 
fuddah. To melt (become liquid), 

Melted, c^L^ idy»3. 

Melter, «. ^J^j«x« tnttdawtvib. 

Melting, s. c^^^jJuJ tadwfb, 
^b^J (ititra^dn. Melting gold or 
silver, u,CMn3^<w^U, (^Xn^^sakb, 
Cm^*»y8abk; (part.), (^.^\jddyib. 

Member, s. yaz t^a (plur. \,6s\ 

Membrane, i,f^\^hijdb,'^^ghatd. 
The membrane of the brain, 
^LtjJl^l warn addimdghy Lli 
ghUhd, The membrane which 
envelopes a child in the womb, 
A A*, t *'% musklmat. 

Memento, »jLsu tajUroK^ >^*-^ 




hindffat 8ee Memorial, notioe, 

Memoir^ jf^Jo tcakirdh. 
Memorable, j^jj fftaJtar, jf^fu^* 

Memorandum, s, »fd^ moMrak, 

Memorial, t. See Monument. — 
A memorial (case or petition), 

Memory (the recoUectiTQ fiEUSulty), 
4diilLl^jlaJ1 alhiJLwat amjaah] 
(remembrance), ^^J wikr. To 
commit to memory^ Ioa^ hafa%. 
To occur to the memory, J^^^^ 
i^\) aja ila' halihi. To recall to 
memory, a]Uc^I:>- j&h libalihu 

Men (plur. of man), Jl5»-^ rijdl, 
8ee Mankind, people. — Men and 
devils. J^\;^/w^^^ alins teal jinn. 

Menace, v, JJ^ tahaddad. See 

Menace, «.JjAff^aA^i. See Threat. 

Mend, v. (repair), j^yj ramram; 

(improve), J^ sallah. See 
Amend, repair, correct, improve, 
increase. — (to become better). 
J^\ isUdah. To mend a gar- 
ment, 51^1 rakkat. 

Mendable, J-^. yutaidlah, ^ 

JL^i\ mtimkm Mildk, 4^Lj 
.^i^\ kaba attoihih. 

Mender, u. ffj^ muramrm, >*^^ 

V.en^caxityjM fakir. See Beggar. 

Menial. See Low, mean. — A 
menial servant, |« jlsL khddim. 

Menses, ^^/^^^ htt^dj LjJUjLc 
^dat annisd, A menstmous 
woman, ^/e£l»^ kayid, 4djW 

Menstrual. See Monthly. — A men- 
struum. See Dissolvent. 

Mensuration, ^^L*^ moidhaL 

Mental, i^jt^ damlri, ^Jla^ ^akH. 

^^yj^b hdtini. See Intellectual, 

Mention, ^J zikr, i^ JJ toMkhir. 

Favorable or honorable mention, 
fJ^f^i^^J tdkr Jamil. To men- 
tion, j^J uakar. Mentioned, 
j^J^ mazkur. 

Mercantile, ^L-aKT tijarl, t^y^^ 
matjart. A writing signed by a 
judge confirming a mercantile 
agreement, yip t^ kontrdto. 

Mercer, s. ^ji}j=^ hardyirl, cLj 
j1->- hayyu^hardyir. 

Merchandise, ij<s^ tijarat ; (wares), 
JL« tndl (plur. Jl^^ atnw^, 




c\2^ ma/d^(plttr. i9C^\ amH^ai), 
^U^ kumdsh (plar. L,mAi\ 
akmiahat). One wlio sellB mer- 
chandise for others, J|j daUdl. 
See Broker. — ^To barter merchan- 
dise for merchandise, J jb hddal. 
See Barter, exchange. 

Merchant, s.j>'\j tajir (plur. jlaT* 

Merchant-man, %. (trading vessel), 
i^la^v^^j^ markab tijdri. 

Merciful, Mi>-j rahim, j; > « A 
sha/ik, ^j^JlJL^ mushfih. See 
Compassionate. — Mercifully, 
^«^ &» tha/akat, iu>..«Jilj 
^lilo/ marhamat, ^uLlJ^G ^tib/ 
shafakai. Mercifulness, ^*a>^j^ 
marhamat. See Mercy. 

Merciless, Jui^L 5»7d shafakat. 
See Inhuman, hard-hearted. 

Kercuriad, ,<a^.J sayia^E^. 
Mercury, J^-jj zaylah. The planet 
Mercury, J^Uofi ^utdrtd, 

Mercy, <Uo-^ marhamat, i^ks^j 
rahmat, ^^LJi ^ JL shafakat See 
Compassion, tenderness. — (par- 
don), ^&c ^afn, ijSM maghfaratf 
^lyii ghufrdn. May he have 
mercy and pardon and the bless- 
ing of God, J[^]jli^Ji\i^ 

^f«^\j ^tiayhi arrahmut wal 
gkufrdn walrudwdn. 
Mere, fjos^ mahd, ]aSi faiat, ^^^ 

$arih. The mere truth, ^J^\ 
^j^^ alhak assarik. Merely, 
fakat, <L>^<-J bi ^aynuh, 
mahdan, [pool. 

Mere, t. ^^:»a< JmhayraL See Lake, 
Meretricious, etc. See Whorish. 
Meridian, \^j^ whr\. The me- 
ridian, i^:Jt(...£.dj nasf annahdr. 
See Mid- day. — The meridian line, 

jl^luJ^krL khatt nasf annahdr. 
Meridional. Bee Southern. 

Merit, fj^aifadl, jU^Lsl istihkdk, 

j1 iA,n»r»Mil isti^ddd. Merit or 

merited reward, ^UlL* mtii&d/2!^, 

y-^^ a;r. Merited reward or 

punishment, |>-y((izd. 

Meritorious, Cy^U-i-lV 
mustawjib assawdb, 

dULOJI wdjib al mukdfdh. 
Meritoriously,^^^! S-*^ l?^ f ^^ 
^t iitfto^fn fcdjtb alajVy J>-^ 
jli^Ll ^»i^/ istihkdk. 
Mermaid, ».j^J\^,z^ bintalbahar^ 

Merrily, -jjy*Aj btsurttr, ^la^Jij 
-.^^^tj bikolhauin wa insharah. 
Merriment, merrineos. ^^'^'Wyc!^. 
Merry, jsf**^ xmxt^t-^ o^^*"jr^ 




farhdn. See Glad, cheerful, 
gay, laughing. — ^To make merry, 


— J farrah. 
Merry-andrew,«. See Jack-pudding. 
Menymake, v. See Make merry, 

Mesh (interstice of a net), <cC ^ 

ihabakat. [lawn ta^dm. 

Mess, s, (dish of meat), /^jio^^ 
Message, s. j^ khabar, ^L^ 

Messenger, s. f^y^j rdsul, *Xi^Vi 

Idsid. The messenger of good 




Messiah, .^vma^^ al maslh. 
Messmate, s, ^LaJ3!\^lJ; rafik 

atta^dm, [House. 

Messuage, «. c^^.^ hoi/t. See 
Met ( part, pret, of meet), uJ jLa^ 

tnwddaf. See Meet. 
Metal, ^^dJt0^ ma'^n. 
Metallic, metalline, (J Juc« tnae^dani. 
Metamorphose, v. ^**^ masakh. 
Metamorphose, n. metamorphosis, 

<>->lftj1 inkildb. 
Metaphor, s. iA^ kindyat, 8j\xi^\ 

iatudrah (plur. ci^^l-n.,".,,-.^?! 

isticdrdt). Metaphorical, meta- 

phorio, i^l^ majdzl, ^^Ui-al 

istudrl. Metaphorical expres- 

Metaphorically, \j^ majdtan, 

ij\xi^'i\j hU iati^rat. To speak 

metaphorically, jH^jk,jJ— C-3 

^L.»-r>,»iiH taiallam httarik al 

Metaphysics, i*K!\ Jl& ^Im alkaldm, 

JU;^! jjiUJuc ^m md fawk 

Metempsychosis (transmigration of 

souls), ^UsSl attandsukh. 
Meteor, a. l^\^ shahdh. Meteors, 

c^^ ahuhh, L^\j\ji\ ala9dr 


Methinks, ^^^^^^ ^M %innl. 

Method, J^^JrJ tariib, l^^\ 

aalub, (^J^ tarikf SJxM kd^tdah. 

Methodical, u^^p^ muraUab, 

^ "- '- -» tnuntazim ; (person), 

^IflW -'^^'^^ sdhib nizdm. Me- 


/•l^b bi inti%dm» 

bi iartib, 

Methodise, v. l^j rattab, Jai 

namm. See Arrange, regulate. 
Methought, i^J^^^J^ ^la' Jikri. 


Metonymy (rhetorical allusion), 
JLjjI:^ kindyat, Metonymically, 
^1:^3 Ij bU kindyat. 

Metre, ji^ll^U^ mizdn aaf^shi^, 

bahar. Metrical, luJsi'**^ wn- 


^j^L^lJa-^ mu«talihdt.\ sajja^, ^^;jy^ '"^'^'*'*' 




Metropolis, s. JuLLJ|^l J ddr awd- 
tanat, L$^X^j\j ddr d hde^mat. 
A metropolitan, ^J^^ maUrdn, 
Mew, s, (cage), ^josi kafoB. To 

mew as a cat, ^5y naunDa\ 
MezereoD, yj^^jj^ mdtariyHn. 
Mice {plur. of mouse), ^j^ flrdn. 
Mid, ^,g*gj nasf. [attarfk. 

Mid-course, j;.£ iaJii^jL^-J nasf 

ann^A^r. At mid-day, (^jL<=j(J 
j\fi\ fi ncuf annahdr. 
Middle, lau^^ toaslt, ^^^»*>^ wasatl, 
k^lj wdsit, ^— B.arj./t muntasif. 
See Intervenient. Of middle 

stature, 4t«lsJtkL^ mutawasatt 
al kdmaL 

Middle, «. L^ij toasat, v— a^j fUM^(pl. 

Jjcjc^ mu^tadil. The middle of 
a house, ^^Li 8dhah,j\jl\^^^s:^ 
tahn adddr. See Court, square. 
— Ecteping the middle, adj, 
^.arijx^ muntasif. To penetrate 
into the middle, L^i^J^J 
dakhal in wast In the middle, 
^j-jU j /Ima Jfly«, k«»j!l ^J /^ al 
wasat. In the middle of the day, 
j\^\^^Aaj^^fl nasf annahdr. In 
the middle of the night, v— 4*^3 (J 
J.,j,-m /i 9M^ i«^/. In the 

middle of winter, \zJ^\\a^^iX f^ 
woMi oihshiid. In the middle 

of the citj, A^\l.JLai^ ff nsi^ 
al halad. 

Middling, L^i^ mutawassiL See 
Middle. Anything of a middling 
sort, Lmo^ wasa^. 

Midland,jrJlLMi^^/I wMot al harr. 

Mid-leg, ^LJlv— flitfj nasf assdk. 

Midmost, ^Jsaui'j wasath 

Midnight, JJJ\v— fl*tfJ na«/* al layl. 
At midnighti JJJ\k»dj(J/l wasat 
al layh Till midnight, ^^Laj ^ \ 
JJJl «?a' nasfal layL {hiUvr. 

Mid-sea, ^^fkwdjtj ft wasat al 

Midst, ^^ hayn. See Middle. — 
In the midst of the people, 
^^Ul^j^ hayn annds. In the 
midst of the journey, yftMJlUjl^i 
/{ asnd assafar. [assayf 

Midsummer, <^jLiJ 1 ^^Si (J fl haXb 

Midway (middle between two places) 
fJj^jLi\s^^Laj nasf attarik ; in the 
middle of the way or passage, 
^Ja^\)a^%iS fi wasat attarih 

Midwife, s. aLU kdhUth (pi. Jjly 
kawdbil), ^\j ddyih. 

Midwinter, l;;AS1k»ii^ wasat ashshstd. 

Mien, ^^ wqfh,Ji^:>^ manzar. See 
Look, aspect, countenance* 

Might Cpowei^» "ij^ \wud*ra*i^ Vja. 




kilwatyj\s:i\ iktiddr, ii^ tokat. 

See Power, force, strength, great- 
Mightily, isJLi hi shiddaty ij^JCi 
hiJtol kudrat, iy^iJlL^ Ukd 
kawat. See Powerfully, vigor- 
ously, greatly, violently, vehe- 
Mightiness, i^jLji kudrat See 

Might, greatness, majesty. 
Mighty, oy kawi^jJ^ kdder,ji*ii 
kadlr, j^yssL^ muktadir, <^.-*fwLg 
ij3 sdhtb kuwat. See Powerful, 
strong. — Mighty (in a great de- 
gree), \jo^ jiddan. 
Migration, J\£sj\ tntikal, *f^ 
hafij, ^lu^i^ tafoBhdn, See Emi- 
gration. . \haU&he, 
Miloh cow, 9, ^)L».2uu hakara 
Mild, mA^ hallm^ ^jiJci\j,^u^- 
hdim annaf%, ^^j wadl^ (plur. 
Uj^ ftmda^). See Soft, kind, 
tender, gentle, compassionate. 
Mildly, Jl»- Jw hikol hUm, 
Mildness, Jl>- hUm, See Gentle- 
ness, clemency, compassion, ten- 
Mile, ». Ju^ mil. A mile-stone, 
^\aJ\SitL^ ^fUdmai atiarik, 
2fjL^ mandrAk, 
Milfoil, j^yj harhard. 

Military, ^J^^^ jdnghl, 
barbl, i^J^^^ ^kari. Military 
affairs, LjJsAjy9'i\ alumiir al 
harhiyaL Military, milice, mi- 
litia, ^^^L^x ^kar. See Army. 

Milk, u,..J^ hahb. 

Milk, V. cJls. halab. [h&KM). 

MHker, «. c^Ip- hdlih (fem. iuSW 

Milking, ». l^Ju>. halh. [hallk. 

Milkman, s. l-^^Jl^^Ijo bayyd^ 

Milk white, (^;4H^ abyad. See 

Milky (consisting of or abounding 
in milk), ^.J,fv. hallbi. 

Mill, s. ijy>-\^ idhiinat, A horse- 
mill, jl<x^ maddr. A wind-mill, 
lyb^^lL tdhan hawd. A water- 
11^1 ^v^^U? ^Aun mS. A 
hand-mill, &i^^^ maihanat. An 
oil-mill, ^^..djc« ma^MToA. 

Mill, V. ^^^ Many <^JJ dak 
iikke. See Grind, coin. 

Mill-horse, «. ^^Il9(^4>f MI«A 

Millepedes, ,^^/»l tcmm^o/i, ^Ju^1/«^ 
ij-»iU;|^ umm arb^at wa arbi^n. 
See Centipede. 

Miller, «. ^Isf' teMfiii. 

Millesimal (the thousandth), 
imSl'i\^^ wdhid min al alf. 





Mill-fitone, «. ^^iy\^ he^ at^ 

Mill-wheel, s. ^j>-LkJ)c^^jO 

duJah atidhun. 
Milty «. Jlss^ ^t'Ad/. See Spleen. 
Mimic, mime, mimer, «. jJii^ rnn- 

hdttid. See Imitator, buffoon. 

Mimic, mimical, i^JuliJ toib/Sift. 

Mimically, JuUsIl^y biwqfh 

Mimic, s, j\j kallad, [lion. 

Mimicry, JuUj ^aiUlt^. See Imita- 

Mince, v. (cut small), ^tji faram, 

Mind^ «.jbU;> khatiTj jtjA^ damlr, 

Jb Jfi/, Jac ^aiW, jLi fikr. 

Haying an enlightened or enlarged 

mind, adf. v,.^\b,!1^^^ munatowi^ 

dl kalh. [ifUabah, 

Mind, V. (mark, attend to), ^Lcjt 

Minded (inclinable), Jf^^U mdytl^. 

See Desirous. 
MindM, ^^j tr(2^l, lU-u^ mun- 

/o^tA. See Attentive. 
Mindfulness, ^,^m^ 3a«fra^. See 

Attention, regard. 
Mindless, ^Jili y^l//. See Inat- 
tentive, careless. [tndli. 
Mine (possessive pronoun), ^t« 
Mine, «. (of metals) ^i^m^ tna^n 
(plur. ^oU^ ma^ddan). A mine 
dug under fortifications, Ji hghm. 

Mine, v, ^^h nakab, Jiji ^amal 

lughm. See Big, sap, undermine. 

Miner, «. ^^JCif^ muhandii. 

Mineral, i^^^^*^ ma^nl. Minfind 

juice, (JAA^^^MOi^ ^§Ar ma^danl. 

A mineral, ^Jui^ i9ui^<fon. See 

Metal.-*-A minendist*^^ jUlb J U 

^sZm hil ma^in, [ma^din* 

Mineralogy, ^oULl*U ^thn al 

Mingle, v. lol^ khalat. See Mix. 

— (to be mixed), kjLi^U ifir 

Minister, s. (of state) ^j^ woMhr 
(plur. 1;J^ trusord). The prime 
minister, (i^^\;ij^^ o^ wMt al 
a^Mam\ (an agent), J^ wMl, 
woli ffdytb; (a Christian priest), 
(jmUJ» »hamm&8 (plur. ^UamsUJ* 
•AamdfffwaO. The ministers of 
state, ^LijjJl^Lcl a^dnaddawlat, 
^jjJl)L^^ wukala addawlai. The 
ministers or plenipotentiaries of 
both sides, ^jJtJia^\i^^ wikald 

atiarafin. To minister, /^J^ 

Ministry, ministration, i^^tX^^t^ 

hhidmat. See Service, office. — 

Ministry (dignity or office of 

ministers of state), ij\ji^ woM&rat. 

— (dignity of prime minister)^ 




The ministry, li^^\^\lij\ arkdn 
addawlat, <?;Vi LJl^L^^ ark&n 

Minium, yftsQ tanjifir, ^y^ ^olA- 
hun. See Bed lead. 

Minor, jLa\ atffhar. See Less. — 
{•petty), jJl^ Boghlr ; (under Age), 
^\ij^ ghayr IdligK 

Minor, «. (one under age), ^^JiSjJL^ 
iaghlr assin. The minor pro- 
position of a syllogism, i^j^ 

Minority (the smaller number), J J^ 
jLci\ ^adad al asghar; (being 
under age), ^j.aJ1^ mghr assin. 

Minstrel. See Musician. — Min- 
strelsy. See Music. 

Mint (plant), cUx; na^d^ ; (a place 

where money is coined), c-^ 

^\j>^ darb khdna, (^yal\j\j ddr. 

addarh. To mint (coin), cLCj 

sak, ^jo daraby < ( "^^j«3 dak 

Minute, iLjJ dakikat A minute 

(of time), is:^ lamhat, H V\^ 

lahtat. A minute (memorandum), 

ij^M^ tntuaunoadat. Minutely, 

ijjj^ hikoldikkat, Jj^a^l^Ag 

^aW attafsil. Minuteness, ajj 
dikkat See Exactness. — (small- 
seas^, jw 9ughr. 

Miracle, «. <U;js:^ ^ajihat, iiyBp\ 

a^jubat Miracles, (JL>U— si*^ 
mu^itat, u^^^Ljb^ lajaytb, 
v,,^j>-L-gl a^jib. See Sign, 
wonder. [WonderfuL 

Miraculous, (^.^..^^j?^ ^fib. See 
Mirror, «. iT^ miraat (plur. l[|^ 

Mirth, J j^ sur&rf LLwl inhisdt, 
ij*M^ matarraty \La safd, ajstf^ 
hafy'at, ^jifarah, ^IfV^ ihtihdj. 
See Merriment, gaiety, cheerful- 
ness, gladness, joy. — Mirthful, 
j^j***^ nuurHr. See Merry. 

Misacceptation, (J^VJW^ hhayOl 
h&tU, [al muwdfakat. 

Misapplication, J^l^t^j^ ^adam 

Misbecome, r. jSt« mdldk. 

Misbegotten, U ; jjj walad sfnd< 

Misbehave, f;. <0 J^ Jli kaUaladahaho. 

Misbehaviour, L^SiSf^^c ^adam 
al adab. 

Misbelief, ^jJUj^ ^dam addin, 
^Uj)t/»4X£ ^dam al fmdn, Aiix. 
J[jL£Li\ vodam al i^ikdd, Ji^ kufir. 
See Impiety, incredulity. — A mis- 
believer, Jl^ kdfir. See InfideL 

Miscalculate, v. c-?Luk.\(jULijLf 
^mal ghalatfl al hiadb. 

Miscarriage (the unhappy event of 




najdh; (abortion), \o\AJi iskdt, 

^Jb tirhy ^j^\\9\LJ i$kdt al 

Miscarry, v. cuo^-^L tirhai^ 
ICiacellaneoas, Jji^^ mutafarrik, 

L^Lsr* makhlni, 9y^>^ majmn^ 

A miscellaneous multitude, i^\i^ 

Miscellany, s. ^yksr^ mafmH^t, 
Mischance, )b bald, LiS kadd, Ljb\j 

Mischief, f^ daraff ij^d^ mudarrat. 
See Injury, hurt, harm, evil. 

Mischievous, j»J^ mudirr, SuJl^ 
mufstd, jijJL sharlr. See Hurt- 
ful, pernicious. — (malicious), v^ J; 
radi. See Malevolent, spiteful. 

Mischievously, ij\jj^jJi»JlCj hikol 

sharrin wa raddwat. 
Misconception,^^ Mh% LLc ghalat, 

c)\jd^f^Ss. ^dam tdrdk. See 

Mistake, misconstruction. 
Misconduct, ^^J;l1^\.o sulnk radi. 

See Misbehaviour. 
Misconstruction, /i!i^\fj^yJi /^J^ 

^adam tatofik al kaldm. 
Misdeed, misdemeanor, i^^Jsait^, 

UasL khatd. J[>.U kahdhat. See 

Miser, «. J^^a^ bakhil, 




Miserable (wretched), JJj fuMt 
^jC^^ mtuHn or miskln, ^JJi 

Mi8erably,^:iLu^ J^ h%kolmaskana$f 

^iL&j^JjJ^ hikol %iUin wa 

thtkdwai. See Unhappily, wretch- 

Misery, miserableness (wretched- 
ness), J J tin, ILL^^ moikanai, 
h bald (plur. \ji) haldifd), ifjU^ 
9hakdwat,yj fuhr. See Adrer- 
sity, misfortune. 

Misfortune, )b bald^ L^ kadd^ 4J^1«> 
ddhiyaty <uC nakhat. 

Misgovemment, Jlk.\/«j^ ^ad^m 
alhukm. SeeMal-administration. 

Misguidance, J^.^^^^^ daktht 
^an attarik. 

Misguide, v, ^JLc ghash. 

Misinformation,^ jlitf^^^^ khabar 
ghayr tddik, (m^J^j^ khabar kiwb^ 

Misjudge, v, c^l^LJl»-U md 
hakam bU tawdb. 

Mislike, v. i^^ffc-U md hah. See 
Dislike, disapprove. 

Mismanage, v. jJ:>^j^J^\^jPr^ 

^Jj afra* al ^anuU min ghayr 

tadblr. [attadbir. 

Mismanagementy^ jd t >» Jlc ^adam 

\ ihtikdr. See 





Mispropcntion, p, (^^UM*L*il^l;L« 

^ md rd^* al wrnndsahat fi 

Misrelate, misrvcitey misroport, v. 

(relate inaeeurately and falsely). 

See Misreprefient. 
Misrepresent, v. irjL^|^.J^L^ 

_i^Ull^ md Jthahhar al mdddat 

mislmahi, SjjjJ^j^j nawwar 

Misrepresented, ilXs^jl^^ kkdhar 

Id sahhai laho. 
Misrepresentation, ^^,.»y-ljf tMu^ 

iMsf^'ij^^ iaJMlr Id mMat 

laho. See Misinformation. 
Miss, V, (the mark) ^^LJf JLu^^l 

akhta^ ail nlshdn. 
Miss, «. (loss)^!^^ ibM^r, u^su naks. 

^LoAJ nuk»0n, ^-r*^ iftfh. See 

Want, ali9 error, mistake. 
Missal (mass-book), JIm-^^ ml$dl, 

ij^\jJ&\L^\s^ hidh al hidddB. 
Mission, JL>;1 arsdl^ iA\^j risdlat. 
Missive, JLj^t JjU idM al irtdl 

A missive, iiW^jrisdlai. 
Misspend, v. (money), j-jt^^-.^ 

_:j(^ kharaf mtn gkmfr ma^\ 

See Waste, dissipate. 
Missy (a sulphate of iron), ^j 
jJl^\ ndjakhdar. 

Mistake, r. Ll3^^U^J«a»- ImmoI 

mmno huHrf Jj waU, Ul^ ghsUt. 
See Err, blunder, mistaken. 

Mistake, ». ILsi^ hhtM^ y^ •oAft, 

jyoi kusUr, iali ghalat, )aL^ smkai, 

iij %attat. See Error, blunder, 

misconception. [ma^JdlkL 

Mistaken, ^Lklx ghaUdn, )o^ju9 

Mistaking, adj, ^Lklc ghdltdn. 
Mistakingly, ^fuJl^^ hiwqfk 
asBohUf \y^ iohwan. 

Mistake, v, j(..i<<;^J.«fl». hoial mm- 
noh aahil, loii J^ ^amal ghdUU. 
See Miscalculate, misrepresent. 

Mistell, v» See Misrepresent. 

Mistress, b. iju^ BiUf U!^ ^ iUd^fin. 

See Lady. — ^The mistress of a 

family, v,::.^y!l<U».U? Bdhtbat al 

hayt ; (a sweetheart, aUo conoa* 

bine), (L»\fi Bdhtbat, iJyJj^x,^ 

mas^Bhukat, ^Lja^^st* nuMiibat. 

<Ug>.rfw hablhat. [suspicioii. 

Mistrust. See Distrust, diffidenee, 

Misunderstanding, b. iLiJlflB^ siih 
khdlafalf ^^L:^.^ mundMrn^, 

^eu^offi ittifdkf a^Ajlj^^JkC ^^^ofli 
mutt^d/a^^. SeeDifference, quarrel, 
misconception, error. 
\l&\\j^, ft. (Inaeet) i^y^ HUai, 




Mithridate (medicine), ^jJojJj^ 

Mitigate, v. ^^^JLJ layyan^ f^Jkioi 

^^off v/«^ hadda\ See Soften, 

mollify, moderate. [taal^n. 

Mitigation, ^^JuksfP idlJ^, ^Ji^^ 
Mitre, «. ^\j taj. A bishop's mitre, 

^\JiaAl\mm\j tdj al matron. 
Mix, V, lalfw hhalat. 

Mixed, )o^Js^ makMut, rr^y^^ 
mamnnj. An animal of a mixed 

breed, u^--^^ murakkah. 
Mixture, mixtion, ^ ^ ^ khalt, 

\9h^\ ikhtilat. 
Moan, V. »\j ndh. See Groan, 

grieye, mourn. 
Moan, 8. is^y natehat, IC hakd^ or 

hikd* See Lamentation, groan. 
Moat, 9. (ditch round a town, castle, 

etc.) JiX^ khandak. 

Mob, «. /«U-Jjl ndihdm; (a tu- 
multuous rout), i^fitnat. See 
Crowd, riot. 

Mobile, mobility, a|^ ^of^dm, a1^ 
^^Qt ^airdm tfyind^. See Mob. 

Mock, V. (deride), 
famatkhar ^ala^ IzCSjt^ deheh 
^ala\ See Laugh at, ridicule, 
mimic. — (to elude), JLu ta^aUal, 

Mock (not real), <^Ju1l^ toit/f A, 

Mock, mockery (derision) uXcC^ 

tadqjthdktjs^*'^^ ta$iuuhkiMry\jf»a\ 

uMaA. See Bidioule, soom. 
Mocked, SjS^*^ nuukharah, ^j^m^ 

^ mmtahaa^ hihi. 
Mocker, «. jL^clXo-UitdAa ^', 

Mocking, part, i^jp^m^ muHaJaH. 
Mockingly, \j^Ji^\i hi wtihtd, 
\jM^ tahklran. 

Mode, ijyifi surat, ^j witfh, S-'^f 
oilah (plur. c,^.; lU MdA^), 
J|y^ manwdlf (J* Jo tarlk^ JC& 
«A»;&;(plur. JlLl\ <uM<Zi), »Ja:U 
kd^dah. See Manner, method, 
fashion, habit, custom, form, ap- 
pearance ; gradation.-— A musical 
mode, aUU makdm. 

Model, 9. c^U kdhb, ijAJ kathaai 

or kidwat, ^Ls^ luukhat See 

Copy, pattern, example, standard, 

Moderate (not excesBive), Jjcm^ 
mu^tadtlf Waj n,.^ maiauMMit. 
Moderate in temper, aJl»- ^o/lm, 
c^(jy« mUaddab. See Tempe- 
rate, mild. — ^Moderate weather, 
Jxjv«|^ hawd mu^dil. 

Moderate, v« \a««e io)»«.t* ^^b^ ^<^* 




Tern> rale, restrain. — (to pacify, 
stUl, quiet), i^JJb hadda* ; (to 
make temperate), J^X-s-ji/tAi^ 
^amalaho mu^tadU. 

Moderately (mildly), Jl^- J^ hikol 
kilm; (with temperature), J^ 
J\a •; r\ hikol i^tiddl/ljsjL^ 
mu^tadHan; (in a middle degree), 
^^a^^\i>-jjj hi darajat al wasta*. 

Moderateness, J\ Jocf i^tiddl. See 

Moderation (calmness of temper), 

Om^ndn al khdtir, uJU^I imdf, 
ilcL:^ kand^ ; (forbearance, 
lenity), fjA^asT tahammal. Mo- 
deration in expense, J^Jcla^II 
i^^j0A^\^^j^\j al i^tiddl hil 
ikarof tool moirllf, t,jiisH/»JLc 
^adam attalaf. 

Moderator, «.^J^ mudahhir, ^^U- 
Adkim, fmjJiiy miUidddh, 

Modem, J^«^>- jadld. See Late, 
recent, new. — The modems, 
^^i^lr>.^J\ al imUaakhkMrin, 
The language of the modems, 
^^^liwibJl^UJ lisdn al mu- 

Modest (bashfnl), Ji^s^s^ muhiashim ; 
(not arrogant nor impudent), 

4^4^ muaddahf «^\yx^ muto- 

wddi^; (notunchaste^^U? tdkir, 
Jjb\j tdhid. See Chaste. 

Modestly (not presumptnonsly), 
<<^Minr' hihishmat 

• • 

Modesty, L»- hayd, j\j^ wakdr, 
^>a\y tawddu^; (chastity), S^l^l? 
takdratf iuc ^iffat. 

Modification, ^•^*^Jf tarHh, ^JjCuJ 
ioBhilAl. <LsL^ kayfiyai. 

Modify, 9. (form), i^^JuS 

See Shape, form. — (to moderate), 
JjdA^^ ^malaho mu^taiU. 
See Temper. 

Modifiable, modificable, Jj Juc;!\|JjU 
k&hil atta^lf j^^,^n^rnJ\^jL^^ 
mumkin attaghylr. 

Modulate, r. LaJIl.^^ ratiah al 
yhindf lUit-JlJo) fuuam annoy k- 

Modulation, <U«3 nayhmai, L^ 
yhind, ^JL, lahn» 

Mohammed, properly MUhdmrndd 
(the founder of the Muhammadan 
religion), *Xa,^:^ muhammad. 

Moiety, ujLo; nasf. See Half. 

Moist (humid), t^-^Jb^ rsUh, See 
Wet, damp. 

Moisten, v. v»^i rattah. 

\ liiLo\e\eTv^, v^^^ mtUahaUil, J^L^ 




mahlul. To be moistened, Jjl 
anhal. [muiaHil. 

Moistener, '• cPV ^^^t <^^ J^ 

Moistness, moisture, ^^ rutnhat, 

ijljj naddwat See Humidity. 

Mole, «. (animal), jJl>. khUd (plor. 

^Ijifw khilddn). A mole on the 

skin, JUw hhdl. A mole (dike), 

Molest, v. Jl&j^ nakkad ^ala% 
Ji? talam, c^JkC ^eask}3. See 
Disturb, trouble, vex. 

Molestation, ^*i^ tasdl^y i— gJio? 
iakllf, J]a zulm, *i ffham. See 

Molester, «. i^*^y musi. 

Mollify, V. j^ layyany ^JJb hadda\ 
See Mitigate, soften, assuage, 
pacify, — Mollification, ^ j".4-3 
talyln. See Mitigation, soften- 
ing. — ^Amollifier, ^^^.^ mulayyin. 
Mollified, ^jIL« mu/oyyon. 

Molten (j9r^. pa99, of melt), c^ J^ 

Moment (importance), ij^j^ du- 
rUrat, L^j*^ durHriyat. See 
Consequence, weight, value. — 
A moment of time, is^ lamhat, 
d ]nK lahnatf JLa^J daJMat, 
^^j^LjJff tar/at ^Jn, ^Lj sd^at. 

In a moment, ^j^ijtjff,^ f\ 
tarfat ^fn. Every moment^ ^ 
^^aJj kol dakliat. From this 
moment, ^\^ mt» al&n. 

Momentary, ^jJ^ waktly ^jU ySinf, 
^^-.^U ^rdl. See Meeting. 

Momentous, Af« mtiAim, l^j^j^ 
darUri. A momentous affidr. 

Monarch, a, u.^L« ma^iL 
Monarchal, monarchical, ^^Jl^ 

mti/fli^f, (JUbJyM) m/^nf. See 

Eegal, imperial. 
Monarchy, ». ISAa^ mamlakat, 

A„;laLi saltanat, Li^J dawkU, 

cli^L« tnulk. See Kingdom. 
Monastery, »*ji^ dayr. The head 

of a monastery, ^jJf^^ « ray yet 

addayr. See Abbot. 
Monastic, monastical, ^-jL^^^Jb^ 

ruA^ditl. A monastic life, 

^Ub^ nMdnyai. Monastically, 

mHjib kawd^ aU addayr* 
Monday, ^j.,^jSi\ Atyj yawm al 

Money, ^lJl^U^ mu^dmaleh, Aa3 

noM (plur. J^ nMud), fjb\jj 

dardhim. See Coin, specie; 

wealth, riches. — ^Beady money, 




boy with ready moneyy i^J^^ 
^\i %$Uara' M nakd. Money 
paid in advance^ uiLi $dlaf. To 
lend money, f^^ kard.^ See 
Lend. — To pay money, 4^^ ufafa\ 
A sum of money, ^L/t vuihkufh 
(plur. ^If^ wiob&ligK). Any 
place where money is spent, 
cJyid^ fMtraf. Earnest money, 
^y^s'j radian* To chan«:e 
money, u*!^ 9arrf. A money- 
changer, uJjy.^ iarr&f. See 
Banker. — A money-bag, ^/m-^ 
^1^0 1^9 dardhm. See Pnrse. 

Moneyed, ^.JbljJi,,, *■.■»■ L^ sdhth 
dardhm. See lUcb* 

Moneyless, (jJLi« mt^. See Poor. 

Monger, cw hayyd^. See Dealer 
seller. — ^Fishmonger, 
hayyd^ samak. 

Monitor, s, f^^^ ndsih, jX> 
mMnsfir, liclj wd^z. [ndsth. 

Monitory (giving admonition), ^U 

Monk, ». ^^>^|i rdkib (plur. ^V^ 
mMdii)^ ^^jmJI koMit. To make 


a monki 



rdAfd. To become a monk, *mJ;1 
^^ff>\; irtHom rdhtb. 
Monkey, a. ^^y*t^ nwymUn, ^^ Juw) 
M^ddn. See Ape. 


Monocular, monocnloos (one-tyed), 
ji^ a^ar (fem. \j^ ^awrd.) 

Monogram, \jio toghrd. See Cipher. 

Monopolist, «. (^y^ muUoMm. To 
monopolise, ^C:;>-t iMakarf AJsSt 

Monosyllable, «. iJ^^L^\^ijM 
hatimatfihd tahjiyat todhiddh* 

Monotony, ^J^^^ fafd lakn. 

Monsoon, «. (probably an European 
corraption of ^y mawmtn, 'a 
season.') L^fi^^* 

Monster, 9, ^*um maMh^ yjL^^is, 

Monstrous, ^y**A^ fmamMkk^ iioLMf* 
MokhkL, See Strange, wonderful ; 
irregular, enormous ; shocking, 
hateful. --Monstrously, ^rj * ; 
ik%mJi^\^^j\t>' bi naw^n ihdfif 
^an attahl^at. 

Month, J f..A thahr (plu?. jyfJ^ 
ahuhur), j^\ ashkur. The end 
of the month, ^fuJLsLl dikir 
aahshdhtf j^\l^^Ic ^M imA- 
ahahr. The first ten days of a 
month, Jj\^\ awdyU. The second 
ten days of a month, i2i..«iljl 
awdaii. The last ten days of a 
month, j>^^^^ awdkhir. From 
month to month, jf^^|^f&^ 
mill shahr tW ahahr. Srery 
mouth, j^J^ M akakr. A 




month's mind^ iy.<Mpjp» hatfioi, 

j\JiaB^\ %tUi»ar. See Longing 

Honthlyj adf. kjfj. j m» thahri. 
Monthly pay, iybLjL^ muthd- 
haratf ^UJbt« m&hiyat, 

Honnmenty #• (memorial), j^fuMt^t 
Mor nuuhhur^ L^ ^aldnuU. A 
monument for the dead^ Jj^ 
markad (plar. jiL^ mardhid)^ 
hi Uirhat, ijJ^ maibaratfj^j 
kahr. See Tomb. 

Hood (state), iSU hdlat, JU ^J; 
(state of mind), ^l^MujL^ kw/f 
al ihaiir. See Mode, state, style. 
— (anger), w.i>.Ar ghad>ab \ (a 
style of music), aLa^ maidm 
(plur. C^UU^ makdmdt). 

Moon, <.^^ Jbmor. The new moon, 
Jlib Ao/a/. The new moon when 
just appeariug, Jif:^! UtihldL 
The full moon, jj^ hadr. The 
change of the moon,y4ii!l Jji>- 
Mil/ a/ kamar. Like the moon, 
y«4A!l Jl^ aim/ o/ Aaff»ar,jjJl Jl^ 
«»iif/ a/ ^a<^. The full moon of 
religion (a proper name), ^jj 
^jjl ^oiir addin. 

Moonlight, moonshine, j^^kWy^ 
daw si kamur. 

Moon-stone, ^;4^f^ h^'ar dliamar. 

Moori V, (a shipX k,^jA^\)aij rdbai 
al mariah; (to be fixed or sta- 
tioned), ^j raia\ The moor" 
ing place of a ship, L^f mind. 

Moot point, i. (doubtful case), <U^ 
<SCAu^ ladiffat mushialat, j^ 
jXdM^ a»ir mimAM. [«kmA. 

Mop, 8. t^*^\(L\ki,>' junfd99t d 

Mope, 9. (to become stupid, dull, 
sad), J^^ inbahal. 

Moral, ^jf adahlf ^lls. ^Mi. 

Moral, morality, morals, ^^^ 
akhldk, CJ^ sulilk, L^\J\ dddh, 
ZjLjI inidniyatf ^Ual latdfat. 
See Manners. — ^The soience of 
morality, j1s>.^1a 1 .c ^pm al 

Moralist, $. v.i-^^T ddlh, ^U nd9%hf 

jLi-swil <dAft^ risdlat /! ^iZm 

a/ akJUak, 
Morbid, morbose, ^^j.^ nuirfi?. 

See Distempered; diseased. — ^Mor» 

bidness, morbosity, ^^j^ marad. 

See Disease. — Morbific' (causing 

distemper), t^/^^ mumrid, ^j^ 

More, iiS^ij tiyddaU j^\ ak$ar, 

^)Ui fadlan. See Greater.— To 

add more, jV) Mdd, See Augment. 

—To ^^eTWji»,'icJ^jj^V^*^ 




%ip&dat. More neoeisary, c^^^j^ 
awfab, Ajt\ aham. [%alik. 

Moreover, Ui^ji«XcL^ tna ^add 
Morigeronsi ^U? tayt^ See Obe- 
dient, [muiakkir. 
Morning, a. l<^V^ sahdhl, ^^^ 
Mom, the morning, «. .^.^ m»^A, 
-.L.;^— ^ «a^dA. Early in the 
morning, \jCj^1c ^la* hukrd. In 
the morning, L.*^,^ whhan. 
Morning and evening, Um^j^«^ 
9uhh tea rnaad. Good morning, 
^^1^L0 sahdh Mhayr. The 
first money received for goods in 
a morning, -.1:lsi««I utiftdh. See 
Handsel. — The morning star, 
^«J!(h.^^ kawkab assuhh. 
Morose, J^ sakll, ij*ij^ tharis, 
'M.orTowiTo),\ J^ghadeh. To-morrow 

night, Ijki^ laylat ghadeh, 
Morse (sea-horse), ^^^(jwyi fara$ 

Morsel, «. (monthftd), <uil lukmeh, 
iuiS lukmai (plur. Jsi lukam). 
In morsels, ^uil^,^»-^ lukmeh 


Mortal (deadly), Jjli id<a, d^ 
wnM^ i^' • *•• mmmlt. See 
Deadly, destructive. — (subject to 
death), vi^ y^***'; (human), 
iatimrt, J\mi\ tMdn\ -, 


(extreme, violent), Jj Jul sku^d. 
See Vehement. 

Mortal, «. ^LjI insdn. 

Mortality, Ui /and, Jf^t qfal, f^^y 
tnawt. See Death, destruction. 
— A great mortality, ^^^ td^tin, 
b^ wahd. See Epidemical dis- 
temper. — (human nature), <tjuJall 
^^aLJI attabl^t id hcuhariyatf 
4U>^LjllUy„.,„Uil a/^fca^ ai 
imdniyat, [mumlt. 

Mortally, vj:..^.^^^cyj 2» »t0tr^tfi 

Mortar, «. (for pounding), ^^U 
hdtoan. Mortar (for building), 
^^^ /ffi. See Cement, plaster. 

Mortification (gangrene), ^\ akHeh; 
(self-denial), ^j/Jt:>i\j »,., i katr 
annafsy <Gt«1 amdtat, JJbj zuAd, 
X^b^ riyddaL See Abstinence^ 
humiliation; (vexation, affiont). 

Mortify, v,Jo\s:f\jMS kcuar alkhdUr ; 
(to be abstemious), <Ut«1j^ ^wuU 
atndtat; (to discourage, affiont), 
^U> \ ahdn. See Depress, humble. 

Mosque, $, (Muhammadan temple), 

Jusf^*^ nuujfid. The great moeque, 

w^lf^ jdmi^ The two moeques 

of Mecca and Medina, ^^^ Ju«f**^1 

Moss (of any kind), i:J^\ 




Most, j^\ aksar. For the most 

part, mostly, Jt^i\ alaktary UU 

ghdltban. Most noxious, j^ 
jj^\ huHr addarar. 

Moth, 8. i^y^ SUtat, LS.^%f. ^t. 

Mother, a, /A umm, »jJ\j iffdlidah. 
A wife's mother, SUk»- hamdt, 
A step-mother (father's wife), 
e-?)1^1,-/t1 amraat aldh, 4]Ul 
khdleL The mother of a family, 
^ 1^, H<U»^litf $dhihat olhayL 

See Mistress. — ^Mother of pearl, 
uJjutf sadaf, ^^^j^ ^rk lain. 
The mother of oil, etc., vji^jSUilc 
^Tcar asMyt. Motherhood, JL«1 
ummiyat. Motherless, aIiJL^ 
mdlahoumm. Motherly, aHIJi^ 
mitl al umm. 
Motion, Kj>^ hardkat ; (a proposi- 
tion in a public assembly), jiji3 
takrir, iujJLJ takdimat, <?j«n 'i 
kadiyat, ,<^X« mad^\ c^^JJx« 
matlah. To make a motion, ^^J^ 
A{jlr. ^aroi^ ^layhum, <— J V> 
<U«a3 /a/a5 kadiyat. The motion 

of the puke, ^^^^c^l<L^ hardkat 

Motionless, <b^^L« mdlahoharakat, 

Motive (giving motion), cJpS*^ 
ifiiiAarriii&. The motive powers, 

^^Ci^^^Wy^^ a/ kmod al mui- 

Motive, «. c-"^.**.! «aM, vi-^U 

waaitahf He- JUat, See Cause. 

Motto, ^. ^^yLA3 noibA, iU)U ^dldmat. 
The motto on a seal or ring, 
^\:>'^JL3j tMkih khdtm. 

Move, V. (give motion to anything), 
CJ;^ harrak. To move (i9i^ran«.), 
cJ^^ ^aAarr<i£. Unable to move, 
<l!U^jS to harakat laho. To 
move (propose), ^j^ ^ar0<^« See 
To make a motion. — (to make 
melancholy), ^«>j^ sawdan. 

Moveable, d^jL.\^ji,A^ mumkin al 

harakat, cJJ^ yutdharrak, Jj\j 

zdyU. See Eemovable. — Not 

movable, JL^^t^^^C^w^^ yAoyr 

mumkin al harakat, C^j^^jtS. 

ghayr mutaharrik. Moveable- 

ness, iL.^^1^LX«l imkdn al 

harakat. Moveably, cJ;--^t« 

mutharrik. Movement, L^j>^ 

harakat, CS^^^f^ tahirik. See 

Moved, cJ;^sv« mutaharrik. 

Mover, b. ^jSf* muharrik ; (a pro- 
poser, persuader), i^\;(^*^^ 'Mtf- 

kaddim rdy. A mover of mi&- 

chief or «tt^\ioTi) 




mMharrik al fitmat, jLuii^cJ^^^ 
mMkairriSi al /a»ad. [ikimi. 

MoTJng, nu>Tent, jMirt, 

Konld, ». wJU iaia. 

Mould, V. (form) c^U J^f ^amai 

Mooldable, c, ■^^jS".;? yatakawlah, 

Mooldedy wJ^L« mukawlah. See 

Formed. [Maker. 

Moulder, $, k^Jl^ mukawlih. See 

Moult V. (shed or lose feathers), 

Mound, B. Juj «a<2i. To mound or 
fortify with a mound, 3l«)Jm^ 

^ton. See Fortify. 
Mount, 9. (go up) Juttf «a^M^, ^U? 
tdle^^ (to raise up), ^^ rafa^ 
To mount on horseback, ^^^^j 
r$keh. See Horseback. — ^To mount 

or rise in price, ^ix ghalla\ To 
mount (embellish clothes, etc., 
with ornaments) ^Ji*AJ nahuhy 
\jo tarraz. 
Mountain, mount, a. J.^ jabal 
(plur. JUsj" jihal). The top of 
a mountain, J.-^f(jwtf]; rat 
ajjahal. See Summit, top. — ^From 
mountain to mountain, iS:^\j^ 
JLr>- Jl tnin jabal iU Jabal, A 

path or pass between mouixtsAB&i 

^^j^ carkab. Clefts in moun- 
tains, jjkj iugkar, A mount 

(little hiU), JJ taU (plur. JXj 
^tTs/). Mount Sion, ^^s>f^iJ«>* 
jo^o/ Ao^yayi. Mount Sinai, jjL 
Lx^»rf ^ilr «fnd. Gibraltar, <L>> 
j^iyi jabal aiidrik 

Mountain (found on or belonging to 
mountains), ^Ju^- jaball, ^J^*^^ 
wakihi. See Wild. — ^A moun- 
taineer, tJu^ jaiball. 

Mountainous, X^jahah. 

Mourn, v. (oj«^>- henm, ^. m\Jj 
taassaf, c^^o^ nahab. See La- 
ment, grieve. — (wear mourning), 
jtjl.\(j^ Isbei al hidad, ^j>- 

Mourned, ^lJlcJL« mubka* ^alayhi. 

See Begretted. 
Mourner, «. ,^2^ ii^yi^, ^l^ biiki. 

See Lamenter. — A company of 

female mourners, c:*^L.>-\^ 

Mournful, ^jlj>- hazln, >»•■ 4iJL^ 
maghmUm, fj^J^^ mahzUn, See 
Melancholy.; sorrowful. 

Mournfully, moumingly, a^J^ 
bikol gham. Moumfulness, a0 
yAam, Jl a^m, ^^ natoA, ^^j^ 
hutn. See Lamentation, somw, 




Hoarning habits, Jt J^ hiddd. 

House, «. Sj\jfdrah (fern. pi. iZj\j\i 

fdrdt)f {^jf^firdn, A mouse 


Mouth, 8. aJ fum (pi. m\a3\ afmdm, 

A^\ ajkedh. Belonging to the 

mouth, ^^j4J fumml. The month 

0r orifice of the stomach, S JucJl ^ 

fumm al mi^t, [hhofumm. 

Mouthed (having a mouth), ^^ 

Mouthful, 8. <Ui! lukme or lukmat 

Mow, V, (cut down), Jua>- ha8ad. 

Mower, 8, *xA>- hd8id. 

Much, j^ ka8lr, ji\j wdjlr, j^ 
ghaztr. Much time, jt^^^j 
tamdnhatHr. Little or much, JJli 
ji^^ kohl wa ka8lr. Much rain, 
j^Jic2^ matar ka8lr. How 
much? sS ham. Very ipuoh, 
ij\Mhighdyaty \*\>'jiddan. Much 
the same (equal in quantity, 
value, influence, etc.), J^J^ 
^dil. See Equal. [mukhdt 

Mucus (snot of the nose), l^lcr^ 

Mud, ^jJb tin, J^j waU. 

Mud, V. (bury in the mud),^^**!? 

^Jaib tamar hittin. 
Muddiness,^^ ^akar, ^J^ kadar. 

See Foulness, turbidness. 

Muddy (turbid)^^I^ mutaiaddir; 

(full of mud), 
Muddy WB,ter,jijL^\^md mu^ai' 
kar, L^Asr^U md tnakhhuL To 
become muddy, jCju ta^kkar. 

To muddy or make muddy, X^ 
Mufti (the first law officer among 
the Muhammadans), ^AA^ mufti. 

Mug, 8.j^ kn% (plur.jl^^ okwdM). 

See Gup. 
Mulberry, 8. cl;^ tut. A wild 

mulberry, ^cjLZJy tut harri. 

Mulct, ^UjyS>- jarimat, A.^]^ 
ghardmat. A mulct for murder 
or bloodshed, ^ J diytU. 
Mulct, 9. A^ jaram. [highdl^ 

Mule, #. Jju ftoc^M. Mulds, Jib 
Muleteer, «. J w haghghdl, ^VT^^ 

kdtirfl, i^J^ mukdri. 
Mullein (plant), ii^^jJl^b ddn 

Multangular, Ljl^j^jCUi^ katir 

assMwdjfdf i^\j0i\^ katir al 

Multifarious, multiform, y.j i^,^ 

Jl^Hl katir al a8hkdl. 
Multilateral, c^^.j^]^ katir 

ajffunUi. [wnd* 

Multinominal, [.,AiJi\j^ kaUr al 


mJj>A\ mumkin addarhf c^y^ 
Ifundarib. Multiplicableness, 

(^j^\^\^\ imJtdn addarh. 

Multiplicand, i^i^^j0a^\ al mad- 

Multiplication, yliof takatur^ j^pij 
taktlr, uJImI ad^f. See In- 
crease. — ^Multiplication in aritb- 
metic, (mmJjmA\ addarh. 

Multiplicity, l\j^\ ifrdt, [^ 
koiirat, i^^ij tiy&dat. 

Multiplied, L,Q f.L.>aw< muda^af, 
Jujh^ mutatdyid; (in arith- 
metic), i^^j>ay madruh. 

Multiplier, 9. jp^ mukattir; (in 
arithmetic), c-^/«^ tnudarrih. 

Multiply, V, (cause to increase), 
j^ kattar, jU zdd, cicL^ dd^f. 
To multiply arithmetically, c-.^ 
darah ; (to multiply or be multi- 
plied),^ ketir,j^j\^ »ctr katlr. 

Multitude, ij:^ katraL A multi- 
tude, wi^yam^, ^[^^jamd^atf 
iujM^ jam^at A great multi- 
tude, ^^-i^w«»^ jam^ katlr. 

Multitudinous, 0^«Xc ^did. See 
Numerous, manifold. 

Mumbler, «. Jh^.-Lj^ munaknik, 
JiAATu^ mutakimkam. See Mut- 
^rer, grumbler. 
Mummy, s, \^y mUmU. 

720 MUB 

Mundane (belonging to the woiid), 
^U ^lamlf ^J^J dunfowf, 
i^^Lj J dunydwi. 
Municipal, (Jj^ mtft^nf. 
Munificence, Jjli-» sakhdwat, Jyj- 
yiU^, Isr* MJ^^d. See Liberality. 
Munificent, ,c-s^ «a^Al, fc>\jl-^ 
jawwddy aJ^ karim. See Li- 
beral, generous. 
Munificentiy, ^J^i^ik'^JCj hikol 
Bokhdwat wa karam. See Libe- 
rally, generously. [port. 
Muniment. See Fortification, sup- 
Munition, j\^ J saHJytr. See For- 
tification, ammunition. 
Mural, ^J^^t^ haytl. 
Murder, Ji5 katl. Self-murder, 
^^.wiJl Jii katl annafB. A mulct 
for murder, jlj tdr. See Mulct. 
— Battie and murder, JlsSjt-jr^ 

Murder, v, Ji5 X»^a/. See Kill. 
Murdered, Jy:^ maktul, ^jsl:^ 

munkatU, J^ ^a^?^ (fem. 2u:J 

katilat, plur. ^ kutald). 
Murderer, b, JjU A;a^i7, Jlsj i^^^/. 

A self-murderer, <Uui3 JjIj kdtU 

Murderess, «. XljU katilat. 
Murdering, part, ^Jjli kdtU. 
\}kwAsstssQ&^ 0^-^ hUtal^ u^L 




UjiSI Bdfik addamd. See Bloody, 
Mnnnnr (complaint), LA-L^ 

Bhakdyat ; (confused noise), <u3^ 
karkacat. The mormnr of a 

Mil M ^ * 

crowd, jLULc. ghalghdlat^ ijsfi 

Hnrmar, v. (complain)^ _CJLJ 

iaskdkha\ j^jAj Umannar, mAasj 

tdkamkam, [mutashakk^. 

Munnurer, «. ^tt) «A<2^, ^Jj*2^ 
Murrain, 9. !JL:\j\j^\^yz^ ta^Hn 

al haywandt. 
Muscle, 8, (of the human body), 

<lL^ ^dlat (pi. <»^^>flr ^adldt). 
Muscular, musculous, J..^ ^o^. 

Very muscular, J-^Lji^ ^a^lr 

a/ ^L 
'iixiBe,J^fikr. See Thought. 
Muse, v,j^\ iftakar, (J^lj tdmmal. 

See Ponder, think, reflect. — (to 

be absent in mind),^Jj^U 

•ICiJl ghdrikfl hahr al afkdr. A 

muser, ili:;^ mutafakkir. 

Museum, b. L,.o<\ll<XJp>- khaznat 

Mushroom, «. U^ ^amd. 

Music, ijyi nawhat, [^^y muslkd. 

Musical, ^JL^y§ musiki A mu- 

sical instrument, <UyJ1<y1 o^^ 

alnawhat. A performer on mu- 

sical instruments, viVy 'i^nrto^. 

A musical tone, note, or mode, 

/«U^ makdm. Musical notes, 

C^UIL« makdmdt. A musical 

air, 1^ hawd, iAJ6 naghmat. See 
Air, song. [aldil. 

Musician, «• vJVy nav)ldilf i^\ 

Musk, uICm-^ mt»i^. Turcoman 
musk, ^iL.4^ '>(^\M*.>< ihimA 
turkmdni. Perfumed with musk, 
u,\ Ml 4> ^ mumasaak, A dealer in 
musk, LL\m^c\jj hayyd^ muik. 

Musket, «. iiii^j\i bdrude, ^Jcj 
hundihiyeh. See Gun. 

Musky, ^Xmu« mtMJH. 

Muslin, l:wJy^^ mu«/{nd« 

Mussulman, «. (Muhammadan be- 

liever), U 


mtM/m (plor. 

Must (to be necessary, obliged), f^^ 
Idtim. You must eat, J^LJajJ 
tostm ^dM. You must not eat, 
J^Ij^jSU md Idzim tdkul. We 
must do whatis good, C;*^)^^^ 
^^^1Jju;^\L.iJlc min ahodfib 
^alaynd an naf^ al khayr. 

Mustaches, L^j\yJit shawdrih. 

Mustard, J^>;£>- khardal. 

Muster, v. an army, iJ^^uli^J^ 
jL^\ ^amal yoklama ^aU al 




Miisfy, ^jjLJtm mm^t^. Mnsty 
bread, ^^^amj^ Mufti nm^^in. 

Mntability, mutableneflB, a|^JaJ^ 
^adam da/u>dmf CL^Ui^Afi ^adam 
$dbdt, jjJu iaghayyuir. See Un- 

Matable, j|^^U mdlaho kardr, 
c:^lJ<dU mdlaho $abdt, jSJc^ 
mutaghayyir, (Jj^j sdytl. See 
Inconstant, changeable. 

Mate, {jMj^\ akhrat. See Dnmb. 
—•Mute property (in opposition 
to live stock), vji-^w^U JU mdl 
admit. Mute as a letter, ^Ls 

Mutilate, ^^ ^atcwar, asLa adkhat 
Mutilated, IxLm^ musakkat, & ^kL« 

Mutilation, ^^ ta^r, )aLa sakat. 

Mutineer, #. ^U ^Al, ^<^l* 

Mutinous, i<^V ^^y^^9 (j^ fattdn^ 
Ouui^ mufiid, ,<««W ^a«I. Muti- 
nously, ^;l«^J^ hikoltughydn. 

Mutiny, ,«fu ^Af, i!:ji3 /^na^, 
J^Jio tugkydn, ^;l--afi ^t«yan, 
jLJ/mSi^. See Sedition. 

Mutiny, v, ^ hagha\ ioij^ 
^amalfttnat^ l5*^^ L''^' jUaJ Jn^ 
^4nnaifaBdd. [Murmur, grumble. 
Mutter, r. ftJAJj takamham* &ee 

Mutter, 9. mMjUj ta ka m imn , j^Si 

tadammur. See Murmur. 
Mutterer, a, *A4ii^ mutakamiim, 
j^si^ mutadammir. Mutteringly, 

j^djJd i^^ tadammur. 
Mutton, M V »r A lahm ghanam, 

(Jl^Ak. lahmddnh 

Mutual, C^"«u^ muahtarak, ffM 
\0aju ha^ihum ha^dan. Mutual 
consent, J^^^y tavodfak. Giving 
mutual assistance, ^ »g ni ^jJ>^Li 
Lm «d^aJil ha^dihum ba^dan. 
Mutually, ^/axJ^^n n > ^a^i^iii 
laba^d. Taking bands mutually, 

Muzzle, a, jj fumm. See Mouth. 
— ^A muzzle (for a dog, hog, etc.), 
Mft^ ka^. To muzzle the mouth, 
w,.nK!\AJ»ig lajam fumm alkalb. 

My, ^^ I; aa My boy, v/^j waladl. 
My house, ^jl^j 5ay<f . My face, 

Myrabolan (tree or firuit), ff"^^ 
ihlllaj. The yellow myrabolan, 
jLa\>^rir^\ ihlllaj aafar. 

Myrapolist, a. (a seller of unguents 

or drugs), J Ike ^attdr. 
Myrrh, ^ murTf cJU^ r« murr adf\. 

Oil of myrrh, ix^ may^at. 

'tt.^t^"^, *. ^vVx^^ w &uit) (jk#.T dt. 




The wild or monntain myrtle^ 
i^ji{j**\ ^ harri. 

Myself, ^^^^mXUI and nafil. 

MjBteriouBi mysticy myBtical, ^/^ 
tirrit tJ^^ tnukh/l, A mystical 
significatioiiy ^.rwl Vt ,t»\^^^uu9 
ma^* utildhl. Lnrr, 

Mysteriously, mystically, j^^^ M- 

Mystery, mysteriousness, mystical- 
ness, j»^ iirr. Mysteries, j)j^\ 
(urdr. Divine mysteries, j^j^\ 
i^\ aardr Uahiyat. 

N, in English, has an invariable 
sound, excepting before g, where 
the sound is nasal, as in ' king ; ' 
and after m, where it is almost 
silent, as in 'condemn/ In Arabic 
it is expressed by ^. 

Nadir (the point of the lower hemi- 
sphere, in opposition to the ver- 
tical point zenith), j^ nazlr, 
^\ anna..r, l^ 

Nail, 8. (of the finger or toe), jiia 
wufr (plur. jLfi-b\ azfar, j^i^ieA 
cLzdflr), The nail or nails of birds 
or beasts, v— Jrw hhalh, i^J.-y^ 
mihhlah. See Claw, talons. 

^— To tear or scnrtch with the 
nails, {Ji^j£>- khamutih. A nail, 
spike of iron, etc.,jUyuuy« miiPiar 
(plur.^^Lu^ masdmlr)* 
Nail, p.jA>*M>^ tnatmar. 

Naked, (jVy^ lorydn. See Bare. — 

(plain, clear, not hidden), JbU? 

%dhir; (simple, mere), Jf ^ Vi-t 


Nakedly (without covering), 

uJyLJUlb htlmakshnf; (plainly), 

lybU? zdhiran ; (simply, merely), 

Ulia^ mutlakan. 

Name, ^1 ism ; (title), l.^ lakab 
(plur. c^U!\ alkdh). To give a 
name (to a child), ^^^^ »amnm\ 
In the name of Ood, ^JJI^mmJ 
bumtUahi. A surname (oho & 
title of honor), v.^^ lakab (plur. 
c^Ull alkdb). 

Name, v, ^^.^^i tamma* ; (to ap- 
point), Jjt>- /s^a/. See Nomi- 
nate, specify, mention, utter. — 
Named, ^^^«m*m« mu9amwia\ 

Nameless, s^\Lj bUd ion ; (not 
famous), i>^^jSU9jmkghayr ma^rnf. 
Namesake, 9. ^y*^ mmmi. 
Namely, j<^ ya^l ; (particularly). 

l^AR 724 

khuiHSf )l,ijyM(i^ muttMUan, 
UUx« muUakan. 

Kap, $./^y nawm. See Sleep,slamber. 

Nap, V, Aj ndm. 

Nape (of the neck)| Uj ka/d, 

Naptha (a bitaminoas Babstance)| 
laAJ naft. Anointed with napiha, 
^JaA3 naftl. [nitrin. 

NarcissoSy ^j^^y fMfjts, ^^;iJ***^ 
Narcotic (producing stupefaction), 

JI^M^^ mu8kir, ^J^ mtmayyim, 
Nard (an odoriferous herb), ^^^ 


Narration, narrative, <• i>*ai kissat, 
LAL..^ hik&yat See History, 
story, tale, relation. 

Narrative (relating), Jla) nMl. 

Narrator, #. ^^^j rdwl, ^/^ hdki, 
lLjsss^ muhaddis. See Historian, 

• story-teller. 

Narrow (not broad or wide), ^jl^ 
dayy%h\ (covetous), cUL tammd^, 
See Avaricious. — A narrow pass. 

Narrow, r. (jS^ dayyak. 
Narrowly (without extent), JCj 
. iL^ hikol dikat. 

Narrowness, fjOjsiM^j hiUat al^d; 
(avarice), ^Ja^, btMul ; (want of 
capacity), J^I^^J^ ^adam al- 



Nasal (belonging to the nose), ^Jo\ 

Nasty, ^^ unmhh,\Jui^\j fdhuh. 

Nastily, Jl^U^J^ hikd fahdihat 
See Obscenely. 

Nastiness, ^Lsj tcoidkhat, LJ^ 
fk^'dsat. See Dirt, filth; obscenity. 

Natal, i^*^j^ mawladl. See Native. 
The natal day, Ojlj^ tnawlnd. 
See Birth-day, nativity. 

Nation, $• <t«l umtnat, ^^ ^ufi^t 
dJu^ kahilat. See People. — 
(country), ^l^Lt mulk, S^Ia^ 

National (public, general), ^^^ 
^mUmlf >«lc ^dm, j jia^ mutldk ; 
(attached to one's country), 
^^Jlv— >^c*^ muAi^ a/ watan. 

Native, ^i-^^ <Mft, (JU sart. Na- 
tive country, ^Jo^ watan. See 
Natural, original. [lud. 

Native, s. v^jJ^ haladi, O^y maw- 

Nativity, jJL« tnawlad, JL^ mllddt 

iJi^ walddaL See Birth. — ^The 

nativity of Jesus Christ, j]L« 

Natural (according to nature), (Jb 

*^^^ ^;*:?r^ ^^^^t^' sJLr^>^ >«•'' 
harl\ (easy, unaffected), ^<«^ 

ta6l^l. Natural instinct, JuuJa!^ 




iUtabi^at. A natural inclinationy 

Vaturally, l.n ^ t? tah^, L^lj 

JS'aturalnesSy ^<uyb tabi^, (JLi\j 
%dt. See Nature. — (easmess), 
ij\Jo tardfat, v^jl adah. 

Nature, <U^ ti^i^at, «-«^ tah^ 
(plur. j-jU? ^dy»^, <— yU 
nuuhrahf 'r^y* mitdj. See Con- 
stitution, disposition. — (sort), 

See Kind. — Divine nature, f-Jiall 
^^)t attah^ al ilahi. Human 
nature, ^j^ \ <<.w!j.«\3i 1 attabl^t 
al hashariyat. Against nature, 
iL«Ja!f^^L^ khildf attahi^at. 
good natured, v^JaSf^jLLl latlf 
attahi^. See Benevolent. 

Naval, L^jS^, hahri. A naval battle, 
^^11 Jli5 kttdl al hahr. 

Navel, 8. ^iaJl^ sirrat al bain. 

Naught, naughty, jijJL sharir, JLU 
^til. See Bad, corrupt, worth- 
leas. — ^Naughtily, \jJL sharran. 

Navigable, (^^U^t^U^LuJ tasdjlr 
bihi al mardkah. 

Navigate, r. j^Ij^Lj Bdfir hil bahr. 

Navigation,^^UAyj sa/ar al bahr. 
See Shipping. 

Navigator, s. lJ^s< bahri. 

Nauseate, v.LJf^k&ref. See Loathe. 

Nauseous, ifjj^ tnakruh, uJ^ 

Nauseously, t^JijCj bikol karaf. 

Nauseousness, uJ^ karaf. 

Nautical, nautic,^^^lyLJc->^MJ^ 
mamULb Icaafar al bahr. 

Navy, ». hja^ij\i ^tmdrat bahrtyat. 
See Fleet. 

Nay, )l Id, \^\ aslan. See No. 

Neap (tide),j^^y<Msr. 

Near (not far off, at the side), u^^ 
karlb. See Neighbouring. — (re- 
lated as kindred), u^|/ kardyih. 
To draw near, c--y> karrah. See 
Approach. — ^Far and near, Ly 
1 Jju^ hurban tea bu^n. 

Near, nearly (almost), ya^ nahu. 

Nearer, nearest, (^^\ akrab. 

Nearness (closeness), <.-^ kurb, 
i^^jSj takrib ; (relationship), 
ij\Ji kardbat. See Kindred. 

Neat, (^-fiJal latlf f f^^J^ tarif. See 
Elegant. — (dean, cleanly), t—Qjh) 
na%if; (unadulterated), ^U^ 

khdUs, ^U sdfi. See Pure, un- 


mixed, genuine. 
NeaUy, uJLb bautf LiUsiJ^ 
&iib/ nazd/a^. Neatness, ^ILl 
latdfat ; (cleanliness), ^LAi3 





Neoessaries^c^Lya) tuhdh, ci^b j^jJ 
durHriydt, CdUjIjS hiwdnmdi, 
Cl;Is»-1>. hdjdt, ^}^ hawdyij, 
Cl?lg»^Lj,7^< ahtiifafat, ^j\^ 
lawdziim, CDUwf^ muhimm&t, 
Neoessariee for food, CL^bj*^^ 
^l*4S^ darUfiydt al mu^h. 

Necessarily, Uap ImUman, UljJl 
Utis^man, *iSi la hud, ijji^lj 
&t7 durHrat, ifj^j^ iurfiratan, 

ma^/a^. Happening necessarily. 

Necessarily connected, a^^Ju^ 

fita&ilm. Necessarily existing, 

J^^l^D /dswii a/ umffUl. 

Necessariness, ij^j^ dar^rat. Bee 

Necessary, ^Ji Idnim, U;^^\^ tr^/t^, 
^^f^ fHuhim, ^*n 1M^ muktadi, 
s^j^j^ darHri. See Bequisite. 
Necessary consequences, cl^LmJiila^ 
muktadiydU Necessary to be per- 
formed or paid, \Si\ ajI Idtim al 
idd, JbLJ^i^c^^o-lj wdja al 
%mi$9dl. Necessary to be done 
oyer again, or made up for, when 
not done right at first, c.;^^^j 
\^\ wdjdb {d kadd. Necessary 
to be preserved, L\jyi\(^ji Idnitn 
al wakdyat. Necessary to \)e 

obeyed, cLJlHw^s^l^ tadjib al 
ithd^ Commands necessary to 
be obeyed, Jl2;:^^i»5j-lj^|^1 
awdmir wdjthat al imtisdl. Neces- 
sary to be esteemed, honored, wr 
respected, w^Wjlt ld%im cU- 
iahrim. Anything necessary to be 
done or procured, (^j^^<^ '^y 
Idtim, i^\^ hdjat. It ifl neces- 
sary, Ajl Idzm, ^y Idytk, 
u^.-c^^j fffdjib, lJj)j^ durAri. 
Very necessary, most necessary, 
Aj^yil^l alzcm allawdssim. To 
be necessary, ^J^j^j^ *^ 
durHrif (*jh^ 9dr Ids^im. To 
judge necessary, ^ ji ^jMMoC ^oAm- 
ianladayhi. To necessitate or make 
necessary, i^jaj*^^ ^mmaMo 
durUrly (^)^ J^ &ai7M^Ao Idwim, 

Necessitated, /Mj]^ nudtum, See 

Necessitous, ^^^^^^^ muhidj, 

tniskln, jM fakir. See Indi- 
gent, x>oor. 

Necessitously, ^L,;ifv \^ ^j^j^C^. 
hikol dururai tea iktiydj. See 
Poorly, needily. 

Necessity, necessitousness, ij^jr^ 

dururat, i>-\»^ hdjat , <^L^i^^ 

ihtiydj, I3 fukr. See Need, 

\ ^N^tV^, vodi^ncc. — Necessity 




{taiBiity, cogency); uJuS kadd, 
^*XaJ taMir. See Fate. — (indis- 
pensableness, pressiog occasioa)> 
i^jjj Imumy \jci\ Midd, ij^j^ 
durHrat, j\j Vi, ^\ idtirdr. See 
Compulsion^ force. 
Neck, 9. Jh^ ^nh (plor. jUx^ 
a^iidh). An ornament fdr the 
neck, ^*^S harddn. See Neck- 
lace. — To throw the arms about 

the neck, ^U ^nak. See Em- 

Necklace, «. i^^^ karddn, JAe> 
^kd (plur. J^ ^a^u(^), j^ 
totrJE; (plur. J^4?l attodk). See 
Collar. — ^Adorned with a neclplace, 
^^S^j**^^ Idlis karddn. To or- 
nament with a necklace, ^^aJ3 
^1 J^ Za^^0« karddn. 
Necromancer, «. ^^L> «aA»r. See 
Enchanter, sorcerer.— A female 
necromancer, ^.>>L3 Bdhirah. See 
SorceresB. [chantment. 

Necromancy, -^^ «j'Ar. See En- 
Nectar, y^ kawsar, Ag^i^^J tamim, 

(^'f^j Tahlk, 
Nectarine, ». ^^-*^li-.Ujf tuffdhfdrsl. 
Need, i:>-U-. Ao/a^, ^Li»-1 ihtiydj, 
ijyr^ dururat. Sec Poverty, 
necessity, want, indigence. — (exi- 
gence, pressing ocoaaion)^ ^jlJ 


luMUfttf ifj^j^ durUrai, 

Need, v. ^Is^^ t%%'. See Want. 
Needful, ^jD /dsim, ^.iJ-.B^ muk- 

tadl. See Necessary. — ^Needfully, 

See Necessarily. 

Needily, ^\p£>A^^^ Uhol ihtiiydj. 

Neediness, hLu*^ maskanat See 
Needle, «. SjI t^a^ (plur. j1 uhar). 

A packing needle, iLu^ mvaallat, 
A needle-maker or seller, (^1 
ibar^. A needle-case, *;^^ 
dbbdrat (plur. cl^l^lSl dbhdrdt). 



\L hild ihtiydjy 

^jij^ ghayr Idzim, ^^^ccju^j^ 
ghayr muktadl. See Unnecessary. 

Needlessly, /•^U^ hUd luzHm, See 

Unnecessarily. Needleesness, 

La::j)tlAjk£ ^xidam al iktidd. 

Needs, [^ji Idtiman, a^^ Id 
jarm. See Necessarily*-— It needs 
must (it is necessary or proper). 

Needy, ^l::^^r^ muhtdj. See Indi- 
gent, necessitous, poor. 

Nefarious. See Wi^ed, detestable. 

Negation, ^ ndkn, ^^ naf%yj\ij\ 
inkdr. See Denial. 

Negative, adj. ^\^ n^fiiiii^^ 


mwrflf LSLi idlibat. The nega- 
tive imperative; also the nega- 
tive attribute in logic, ^^ nahi, 
SL^ nafi, A negative, ^Ju 
naflf jUol tnkdr. A negative 
particle, tj^^j^ harf nafu 

Negatived, ^^^ munkoTf jy-^^^^ 

ifkin^r, /^r^^ muharram, 

Negatively, jlio^ J^ it^/ tn^r, 
VjjU^iUj-^ hi wajhin n&fl, [get. 

Neglect, V, J»^l ahmal. See For- 

Neglect, negligence, 4lix ghaflat, 
^}\i^ ihndl, JiUjf taghaful. See 
Carelessness, forgetfulness ; con- 
tempt, scorn. [mahmul. 

Neglected, ^^m:^ munsd'y J^^^^ 

Neglectful, negligent, Jili ^Aci/?/, 
J«^UcL^ mutakdsiL See Careless, 

forgetfiil. ^To be or become 

negligent, JiUj taghafal^ J^Uo 
takdiaL See Neglect. 

Negligently, Jl^'J^ i»^/ fA»»d/, 
)l^l fhmdlan, 2j^ ghaflatan^ 
See Scornfully. 

Negotiate, v, ji^ dabhar; (as a 
merchant), ^;5j-l3 ^4/a»'* ^^jVJ^ 
^amo/ ^dfdr. See Treat, traffic. 
•^To negotiate a treaty, J-i^c 
ijJbitL^ tomal mu^dhadat. To 

728 NET 

.^^\jAe' ^had assulh, .^{^ 

^Lx^ib hdshir hU muBdlahat. 
Negotiation, <lJw^U^ mu^malai, 

d^^*^^ maslahat. 
Negotiator, s. J^U^ mu^md. See 

Mediator, ambassador. 
Negro, *. ,<-u*-»>- AaJcwAl. 
Neighbor, «. j\>- jar, jij^^ »»«- 

jdtoir. Neighbours, ^j m *>• 

jlrdn. [ydtrar. 

Neighbor, ». (be contiguous), j^^Vs^ 

Neighborhood, *i^bs^ wtt;air»ra<. 

1^5»- yflu?ar, ^^-ly »aM?dAi. 


Neither, ^j u'a/d. Neither one nor 
the other, ^3WjJc>.\jSW Id al- 
wdhid wa Id aldkhar. Neither 
long nor short, ^^^m^J^Jj^^)! Id 
tawtl wald kastr. Neither more 
nor less, Jili«^l)l Id aksar tcald 
akaL \ibn aldkh. 

Nephew (a brother's son), ^'^^1 
Nerve, «. t^^^rrr. ^asah (pi. c^lio^l 

Nervous (strong in the nerves), 4^y 
i^^wu!^ kawl al ^Mab\ (having 
weak nerves), s^^*n w Wi^^^m 
da^f al ^sah. 

Nest, 8. \j^ f^ush. 

Net, 8. JlLwI shahakeh, A fishing 

negotiate a treaty of poaco, \ xv&V> (Lj;* ikaW^&« A honter^s 




iiet> ^)La^ masldh (plur. ^l«a^ 

masdll), 2^Ju.a^ moiyadat (plur. 
Jul^^ masdyid). The netting of 

a ship, L^^^^^^f^^^MiS kafa9 al 

Nettle, c;. (irritate), l.^^>«ac1 aghdah. 
Never, Ijut abadan, 1^\ aalan, 

Never hereafter, \^^ij^ \i^\ 
! JxL)j abadan min alan wasd^- 

dan. Never ending, jIj^IjjI abd 

al dbad, [Aasd. 

Nevertheless, 1»xaJu^^ ma^ kol 
Neuter, neutral (indifferent, of no 

side or party), <u1^Sj^Lj(-^) Id 

ma^ho wa Id^layh, 
Neutrality, J^>-liu^^,»^*rty "H 


1 ^adam al ta^assub tna^ 
ahad alkhusmln, cliNx^^Jewl^^ 
uJCJlcL kawn ahhad la tna^ak 
tea Id ^alayk. 
New, Jj Jk^ jadldf ci^ J^>. hadU, 
*-j Ju badi^. See Fresh, rare, 
wonderful. — ^The new moon, JiU 
Tialdl, A new invention or pub- 
lication, anything new, rare, 
wonderful, c ju^^^-1 «Afly mubda^ 
k^\ss^\ thdds, C^xsUu^ musta- 
hadas, ij jl3 nddirat (plur. ^fc>^y 
nawddir), <^«V badt^t, d^Jj 
bud^at See Novelty.— Saying 
or doing anything new, 

iahdls. The being produced or 
related as new, t^Jiasr tahaddui. 
To make new, J Jk9»- jaddad^ Af 
jj j^ ^malaho jadid. See Be- 
new, repair. 
Newly, IjJjsr^ tnt^'addadan, ^ 
«3j J^ minjadld. 


khabar (plur. jL^iifl^t 

a^A^ar). Good news, c:^\^l£u 
bashdrdt. To bring or announce 
good news, ^juuj bashshar. The 
messenger of good news, j^^*^ 
muiashahir. A newspaper, J^;>- 
jumdl. To bring or relate news, 
,,a£;> khabbar. 
Next (adjoining), J-^aiL^ muttasil, 
fjJLt muldsik. See Neighbor- 
ing. — ^Next (then, after which), 
J^^^ min ba^, /^^\dju ha^ 
al yavm, ^'i\^J^ min aUdn ; 
(immediately following), ^^ 

can karlb avidrndn. 
Nib (beak of a bird), ^Ui^ minkdr, 
Nice (accurate), Lr^Ja^ mos^tz^. See 
Particular, exact. — (exquisite, 
delicious) ^^/u^t^iJ nafu, ^-J*«^ 
&ai!^. See Befined, delicate. — 
(minute), J^^O dakik. See 
Small, fine. 




dikkiU. SeeEzaetnesi. — (squeam- 
idmesi), »\JzJ\ utOrdh, [f\ ika ; 
(exqidntenefls), U^ <q/<S, (Li\)b 
mrdfait. See Delioades. — ^Nice- 
ties (exquisite dishes), ^^liJ 
Nickname, $. j;J Ubh^ H-^ lakab. 
Niece, «. (brother's daughter), u:^ 
^\ hintalakh; (sister's daoghter), 

Niggard, niggardly, Jt^aErT ^^^^h 
^jt*^uMj>^ khasia. See Avaricious. 
— ^Niggardliness, niggardness, 
JloeT hukhul. See Ayarioe. 

Nigh, *^^^ karib. See Near. — 
To draw nigh, S-^ karrah. See 

^^S^^> J:?^ ^^> ^^ /(vy^a^ (plur. 
^LJ lay&li). Night aud day, 
jLfjj J^ /o^/ fjoa nahar. One 
night, on a certain night, ^jomj 
^\^\ha^allayah. The middle 
of the night, JJJ1<^^3 nasf dl 
layL See Midnight. — ^The third 

watch of the night, J.^JJ1l:uJ^ 

Udt al Ictyl, In the night time, 

ly laylan. 

Nightcap, A^S^^j^ tarhush 

annawm. [annawm. 

Night-dress, m^ ; Hv,,>Li>3 tiydh 

Nightgown, ^^Ijl. ^J^k'i kunhdz 

Nightingale, «. JJb MM, 

Nightly (by night), L) laylan. 

Nightmare, (jhw^l^ kahus. 

Nightshade, wJjc)lc^...Ckfi ^mab 
aUa^ldb, \al layl. 

Night-time, s. JJJfc:^^ waki 

Night*walk, JJJ\,^^/Lu^ mushiallMyL 

Nightward, JJJl JCi^ ^^nd al layl. 

Night-watch (or guard), J-U^^^/-;^ 
hdri% al layl. 

Nimble, (J^j ra»hfk. See Bwift, 
quick, actiye, clever, expeditious. 

Nimbleness, ^\j^j ri$hdkat. See 
quickness, activity, speed. 

Nimbly, uu^ aari^n, Quiokly. 
See Actively, speedily, swlfUy. 

Nine, ^mJ tiiu^, ^itmj taa^. 
Ninefold, uJLjl^1<UmJ taa^ 
ad^df. Nineteen,^i«^- toi^ 
^har. The nineteenth, ^^VJI 
JLc attdai^ ^har. The nine- 
tieth, f^ytM^ tiaa^n. Ninety, 
^^ mWkMj taacin. The ninth, 
%^\j tdai^ ijL^\i tdai^t. 

Ninny, t. ninny-hammer, ^J^ 
jadbe, J^ hahlnd. See Fool. 

Nipple, t. Lj\<ui». hUtrnd al hi*. 
See Breast, teat, dug. 

Nit, nits, a. ^Vt-^ aihdn. 




^y^ natrUn. Nitrous, tj^^ 
No, 'ildfLt mSf \jj\ abadan. See 
Nay, not, none, never, [grandeur. 
Nobility, uJ^ «^q/l See Dignity, 
Noble, ujb^ sharif (plur. uJj^l 
ashrdf). See Great, grand, mag- 
nificent, illustrious, exalted, free, 
liberal, generous. — Noble on both 
sides (by father and mother), m)S 
^jjfj^\ karimattarafin. A noble 
disposition, {,^j^^\y§ mwdj 
sharif. Of a noble disposition, 
-».1ul \ (—&£ f-^ short/ al m%%dj\ To 
be or become noble, uJ^^^jl^ 
sdr sharlf. To make noble, ^ 
fc_Q ijJii ^malaho sharlf. See 
Ennoble. A noble house {or con- 
stellation), \^jJ^^ji hurj Bharaf, 

Of a noble house or race,^-a«ll ^ ji 
karlm al^asr. 

Nobleman, «. noble, JuLs sayyid, 
^^j~J^ Sharif. Nobles, li^ 
shwrafa, u-il^-i^ ashraf, j^Uc^ 
2j jJ \ a^dn addawlat. See Chiefs. 
— ^A noble lady, (jy^ khdtun, 
^Jums saydaL 

Nobler, uJ^^ ashraf f^^\ akrom, 
^J^oif afdal, ^Jiicf a^tn. See 
Noble. [excellence. 

Nobleness. See Nobility, worth, 

Nobly, uJ^vX? ^^^ sharaf. See 
Greatly, grandly, illustriously, 
splendidly, excellently. 

Nobody, J^f^^ toald todhtd. There 
is nobody at home, tf jJUjb»-l(^t« 
mdfi ahhad hilddr. 

Nocturnal, ^Jul latfli. 

Nod, s. (with the head), Uj\ imd, 
ij\j^\ UhdraL 

Nod, V, (make a sign with the head), 
^U»1(J^ ^mal ishdrat. 

Noise (sound), CJy^ «at9^; (cla- 
mour), <LJUmi shamdtah, ^S^lj 
wdkoaUh, The noise of a drum, 
or of horses' heels over stonesi 
<OJuJ dahdabah. The noise of 
thunder, the machinery of a mill, 
etc., d^j ra^d, ^jls^^ ja^ja^h. 

Noise of falling water, Avk'Ay 

Noisome, ^j:ii^ muntin. See Fetid. 
— (mischievous), Juiui^ mu/M, 
jo^ mudir. See Noxious^ hurt- 
ful. — (disgusting), gji ,r> ■■■>*> .^ 
mtM^A^oA. Noisomeness, ^ac\; 
A fCl Ji rdyhat koMat. 

Nominal, ^^^^i^ \ tsml ; (not reel), 
^ji faradl, ^LrU khaydli, 
^«aJj wad^. Nominally, ftJi\i 

Nominate, «. ^^<%Mk %a'nviM]2 . 




Nomination^ ^UaaaJ tiumiyat. 
Nonage (minority), i^LJl^i^J^ 

^adam iinn al hdugh^jy^ huikr. 
Nonconformity, isj^yHS dtdS' ^adam 

al muwdfakat. 
None, d^'i Id ahhad, ,<^^ Id shy. 

See Nobody, nothing. 
Nonentity, non-existence, ^^Jl.^ 

J^Jl ^adam al un^'nd. See 

Nonpareil, »9j^ ^^ mdhho nazlr, 

a! Jl;) Ul tdnl laho. 


Non-resistance, ^^iLiJli^J^ ^adam 
• al mukdiDomat. 

Nonsense, ci.^ ^ahas, ^^j,jL^ii\^ 


mdlaho ma^a\ To speak non- 
sense, ^^jL^hAS^ takallam hild 
fna^na . 

Nonsensical, Jio\j hdtil ^.^^^msL^^^ 
ffhayrmundsih. SeeEatile,trifling. 

Noon, noon-day, noon-tide, uJ*a3 
j\i^\ nasf annahdr. Noon-day, 
noon-tide (meridional), lJj^ 

Nor, *i^ wold. Neither this nor 
that, cJUSjl JJ^) Id hazd waldzdL 
Neither long nor short, J^^^ 
,riMd3!l« Id tawil wold kaslr. See 

North wind, JU^J^/^t^uJ nasim 
asAsAimdl. The nortii qxkactAT, 

JUJ« shmdl. The north pole, 

North, northern, JUm& shimd^. 
The northern regions, JUmuJ^ j!b 
hUdd ashshimdh The northern 
nations, JUyuJl J^u^f ^t tawdyf 
hUdd oshshimdL 

Nose, ujtil anf. Having a long or 

large nose, f^Jui\jJ^ kahir alanf. 

The snot of the nose, tlsr^ 

mukhdi. To speak or make a 

noise through the nose, 
Nostril, s. j\ssi^ munkhdr (plnr. 
^^L^ mandkhar) 

Not, 3 /(3, U wd, j^ ghayr, ^j»*A 
lays. It is not, ^jmJ /ay«, S Id, 
U ma. It is not bad, (jJSi 
Id has. Not at aU, "H Id Id, Not 
known, ajI*^^^ ^Aayr fna&/i2«i. 
Not existing, J^j^^^ ^^^ 
maujud, I do not care, ^IcU 
^\j tnd ^la* bah. 

l^ot&hle,jy^uj^inashhilr, SeeFamous, 

memorable, remarkable. 
Notarial (done by a notary), t^cLt 

iU^^^b maktah hU mahkamai. 
Notary, s. ^jJ^ i^l^ kdiib shar^. 

The attestation of a notary, Jj:^ 
Notation, ^jrakam, ij\j^\ uhdrat. 
\ ^)^^\^V&(:A.Uon. 




Note, <t«^ ^aldmaif s^j .rakam, 
ij\^\ iahdrat, ^ ra»m. See 
Mark, token. — (attention, heed), 
hasirat, iCla^)L« muldhatat. 

See Notice, observation. — (repu- 
tation), ui'-wMtf BUfj\^pJ^\ Mtihdr, 
ij^ shuhrat; (a short letter), 
^ JJ tcakarat ; (a bill or acknow- 
ledgment of a debt), l^ -■ -r "^ 
tamassuk (plnr. cZ.^lCiL«j tamos- 
9ukdt, A note in music, f^A^ 
fnakdm, ^j^ lahn. Musical notes, 
CL^L«lL« makdm&tf j^^*^^ adtodr. 
A marginal note, ^U.lU-. hdshi- 
yah. See Marginal, annotation, 
commentary. — Men of note, j 1^1 
akdhir, \jjJ^ nhurafd^ \^\jL\ 
ashrdf. See Nobles. 

Note, V. (observe) l3:>-i! Idhaz, 
Noted, uJu^-jc^ ma^uff j^^JL^ 
mashhur. See Celebrated, emi- 
nent, illustrious. — (marked), Juc^ 

Nothing, ^JUi Id Bhy. 

Notice (observation), r-liJ nazar^ 
iia^\^ muldhazat. See Bemark. 
— (intelligence), —£>* khahar^ /♦lUI 
i^tm, jU-il ish^r. See Infor- 
mation. Worthy of notice, 

4Jci».L«]1i,.^o>-t« tvdjib al muld- 

hasuiL To notify or give notice, 
Notion, JLe^ kkaydl, J^ mhh, 
i Jikr. See Imagination, 
opinion, thought. — Notional, ^^J[^ 
icahml, ^Ufi^ khtydU. See £na- 
ginary, ideaL — ^Notionally, ^9JtJ 

Notoriety, notoriousness, ij^ ikuk- 

rat,j\^\ Mdr. 
Notorious, jf^fiL« nMwAAflr, uJK^yi^ 

macrs/. Notoriously, i ^ jl r 

mashhur. [kol §alik. 

Notwithstanding, d^jj^^^ ma^ 
Novel, J^ J^ y(Nft(l. See New.— A 
novel, Jl^ffUMtf/. See Tale, story, 
fable. [tahdoi. 

Novelty, c^>J>.<\m,>^^^^ <^y iPNtf- 
November, (JLrJI^-Muf Mbrin 

Novice, s, jLy4Jj ^/mic^. 

Noun, t. ^^ Mm (plur. Ui^il tiNia). 
A noun of substance, Ji^W^l 
ism jdmid. A noun substantive, 
c:^^! jjl^l Mm ossd^. An adjec- 
tive or attributive noun, ^^AiJI w1 
ism assifat, A generic noun, ^ 
^^^M^l Mm al jifu. A recipient 
noun, or noun of time and place. 


of place, ^UU)^w\ ism almakun, 
A noun of time, ^;UjJ^w\ um 
amamdn. A noon of instrument, 
£S1I\ami1 iim al alat, A noun de- 
noting the agent and active 
participle, JftU!\ wl ism alfd^l, 
A noun denoting the patient and 
passive participle, J ^ Jti^lwl 
ismalma/^. A noun of number, 
J Juill ^\ ism al ^adad, A diminu- 
tive noun, yLia^\MJi\ al ism al 
musaghghar. A noun of excess 
(comparative or superlative de- 
gree), dxlU^f w\ ism al mubdla- 
ghat. Aradicalnoun, j»XK3^t|»«0l 
ism al masdar. A derivative 
noun, ^JhSLjuuJIa-mJI al ism al 
mushtak, A noun of unity, ^\ 
ijAi\ ism al marra. 

Nourish, v. ^j rahha', wi!^ la^m, 
LZj\j kdt. See Maintain, sup- 
port; enoourage, foment; educate. 

Nourishable, culifi£^\^uLiJ yam- 
kinako an yaktuL 

Noarisher, s, s^:^^ 
nourisher (Gk>d), 
allah al muklL 

Nourishing, adj. d 

Nourishment, ciJy hkt^ ^^UL ta^m. 

See Pood, sustenance. 
Now, ^Jfl alldn, l::^j^\ JJb ha%d al 

muktt. The 


mukit. See 

734 NUM 


waki. Now and then, ^W*^ 

Nowhere, Jicr^tiS^ waldfl «miM7. 
Nowise, t^Saslan. See By no means. 
Noxious, jii^ mud%irr,j\^ ddrr. 
Noxiousness, 1^ darar. [^iin. 

Noxiously, ^^i.^^^ yj hinaw^n mu- 
NubUe, <UlU bdlighah. See Mar- 

riageable. — ^A nubile girl, kz^ 

iii[> hint hdlighai. 
Nucleus, s. V— Ji kaJh^ c^ ImW. 

See Kernel. 
Nudity, i;^ ^aura^. See Nakedness. 
Nugatory, ^^J^ ^ ^ mdldho mm^» 

See Frivolous, trifling. 
Null, J^\j hdtU, <0 J.«jL»!l{ Idyu'^md 

bihi. See Void, ineffectual. 
NuU, nullify, v. Jk^l abtal. See 

Annul, cancel. 
NuUity, Ji\2j hutldn. 
Numb (cold), Jj\i hdrid; (motion- 

less), S^jkJ ^ J^ ^dim al karakai. 

To numb, <U«^tj^ harrai d 

Number, JAc ^adad. A great and 

uncertain number, j^O*Xc, uM 

katlr. See Multitude. — ^A small 

number, JJiiJJ^ ^adsid kaU. 

An even number (a pair), m^^j 

%auy'. An odd number, Jj fori* 

Without number, J«X£^U mdkks 




^adad. See Innuinerable. — ^The 
singiilar number, i^jJut mufirad. 
The plural number, t'^^ yani^. 
A noun of the dual number, a^I 
^^^iwiJl al um al mu9anna\ Kum- 
bers, jIj^I a^d, Number (in 
poetry), ^lii Mfiyah. 

Number, r. Jkc ^add, Cy^u.rv huah. 
8ee Beckon. [maA«fi^. 

Numbered, J^ Jut^ ma^ilLdyt^y*t,M^ 

Numberer, «. L...^lfi^ muJuaib. 

Numberless, J4Xc4dU malaho ^adad. 
See Innumerable. 

Numeral, numerical, ^^J J^ ^adadl, 
A numeral character, fij rakam, 

Numerally, JJmi\c,.^,M^ hihatah 

^la^ mujib al hisdh. 

Numeration, jIjuu ta^ddd, Lo^l 

ihs&t iXa ^, [j^ hatlr. 

Numerous, ji\^ todfir, Oj J^ ^adUd, 

Numerousness, i^ koirat. See 

Nummary, i^*yAJ nahdi. 
Nun, 9. Ljb\ % rdhibaL 

Nuptial, ^J^ ^rsl. The nuptial 
torch, (jutf^lw^Ja sham^ al^s. 

Nuptials, (jM^ ^MTf. See Marriage. 

Nurse, i. (to a child), dj\ti dayih, 

ij^j^ murdi^h, ^j^ rmurabhi' 

ff0h. A nurse for a sick person, 

<u\j^ khadddmih. 
Nurse, r. (a child), c:,^iUT^ rada^. 

See Suckle. 
Nurture (food), /^Ul^ ta^m. See 

Nourishment; (education), ^^j^ 

Nut, «. J^ jatnt. A large species 

of Indian nut, i^*i^j^ J^n^'^ 
hmdi. Afilbertnut, jjcjiimitf^. 

Nutmeg, i. ^^ ^*Vi\\j^ jawz atHh 

Nut-shell, Ji^S^mJ hUhrat jawu 

Nut-tree, s.j^ijS^ shqfaratjaw%. 

Nutriment, nutriture, \d^ gha%d^ 
tiuy hut. See Food. — ^Nutri- 
mental, nutritious, nutritive. 

See Wholesome. 
Nymph, *. ^„jj^ hUriyat, 


baa, in English, a long sound, as 
in ' stone ; ' and short, as in got,' 
* shot,' neither of which is common 
to the Arabic. 

(sign of the TocatiTC case), b yd. 

Oak, 9. le^jlj haUntf ^ItOa^** wndiydn. 
The royal oak {dUo a chestnut 
tree), t^^U» •k&h haUnL The 
ground oak Ctbe bsd^ %2^T(&3bXkW^ ^ 




^Ji\byLi baUut alard. Oaken, 

^j^ hallutl. 
Oar, s. i^1jJL« mukduf. 
Oath, 8. Mf^i kasam (plar. /Xmj\ 

aksdm)f (jtr^ yamln. 
Oats, ^\s. ^laf. 
Obduracy, obdorateness, ^jsl^^j^ 

^adam attawhat, i}jAj tamarrad, 

jUf ^nddy jLwJ foidd. Bee 

WickednesBj BtabbomnesB, inhu- 

Obdurate, obdured, ^y^ hild 
tawhat, OjASi^ mutamarrid. See 
Wicked, stubborn, inhuman. 

Obdurately, iA,^Jij hild rahmat, 
^yL hild taufhat, j\is.J^ hikol 
^indd, jlujj^ hikol fasdd. 

Obedience, ^U? td^at, ^uU^l ttd^t, 
fJ\io^\ imtisdl, i^^^\ iz^n. 
See Submission. 

Obedient, ^^i^ mutl^. See Obse- 
quious, tractable. 

Obediently, 4^l^J^ hikol td^t, 
i^^j ljM»«» sama^an tcaid^t. 

Obeisance, fX^ saldm, ^^Jumj tcLsllm, 

Obelisk, s, J-^ mil (plur. J-j^l 

amyid), ^lLu/« musaUat 

Obey, r. ftlL ^fi^. Necessary or 

proper to be obeyed, Jlii^lll|^Jl 

/(Zsm a^ imtudl, cLjUIl,. '^'f^^ 

«^<J;>i5 <?/ iVJd^. Command neces- 

sary to be obeyed, w^\2;^' 
J11:l^)1 amr tr4;f} altmiu&l. 

Object, s. (any thing seen or pre- 
sented to the senses), j^a^ massikar 
(plur. ^-Jblli^ nundhir), Ja:^ 
manzar (plur. ^l:^ mandur), 
c ^j^ mat<r(^i2&. Any object 
whichL the mind has in view, Jbdi 
kasd, JyoL* maksud, ^jiyhantd. 
The enjoyment of any beloTed 
object, iLa\y muwdsakU, 

Object, r.jj©^\ t^tarad, ijo\j:x\^)f 
^mal ictirdd. See Oppose. — 
Objected, ^l^^^O hihi i^tirdd. 

Objection, s. ^Sjic] i^irdd. 

Objector, #. ^jr^>^ mu^rid. 

Oblation, {^^j-^ kurhdn, 

dahlyatf i^^J zahihai. 

Offering, sacrifice. 

Obligation (anything by which a 
man is bound to some perform- 
ance), f^jS ford (plur. ij^\^ 
fardyid). See Debt; oho obL^- 
tory writing. — (a favor), ^Lm^-^ 
ihsdn, <U^ tntnnat, ^Uomo^ hoiaiuit. 

Obligatory, j<^fp luzumi, ^^ 

fardi. An obligatory writing, 

1^ C...j^'\ tamassfik (plur. (JL^\LmA} 

tamassakat), <uLjj watHkat, See 






Oblige, V. (bind), /^j}\ aham; (to 
oonfer favours), ^uix^ mann 

See Gratify, please. 
Obliged (bound), a'jJl^ midtazm; 
(compelled), j^ m y^ majhUr; 
(favored), ^y^A^ mamnan. To 
be obliged (to be bound), ajjJI 
iltazam; (to be compelled),^;i£srl 

Obliging, adf, (civil), f^^aJti latif, 
^jL^ mukrim. See Courteous, 
polite, kind. [karam. 

Obligingly, /»^^^v— oklj hilutfin wa 
Obligingness, c—chi lutf, ij\ h 1 
laidfat. See Civility, courtesy, 
complaisance, politeness. 

Oblique, ^j^ worth. 

Obliqueness, obliquity, c,.'^ ij^ 
tatprih. See Crookedness, indi- 

Obliterate, v, ^c^^ maha\ vl>>- 
hak, 2^ nasakhj Jlul ahtal. 

Obliterated, ^jw^w\-,;-/< mundaris, 
-:,«mJ^ mansukh, ^Jjc^ mun- 

Obliteration, j^*^ waAu, ^***^ naskh. 

Oblivion, ^jI-^m>-3 nt^^an. Con- 
signed to oblivion, ^<aa*^^ i»tm«a'. 

Oblivious, ,<*-j^ wd«, (^1-*mJ nasydn. 

Oblong, J^Lia^ mutdwal, j^<X^ 
fJJbs^jM^ mudawwar musiatlL 

Obloquy, ^jJ lawm. See Censure, 
reproaob, disgrace. 

Obnoxious, \^^y^ ma^rnd, u^/^ 
mu^rad. See Liable, subject. 

Obscene, ^^^l^-li fdhish. An ob- 
scene woman, dLuL^-li f&huhah. 

Obscenely, ^jik>-li^c^ hi naw^n 

Obscenity, obsceneness, ^JLs? f€^h, 

cii^l.jiM.c* fahshiy&t. See Las- 
civiousness. [takBif, 

Obscuration, J^iLw^ kasdfat, (^i**jSj 
Obscure, Jio^ muzlim. See Dark, 
cloudy. — (abstruse, difficult to 
understand), ^jLJu^ mugMakf 
JXA^ mushkal ; (mean, low). 

Obscure, t;. (darken), Jd^l adam, 
^t <f^^am ; (to render abstruse), 

Obscured, ^iJt^ mti^^m. 
Obscureness, obscurity, Juil? zuhnat. 
See Darkness.— (darkness of 

meaning), ^Li^t ishtthdh, uXSi 

«Aa^. See Doubt, puzzle. 
Obsequies, J j ,.; ry^ ^mfs. See 

Obsequious, ^.j .Vt^ mu^!^. See 

Obedient, ^otK^\\«svV, 




Obseqnioiisly, ^.^LJ^lJ^ hikol 
itd^t. See Obediently. 

ObsequioofineBs, ^L^LJ^l ttd^t, 
JllL^l imtisdl, jLi}^ iMy&d. 
See Obediencei oompliance. 

Observable^ J^f^ fiMwAAfir, JbU? 
tdhir, Zaj>^j(!i\\^^>^\^ wdjth al 
mtddhanat See Bemarkable. — 
Observably, j^jm*"^^^ ^ -v— J hi 

Obeervanoe (respect), c->jl adah, 
iLjLc; ri^yat, jUi^l iUibdr, 
<t«^ Aurma^. See Yeneratioii, 
reverence, observation, obedience, 

Observant (respectM), c^^ ."^.l— ^ 

mti^^fir; (attentive), iz^^JuzL^ 
multafit, <Ui:^ mtrnto^fA. See 

Observation, ^LJa^-lU muldhagat, 
iOLx^j ri^dyat, JuL^ saydnat, 
ifjuJbL.jlb^ mtMAdAoi^^ Any 
place from wbicb observation is 
made, Ju^^ monad, [annwffim. 
Observatory, «. |4>^^ul Jw9^ marsad 
Observe, v. (look attentively),^ 

Observed, j^t^^^ manMAr^ )oyBr^ 

MoMfis, Ifi^jAiB^ mo^fls. 
DiMirFer, #. ^^U nasir, la^lU 

mn/ciAftB, ^)/« mifrd^i, ^jt**^ 


hdris, L-'^.^Jj roibf^, c^^«^ 
mtirSitii. See Beholder. — ^An 
observer of the stars, ^^^acLll^U 
ndsfir annufUm, C^j raadd. See 
Obsolete, d^^^ nuUriUs, ^y*^^ 
tnatuiM, ^^ajCm^j^ ghayr mtn- 
ta^mal, JU^Ua^^ ^li^ uttcmdlf 
J.4if« tnuhmalf JLb 5d/»^ JUaj 

^0^/. To render obsolete, JLjI 

Obstacle, «, uUi mdni^ (pL f-^V* 
maM?am^), ^^^^^-jlJ ta^arrud, 
^\z£>\ i^irdd. 

Obstinacy, obstinateness, oLc ctndi. 
See Stubbornness. 

Obstinate, J^#«cl^ mutamarrtd, JuLl« 
mut^anid. See Stubborn. — An 
obstinate man, jU^ ^— >.>. Lg <dM 
^ndd. To be obstinate, jjU 

Obstinately, jLcJ^ Mib/ ^fMdJ, 

Obstruct, i;. \jOjXi (a^rrad, Ju^ 
«a(^, ^:i^ mafki^. See Hinder. 
Obstructed, J^Jum^ nuudud, ^ • -> 

Obstruction, ^U^ mtfrndiiactf^, 
matu. See Impediment, obstacle. 




Obstraotor, «. ^yt^^ mutiummi, 


^^ • 



Obstructive, obstractmg, 

Obtain, v, jfJuoj^j halagh koidaho, 

fnarghuhoh, JU n4/. See find, 

get, attain, acquire, gain. — To 

obtain what one desires, fj>ia^ 

i^\y hassal mardmaho. 

Obtainable, ^}y^\^jL^^ mumiin 
al husul. 

Obtained, fj^-asn^ muhassal. 

Obtainer, s. J.«&5^ muhasM, An 
obtainer of his wishes, 2(j1^^1j 
hdligh murddaho. 

Obtuse (not acute nor pointed), 
,~a:^ munfary. An obtuse 
angle, J[s>^ i ; ^^j^j %dwiyat 

Obviate, v, d^tj ddrak, ^U 
mdna^ See Prevent, meet. 

Obvious, (clear), ^Ik zdMr, ^'j 
wddihy ^j**-^ m^ln. See Evi- 
dent. — (opposite, front to fnmt), 

Obviously, \j^\Jo zdhiran, laC/>^ 
sarihan. See Apparently, evi- 
dently, [tawdih. 
Obviousness, is^\j^ sardhai, ^f^y 
Occasion (convenience), d^J fursat. 
See Leisure, time, opportunity. — 

(cause), ^i^^i&L^ ^dcw, 
tabah, L_^<^j.« mnjtb; (need), 
^L;^^ ihtiydj, JojC. gharad. 
Pressing occasion, i*jjJ haUmf 
\jsj\ iktidd. Without occasion, 
v«^c»-4^^ hild mnjth. 

Occasion, v, ci^b J^ ^nud hd^, 
c- ■^Mi<g5tg^. See Cause, influence. 

Occasional (casual), ^<<^^ ^rtdl, 
_iUj>\ ittifdli. See Incidental. — 
(producing by accident), (^^■nu^ 
f»fMa5M. Occasionally, IjLLjI 
Utifdkan. An occasioner, t^ >%■> u* ^ 
muaabbih, [Western. 

Occidental, y^.j^ gharhi. See 

Occult, ^J'Ss^ muhhfa\ ^Jii^ 
mukhtaft, ^y^ maknUn, ^\) 
hdtin. See Hidden, private, 
secret, unknown. 

Occultness, Uifi>«1 ikhtifd, ^*it^ 

khafigaty La-c^^I «i&A/'d. See 

Occupancy (taking or holding pes- 

session), i^^j-ai tasarruf. 

Occupant, occupier, <. cJ;><i "v ^ 
mtftoarri/', 4^l3 ibdiu^, cl^L* 
md/i^. See Possessor. 

Occupation (employment), ^^-^- r 
^mal; (trade), (J-iLl shugkl, 
<G^ Air/a^. See Business, trade ; 
oZio occupamsY* 




Ocoap7; V, (seize, possess), 

tcuarraf, L^m^ dahat, j^\ akhat. 

Occur, V. v^J^»- hadaSf i^Xa aadaf. 
See Happen. — (to occur to the 
mind), ^Ij^Jic^lafk^ khatar ^ala* 

Occurrence, «. c ^j wuka^ ^^^ 
itiifdk, i^J^ ^nd. Lii kadd, 
<Uidj kadiyat. SeeAccident, event. 
— Occurrent. See Incidental. 

Ocean, )a^jsi^\je^ hahr al muhlt. 
The Indian ocean, Si^\jser hahr 
al hind, ^«ac^)l|^a^ hahr al akhdar. 

Octagon, 9. (a building consisting of 

eight sides and angles), ^j^^^ 

Octangular, octagonal, lj'jjjJljj-4ki^ 
musamman asaawdyd. 

Octave, 8, ^\j sdmin, ^<:>^[j8dminat. 

October, i}jli^^jij^ tishrinalawwal. 

Octuple, (»iU«il<U}Uj tamdniyat 

Ocular (belonging to the eye), 
i^j^ hasarJ, Ocular demon- 
stration, ijjAjL^ mashdhadat. 
An ocular witness, JJ^Ll shdhid. 
Ocularly, ^«ffIt<iLia>.^ htmuld- 
hami o/cin. 

Oculate (having eyes), ^y^^ l(iho 

^uyun,j0c\i husir. 
Oculist, s, JLi^ kakkdL 

Odd (not even), J^ ford, jlt tdk. 
Odd (strange, uncommon) s,^^^^^ 
^'Ih, ise\jij hUd kd^fdai, jy 
ifjUil fawk al ^ddai, j\:uc«^ 
yhayr mu^dd, ^Jcoj*^ muitagh- 
rah, c-^^ ghafih, j jU nadir, 
Jl^ j Oa** ^ j - f ghayr musta^al. 
See Singular, extraordinary. — 
(fantastical), J.;:ii^v« mutakhayyal. 

Oddly (not evenly), \jji fardan, 

lill^ tdkan; (strangely) \jjicm^ 

mtutaghrahan, if Jk£ UL hUd kd ctdai. 

Oddness (uncommonness), ijj\j 

Odds (strife), Jlj^ jiddl, l^j\:^ 
mundzi^t, uJ)b^l tkhtUdf. See 
Contention, dispute, quarreL — 
(advantage, superiority), iuLi 
ghalahat, IjCmjI iati^ ; (diffe- 
rence), jLl^I imtiydz, J-,ai/««/, 
jy fark, CL^^Mj tafdwat See 

Ode, s. ifju^ kasldat 

Odious (abominable), i^$ karik, 
j^^tM^ mustakrah, s^j^ makrHh, 

Odiously (hatefully), i^JCj WW 
karah ; (invidiously), Jum»- Jw 
hikol hasad. 

Odiousness (hatefulness), ^\Jcm^ 
istikrdh, <L^|^ kardhiy^U, ijS 




Odium (inyidiousness), i^ak) hugh- 

Odoriferous, odorous, <?^ ^Vk?^ t<Ll 
laho rayhat tayhat^Jax^ mu^ttar. 
See Fragrant, perfumed. — Odor- 
iferousnessy ^L^^-^J^L-ac?^ rihat 
tayhat. See Fragrance. 

Odor (scent, whether good or bad), 

Afl^lj rdyhatfjykr bakhur, ^_ --^ 

tlb. See Smell. — ^A good odour, 

d^^^is^\j rdyhat tayhat. See 

Perfume, odoriferousness, fra- 

(Esophagus, fj^ halh. 

Of, ^ tnin. 

OflP, or far off, Juju iadrf. Not far 
off, XjOj^ ghayr ba^d. To 
cany off or away, ^li ifedw, Oi 

Offence, s.j^^^asu takslr, ll2£>« i^^a, 

c->^jr. &ay^, Vt 'i „i sakat, JLh 
zallat, i^Lj habdhat. See Crime. 
— (an injury), ^J^'osu nuksan, 
i^Jjii tacaddl, jj^ darar. 

Offend, V. (injure, make angry), bU 
yhdZf i^Jju\ ta^adda\ See Pro- 

Offended, lf^li«^ mtiyhtdz, ^jS^ 
mutaaau. To be offended, 
ghedeb. See To be angry. 

Offender, «. j^^lair* tnukhti, 

mufrim. See Criminal. — (one who 
injures), ^Jjc^ muta^addl. 

Offen8iye(di8gUBting), 9jji^ makrHh. 

Offensively (injuriously, mischiev- 
ously), \j0a^ mudurran ; (by way 
of attack), /^ysA^- hi hufum, 

Offensiveness, ^^ darar. See Dis- 
gust, injury, mischief. 

Offer, V, (as a gift, etc.) ^jJ kad^ 
dam. See Present. — (to make a 
proposal), ^jC ^rad. To offer 
as a sacrifice, t^^^ %ahah. To offer 
or present itself, ^l\>^^jOj£\ a^ad 
hdlaho^ To offer or aim at, JwaS 
kasad. To offer proof, iijl^^iXi 
kaddam shahddat. 

Offer, 9, (anything offered) fl^^ 
takdim, LjJ^ hadiyat (pi. bljJb 
haddyd) ; (a price bid), <L ,4^, ^ 
klmat, <t«jLuu« masdwamat. See 
Price. — (attempt), .A «n i ^a«(^, 
J««aL« maksHd, ^^^^ sa^h *^^^^\ 
ijtihdd, ^UcJbt ihtimdm. See 

Offered, ^^ju% ma^rHdf ^Mi^ 
mutakaddatn. See Presented, 
given.— Offered up (dedicated, 
saoriffced), c-^^^-a-^ mukarrah, 

Offering, «. (offertory), JUtXftJf ^ai&- 





^Jj^ htrbdn, ^J tabh, 

Office, <. (public charge) J^ ^amtU^ 

mandaih), JUos^ khtdmat. See 
Business, agency. — ^A gocd office, 
^Lu».1 ihidn, <Uu,x,j m^ifMi/y 
<Um*». hasanat, ^a3 na/*^. See 
Benefit, favour, kindness. — To 
confer an office, i^^*aw^,}as\ 
a^a* mansah. To remoye from 
an office, Jj-c ^auH, ^tlr^ 
ik^^^ȣt\^\ ^%dl mm al maruab, 

Officer, «• (one who holds a public 
office), ^La^.19j^.^o-L^ «aA>J 
wazlfat,j\*X^>»a:^ mansahddr. 

Official (belonging to a public office), 

Officiate, v. ^•;,..i,iyjjj' ^oma/ toazi- 
fatoh, i2l^ff^LZj\^\j^ tarn- 
mam wdjtb&t wMlfatoh. See 
Execute, discharge. 

Officious (kind), uJj^^(«.^^^^L«0 
idhih ma^u/fjj^ khayyir. 

Offispring, Si^ awldd, ey far^f 

J^3 nasi (plur. JLjt ansdl), 

i^>yku) nasal (pi, c^LjI ansdh), 

JU) im/ (plur. J^^ i«ti/), ijJ 

durriai (plnr. C^\j jO durriyatY 

See Progeny; propagation, pro- 

Oft, oft-times, often, oftentimes^ 
J^\ akiar, i^\ip\^^ ak$ar alow- 
kdtf ij^iJL^y marrdt kaiUroi. 
How often ? ^a^ kam marrak. 
As often as, ^j^J^ kol marrak, 
Uf« nuikmd. Not often, \jJ\j 
nddiran. See Seldom. 

Oh! »\ ahl See Ah. 

Oil, ^^^j Myt. Oil of myrrhf 
a,n,g>,^ «kiy^aA. Oil of roses, 
J^^Uac ^tr al ward. 

Oil, r. (ji^^U^J ^^oAon Mniyl. 

Oilman, «. Cl^L^J ^ayydi^ jl^ 
^<M«(!r. ^ [MzflMmdii. 

Oil-shop, «. ^j^ULj^L^J c^iiiUdu 

Ointment, /»>&p^ InarAiim, v«^^ 
^1^ (plur. c->y?l atydh)^ ^^^bJ 
duhn (plur. ^Ujl (k^Aan). See 

Old (aged),^;^^^ JJb^ mutakaddim 
hil ^mr. Old (ancient, began 
long ago), j^si kadim. Old men, 
^^^ ahlyukh. An old man of 
authority, ,^v^ shaykh. An old 
woman, J^^ ^tf;w». Of old, 
UjjJ kadiman, 


Oleaginous, oleose, ,^^J My^ 
Oleaster (wild olive), i^ji^fi) 




Olfactory (having ih# sense of smell- 
ing), jji\\^iL^ ff^mkunaho oih- 

OHyes, UJ^J *^^^^* ^^ ^^^® 
tree, ^^ji^ ioforat taytikn^ 

^f>ij taytunat. 

Omelet, ijsP- ^jjat. See Pancake. 

Omen, «. JU/d/. 

Omission, omittance, Jl^\ ihm&l. 
See Neglect. 

Omit, r. J^\ ahmd. See Neglect. 

Omnipotence, ^jJ Jcudrat, iZ^j^j^p^ 
jahrant, CLJ<^X^ malukut Om- 
nipotent, ji^j^^J^^^Jx. ^M 
Ao/ «Ay iadir. 

Omniscience, c,,^tn Jx ^tZm a/ 
ghayh. Omniscient, omnisoions, 

On, jy /ai^ife, ^^^ ^a/a'. To go 
on,^^«a«d\ M^amor; (to make an 
attack), ms:^ hajam. To pat on 
clothes, ^jguJ lebes. To come on 

(advance), |« J^ takaddam ; (to 
assault), ^«jc^ ^V>m. 
Once, ^ marraty ij\^ tdratan. 
Once (at a former time), U;Lt 

See Formerly. 
One, Jk>.t^ tffdMd, (fem. iljk^|^ 
icdhidat). One hy one, 1j^|^ 

1j^»>1j wdhidan uMidan, \jji 
^\jji fardan fardan. One after 
another, Jc>>\^JLjr-. uV> ^\j wdidd 
ha^d wdMd. One or two, Ji^\^ 
^^\^\ lodhid awdimyin. Every 
one, Jb»-lj J^ M wdhid. 

Onion, «. J^ hoiol. 

Only (single, one and no more), 
Ju»-^ wahld, J^ mufrad. See 
alone. — (singly, simply, merely), 

Onset, «. |*^isr^ %'ilm. See Assault, 
attack. — To make an onset, ^£^ 
kqfam. See Assault. 

Onward, /•jJl^ takaddum, i»£J^ 
toil(2lifi. To proceed onward, 
MjJiJ takaddam. See Advance, 

Onyx, 9. fjM ^h, ^^ jast^ 

Ooze, ^^ iln^ J^^ waU. See Mud. 

Opaque (not transparent), uJU^j^i 
^Aoyr ihaffdf. 

Open, 1?. ope (unlock, unclose), ^ 
/a^ ; (to disclose, explain show), 
j^\ athoTf cflnX ibwAa/. 

Open (not closed), 9-/i^ mafiULhf 
t_Jy- ^ ^ mahhn/; (apparent, 
patent), ^U? sUlMr, ^l& shdyi^. 
An open place (for exercises, etc.), 
^1ju/« middn. See Gymnasium. 

Opened, «. ^^ moflMX, 

OPI 744 

Opener, #. ^^\ifcitih» 

Opening, 8, ^i fath (plur. -.^ 
futnh). See Breach, orifioe. — (an 
exordium), 9^j^ thurU^, Ijcjt 
ihtidd, <U(\L« tnukaddamat,\s^ 
fnahdd, See Beginning. — Opening 
(part,), t^\5 fatih. 

Openly (publicly), |^lb zdhiran^ 

liLf ^yanan, \j^ jahran, 

<L.^1L^ ^Idniyatan, i^>^\^ 

sardhatan. See Plainly, evidently. 

Operate, v, J^ ^ama/. See Effect, 
act, make. 

Operation, «. (work), J^ ^ama/, 
Jje^J; (effect), j^\j tdslr; 
(movement), ^j^ harakat. See 
Action, agency, influence, effect. 
— The operations of an army, 
iLuxSlci^l^^ harakat al^kar. 

Operative, J^ muassir, ^J^ ^mall. 
<uluf l3<j lahofd^lit/at. 

Operator, «. J^U/d^t7, ^J.^U cdmil. 

Opiate, 8, (a medicine causing sleep), 
^vil^^iS*^ ma^jUn afyHnl, 

Opiniative (imaginary), ^^^j^^^Jb^ 
fcahmly JL*>- hhiy&li, ,^^-J 

Opiniatre, iA * '■■■■r conf^. See 
Obstinate. — Opiniatrety. See Ob- 
stinacy, jL^-fJxJ 3i^/ ^indd. 
Opinion, ^ zann (plur. ^^ 


%anikn),^fihr (plur.jlii\ o/lUlr), 
^j u^aAm (plur. /*^^^ at^A^m), 

ft ** 

4^1^ rfiy, ^y<>ffc^ takhmln* A 
just opinion, J*^^cy\; ^«y «di»lr. 
An unjust opinion, Ju<aU^ ,/Ur 
/dtfi'i^. To form an opinion, ^Jo 
ssann, ijjl tftakar, ^y tawahham, 

Opinionative. See OpiniatiTe. — 
Opiniatively. See Obstinately. — 
Opinionativeness. See Obstinacy. 

Opium, ,j^^ afyHn, 

Opponent, (»J]ls^ mukhdUf, ^^U/t 
mu^rid. See AntagoniBt, adver- 
sary. — Opponents, idli^wjUr^! 
a»hdh mukhdlafat. 

Opportune, ^jJ Idyik, l» >^*.'li*^ 
mundsib, (^^y* muwdfih. 

Opportunely, ^Up Ij wii^j! \ c-^%*u>- 
Aa«a3 a/ t^a^^ waTsamdn, J^ 
^LmoL^ (t^/ mundsahatf Uil^ 
mutvdfikan. See Seasonably. 

Opportunity, <Lp^3 fursat, L;:-^J^J 

Oppose, r. l,p-1Lj»> khdlaf, ^j\i 
kdwam, Xa\^ dddad, «J L« mdikip^ 
{jaji&\ i^aradf <^^*J ta^arrad. 
See Eesist. — (to place as an ob- 
stacle), Ju«} «at^. 

Opposite (facing each other), Jjla^ 

mukdhily f^j^y muwdzl, JjUi^ 

\ mutakcLbil, *^w^ am(im\ (adverse. 




repugnant), (i.j2lls^ nmkhdlif, 
L»ia<' khUdf, ^^ muphdyir, 
Ju0 didd, f^^L^ tnundkid. See 
Contrary. — Opposite to anything, 
^\^\L, mukaM a»h»hay. 

Oppositely (facingly), SjILJIj hU 
mukdhalat; (adversely),^ li^J^ 
bikol mukhdlafat, [iH^ khUdfan, 
Lai\:^JlCj bikol mundkadat 

Opposition, oppositeness (of situa- 
tion), <3jIL« mukdhalat, <!<^\yt 
muwdjahaty lS\s^ mukhdlafat, 
uJlUr takhdlaf, uJLl khildf, 

<U-J^L-*w^ mu^radat, ^j^ 
ta^nidf iUijLJL^ mukdwamat. 
See Eesistance, impediment. — 
Without opposition, iU? lU^L hild 
mu^dradat, ^juj j ^-^^ *win 
ghayr ta^arrud. 

Oppress, V. A]^ zalam, ^I^i^Sju 
ta^addd* ^ala\ See Crush, over- 
power, subdue. [majhur. 

Oppressed, (^^^ ma&lum, \y^ 

Oppression, JJ? %ulm, j*^ jahr, 
i^Jk«j> ta^ddl, j^ jawr. See 
Cruelty, injury, hardship, cala- 
mity, misery. — Oppression of 
spirits, IJa^ sawddf ^ gham, 
J1 alam. See Melancholy. 

Oppressive, ^<-4it tuiml, ijj^ kahrt. 

See Cruel, tyrannical, inhuman, 
hard, heavy, burthensome. 

Oppressor, «. JU? zdlim, i^Sxi^ 
mutu^addi, iU5>- jahhdr, »^W" 
jdhtr. See Tyrant. 

Opprobrious, ,^^^^ mufdth, {Ji^M 
fdhish. See Eeproachful, scur- 
rilous. — Opprobriously, - jU J^ 
bikol ^r, <iL<lt>fljJ^ bikolfadlhat. 

Opprobrium, opprobriousness, 
v^.^^. ^ayb, <L<| fad!ihat,j^ 
^ar. See Beproach, scurrility. 
Optative, ^^^ tamanni. 


Optical, optic (relating to vision), 
i^j^ basari. 

Optic, 8, (instrument of sight), ^Uai 
nazzdrat. See Eye. —The science, 
of optics, j[^1_.;.4>HJlc ^Im al 
mundzaratfjusA \ Ac ^Im al basar. 
The power of optics, ir^LHif^ 
X'tZtra^ al bdsirat. 

Optician, 8, Jlajj^y^\iJ^jA^J,jbLt 
^yi^\ mdhir f\ ma^fat annur 
tea nasutr al ^gUn, 

Option, jUiri*! ikhtigdr, C-jli^l 
intikhdb. See Choice. 

Opulence, JUjJ dawlat, Li ghand, 
JUl\i^ ka8rat al mdl, Jl^l 
amwdl, i^y 8arwat. See Wealth, 

ORB 746 

Opulently^ b^J^ htkol ghmd, 
iy^^ btBarwat. See Sploididly. 

Or, U yd, y\ aw. Bee Either ; aho 

Grade, «. (the word of Qod), 

^\ MfoM Udkij IA dyai (plur. 
C^bT dydt). 

Oraison, i^ talat. See Prayer. 

Oral, ^<2jiX>- hadUi. 

Oraoge, s. <UU3^ hurtakdne. 

Oration, s. i^Ua:^ khitdb, iLk^ 
khutbat, f^i^ kaldm, A fdneral 
oration, ^LL^ mar«»^a^. Cele- 
brated in a Mineral oration, 
c^jjj^ tnanduh. [/<MfA. 

Orator, s. l^^mVi<. kkailh, ,^^ 


Oratory, aKII Jlc ^Im, al kaldm, 
ic^Lai fiudkai, icL haldyhat. 
See Eloquence, riietoric. 

Orb, 8, S^l J ddyratfj^Jdawriplm, 
jfjj\ adwdr)* Bee Sphere; o/m 
ring, circle, wheel. The celestial 
orb, uj3i /afoi& (plor. cJij\ 
afldk). See Heaven, universe. — 
The orb of the moon, jAji\/^jP^ 
jwmal kamar. The sun's orb, 
^ji»aJ^\ /^jp^ jirm ashahanu, 

Oited, orbicular, j^Jt^ mudawwar, 
jJljxma^ mmtadir, jIj ddyir. 
See CirculaT, immd, spborioal. — \ 

Orbicularly, \jlJSji*^mimiailran. 

See Circularly. — Orbicolazness, 

jij*^ tadtfflr. See Boundneee. 
Orbit, «. ir^\o ddyrat, j^O dmor. 

See Orb. 

Orchard, «• ^IilmJ ^iM^n. 

Orchestra, <. i)yi\^>fiy mawia^ 

Ordain, v. (appoint), ^Jjss- ^ayyan \ 
(to decree), j^\ amar, fS^^- hahm\ 
(to establish, institute), ^^^ 
fffoda^ ; (to appoint to an office), 
v,,.wi;^jflk&\ a^h mamab. 

Ordained (appointed), < .^ fyn \ ^ 
fnatuuh, ^jJ^ mu^yyan, ^j^jc^ 
muia^ayyin. See Established, 

Order (method, regular disposition), 
^Jj tadhlr, ^JuLal aslub, ^liai 
nizdm, Jo; nazm, ^Uaijl intizdm. 
Order (rule, regulation), ^J^U 
ka^dah, jy^ti dastUr, (JiJ^ 
tariky (^^\ aslub, ^^y^ kdnUn; 
(mandate), ^«X»- hukm, j^ amr, 
\^ kadd. See Command. — (a 
rank or class), ^jJ dar^'at, 
&Jjj rutbat, <UJ^ martahat (plur. 
v..^!^ mardtib), i^J^ tdbahU. 
See Degree. — (fraternity, society), 
<0^i akhamyat The order of 




molaifkat. A religions otder, 
ii^j rahboMit. Of an infsrior 
order, ijffj\ meta'. The chief of 
an order, ^^,j rof^ts. In alpha- 
betical order, ^^j^^^^^j^^J^ 
\jJ\ ^ iarilh hur^f al hafa. 
Arranged in order, (^^^^^^^ mamiQ,m. 
Without order, ^---^ VU 
tartih. See Irregular. — ^(without 
command from a superior), |J^^ 
hQd hubn. Orders (ranks of 
men, etc.), i^yu> sufaf; (com- 
mands), /*U1»-1 ahkdm, j^^ 
awdm^, fty^j rtMtim. 

Order, v, (regulate, arrange), Ja3 
nazatn, i^^^3f^ ^mal tartih ; 
(to manage), y J dahhar ; (to 
direct), Jl^j) or shad, j^\ amor. 
See Prescribe. — To arrange in 
alphabetical order, v.^'^;*jp> ^Xs' Ja3 
tsrluJj)^ nazam ^ala^ iarilh 
hurttf al hajcL, 

Ordered (commanded), ^^J 
tnahkum ; (arranged), ^ > h ; ^ 
marutum, l^^Jj^ muratiab. See 

Orderer, s. (arranger), Ja\j ndzm, 
c^^J^ ffturaUih; (commander), 
sS^ hakim* 

Orderless, ^.^jh bila iartih. 

Oxderliness, i^Liai nkam, ^^^.^J^ 
iarilh. See Begularity. 

Orderly, adj. i^^J^, hi iarHh. See 
Begular. — (according to custom), 
(not tumultuous), (^oU hddlf 
^\j rdkin. See Quiet. 

Orderly, adv. i^UajJ^ htkol ntjxtm, 
k^^JiJCj hikol iartih, ^^A. 


.^jlJ\^j*u^\ ^M ahsan 

Ordinal (noting order or series), 
^^--3^ iarilhl, ^^ nizdml. 

Ordinance, s. c^ shar^, ^^^ 
kdnUn, ijt^j^ aharl^i, m>^j 
rarm, ids-^ kdddai. See Law, 
precept, rule, appointment. 

Ordinarily (according to custom), 
y't^U \\\_ - -'^ hatah al ^dai, 
8Jx\Sl\^\y muwdfik al kd^idai, 
(usually), Uli gh&lihan, U^ 
^muman, j\:juii\^ji\) hil wajh 
al mu^dd. See Commonly, fre- 

Ordinary (usual), v^jLicI i^iyddl, 
^ >»....>y rami, ^^-L4>f. ^mall, 

haiah al kdnUn ; (vulgar), l<«^ 
^dmml. See Common.-^mean^ 
of infenoT twftC^^ -to- '^^•^t'* 




^^ J dun ; (not handBome), ,^^ 

Ordinate, v. See Ordain. — Ordi- 
nate. See Orderly. 

Ordnance (cannon), ^ .^^ ^ tawh. 
See Cannon. 

Ordure, ^j toasakh, ^/«^ nqfat. 
See Dung, filth. 

Ore (of any metal), ^L^^Jut^ 
ma^dan khdm. 

Organ, s. (musical instrument), 
^J£J\ arghun ; (instrument, mem- 
ber), ilT ahtf ya£. ^oia.— The 
organ of hearing, <U^LJlif^\ 
al kuwat OBsdmi^t, See Hearing, 
ear. The organ of taste, 11V\ 
ih\sl\ al dlat azzdykat. See 
Palate. — The organ of touch, 
<UM^^f^j)1 al dlat al lamisat See 
Peeling. — The organ of smell, 
^L^luJl<L]^1 al dlat ashshdmat. 
The organ of sight, ^Ul^jtl 
al dlat al bdsirat. See Eye. 

Organist, «. ^^Ji^Ji^'i dahhdk al 

Organise, v. «*--^ rakkah, l^j 

rattahf Jaj nazam. See Form, 

frame. {^sa^ar, 

Organy, origan (herb),^;i«-^ orjxx^ 

Oncbalc (a kind of brass), (jMila^ 

fti^l noAds as/or. 

Orient, J^^l ashahark. 

Oriental, JijJ^ sharks (fern. d^J^ 
sharkigat). Oriental countries, 
^.l^ mashdrik. 

Orifice, 9. (mouth), *J fum (plor. 
^Uj\ afmdin) ; (opening), ^i 
fath. See Mouth, hole, opening, 
fissure, perforation. — ^The orifice 
of the uterus, Juf^ mdhhal. 

Origin, original (source), f^\ aW, 
jjuo^ nuudoTf Iju^ mabdd, tjcjt 
ibtidd. See Beginning. — (descent), 
J^l a«/, Jjuuj naslf i^^m^'j naaab, 
^^y**'^ jim. An original (first 
copy, archetype), J-^\ asl, Isi^ 
naskhat, iJZj,*^ musawwadi. An 
original author, ^cL^^li^^jJl 
al mualif alasll, l^^l*, Q--^^t 
al musannif alasli. 

Original, adj. X^\ asll. See First, 
primitive, pristine, essential. 

Originally, fJ.^^\^J^ tnin al ad, 
J J1^^ tnin al awwal, <oljJ1o 
fi al haddgat. 

Originate, v, (spring from), ^J^JS^ 
sadar min ; (to bring into ex- 
istence), J^jilkcl aMh wufid, 
Jft^A^dLi^ ^amalaho mawj^. 

Origination, jlsC^ "ij^d^ Jl, jJ ^ 

\ Oraaxsi^TiV.. %. ^ V '^nat* An oroa- 




ment of gold, silver, etc., worn 

by women round their ankles, 

fj[s.*^^ khaJkhdl. An ornament of 

firinge, etc., round a gannent,J^^^ 

tatriz. See Embroidery. — ^The 

ornaments of a wall (as painting, 

stucco, etc.), ^lix»k.^^jMJu naksh 

Ornamental, ii-j J-JIJ— 5>*S liajl 

asaifuit, ^J^ muzayyin. 
Ornamentally, l:.jjj^ hikol zlnat. 
Ornamented, ornate, ^^J— ^ wjw- 
zayyan, ^^J-i-^ mutazayyin, 
uJ^£>y^ muzakhraf. Ornamented 
with gold and jewels, ^^r^ fnu- 
rassa^, A scimitar ornamented 
with gold and jewels, «-«^^ci^ 
9ayf murassa^. The ornamented 
title of a book (also, the orna- 
mented front of a palace, etc.), 
f^\^ ;. r ^anwdn. An ornate 

style, {^j:>^y§fXS kaldtn mu- 
zakhraf. [ration, finery. 

Omateness, omature. See Deco- 
Orphan, «. ^^ yatim (fem. <U^ 
yatlmat, (plur. i^^Lij yatdma\ 
4^ZJ\ ay tarn). To make one an 
orphan, ^ yattam, ^^^td^x 
^amalaho yatlm. An orphan hos- 
pital, j^^lsjl Jli-^^ vipitdl al 

Orpiment, :^y% zamlkh. 

Orthodox, ^g»i^Jyj\ arioduk$l. 

Orthography, 1^\ itnld. ij\3jii\[i^ 
daht al kitdbat. To mark Arabic 
with orthographical points, w«^j 
d-^l^y^l wada^ al harakdt. 

Oscillation, iybjub hazhoMt See 

Osier, uJLai^^ safsdf, 

Osprey (sea eagle), -^\^*«j mur al 
hahr, c^Uf ^kdb. 

Ossification (becoming bone), or io 
ossify, s^Sm^^xj ta^lmallahm. 

Ostensible or ostensive, ^U? zdhir. 

Ostentation, ostentatiousness, <,v«gtV 
tasannu^f j\^\ izhdr. 

Ostentatious, tuIuos^ mutaMnniz, 
See Vain, pompous, boastful. — 
To display ostentatiously, ^^ 
/♦KiU tasanna^ bU kaldm, See 
Vainly, pompously. 

Ostler, ^j*iJIL» tdyis. See Groom. 

Ostrich, 8. |«IaJ nacdm, 4^L«J 

Other, ^p-T dkhar,j^ gkayr. See 

Another, different. — One after the 

other, ^£>^ SI Juujk>>^j wdhid ha^ 

al dkhar. Otherwhile, at other 

times, l:>3(j^^J fl ghayr wakt. 

Otherwise, else (if not), ^1^ toa \£l&^ 

OVE 750 

manner, in other respects)! 

A^^j highayr loaj'h; (by other 

causes), ^L^\jJi laghofr a«id^. 
Otter, s. Ullc^ Italb alma. 
Oval (in the shape of an egg), 

<<rfij iitJC^ Jx ^M thakl al 

Oven, 9, ^^fwm. 
Over (above, superior), ^le> ^M ; 

(across),^ ^abr ; (above the top), 

y}^fawh, ^Jlc ^aUC ; (too much), 

hadd. See Beyond. — Over and 
above, jy /oir^. Over against, 
JjU^ mukahU. See Opposite. — 
To cross over, ^Jic^OaS hata^ 
min ^ala\ To pass over a river, 
j^\j^ ^ahar aumahr. 

Over-abound, v, bC\ij)jJ^j\^ sdr 
kofUr hiayddat. 

Overbalance, v. ^J^^^ f&k ^ala*, 

Overbear, v. ^cJuiJaJi? zaiam wa 

Overbid, v, jjVj^^^jJj dafa^ 

toman %&yid, [markah. 

Overboard, y,^jAi\^j\^ khdraj al 

Overburden, v. Jy^k.!^ kattar al 

Overbuy, v. (buy too dear) c/^i-ll 


LS ^cT*^ ishtara^ hitaman jfliaU . \ 'iia^lawX V«%\t » 


Overohaige, «. (surcharge the 
stomach), J^b Ja3 takkai hOaU. 

Overcome, v. u^^Jli ghalahf Jl^ 
. nafar. See Conquer, oveipower, 
vanquish ; aho overcharge. 

OverfEdl. See Cataract — Oveifloat 
See Swim. 

Overflow, v. (deluge) Jm«^1« idr 
9^yh ^^J^ 9dr tawqfam. See 
Drown. [al ^'alak 

Overforwardness, Aa^Si^ hiirmt 

Overgoige, v. See Overcharge. 

Overgrow, v, (as vegetation) ^^^s^^ 
kabhar katlr, jt^^jji^ iawwal 
katlr \ (to become too big or tall), 
M m^ \M* n?j \,a sdr ^asfm ajjimn. 

Overgrowth, ^^t^jbj %iyddai el 

kihr, yA:i\ij\jJ ziydd^t annamH. 

Overharden, v. ifjlj J^U^Uuf 

^malaho mdkin hiziyddat. 

Overhaul, v. iXid^^^^asr^^j 

raji^fahas minjadld. 

Overhead, {j**^J\^^^j^ min ^Id 

arrds, (j^l^l^jy^^ min fawk 

Overhear, v. ^Jx^^- ^,a:J tanasioi 

^la\ See Hear. [dan. 

Overjoy,!;. "!i>- ioj5 farrah(UiO jid- 

Over-ripen,c.^^j^jSw^JU;^ kkaldh 




Orerlabour, •. (bestow too much 
pains), jljJ\^ iatsar oisa^. 

Over-large, Ia^-^mI^ kahlr jiddan, 
gij[}^j}j^ kahJrbiafddah. [^afo'. 

Overleap, v. ^^^jj^i^-i-t taf mtn 

Overlive, v, ^^J^^^^ ^^ <^J^or 
min. See Outlive, survive. 


Overlong, \j^ Jj^ tatpil jiddm^ 
J^\^ haalr atHl. 

Overlook, v, (view from a higher 
place), jJx Jt tal ^ala* ; (to ex- 
amine carefully), fj^ JjJCj^^o^ 
fahoi hikol tadkih; (to neglect), 

J^l ahmal ; (to connive), j^^^^^cl 
AslJ\ aghmad annatar. 

Overmatch, overmaster, v. See 
Overcome. — An overmatch, ^ilx^ 
mwtfir, c^li gh&lib. 

Overmuch, jJ^ kaslr. See Super- 
abundant. — Overmuchness, i^ob; 
%%yddai. See Exuberance. 

Overnight (before bed- time), J-J 
^yJtv::^^ kahl wakt annawm. 

Over-officious, ^UUt^jLL! htlf Id- 
gh&yat. See Officious. 

Overpay, v, ^J^M^Ji ^iti\ij^ti 
dafa-^ %iyd.dat ^an kimat ashihy. 

Overplus. iJ-Jj fadlaf, iS\i hcLH^. 
See Surplus 

Overpoise, i^]}*^^^^^ rajjah al 
mlzdn. See Outweigh. 

Overpower, v, 1^ Jy:^t iitawla* 

^ala\ JlIo tafa/r^ k^X? ghalah. 

See Overcome. 
Overpress, v. See Overwhelm, crush. 
Overprize, overrate, tJ^^jj-*^,^;^ 

tamman hi tamanin ghdll. 
Over-reach, v. ^juJ^ kahas, dL>- J^ 

^mal hllah. See Deoeive, cheat. 
Over-roast, v.j^f^^ shawa* katir. 
Over-rule, v, lJ^^/J^ takawwa> 

^M, )eu^ dabat, ^j±^^f^\ 

UtauM ^ala*, j^ kahar. See 

Govern, check. 
Over-run, v, S-^^ kharrah, ^JUh 

haddam. See Ravage, harass, 

pester; also to overspread, over- 

Oversee, v, iX^jio\j ndtar ^ala\ See 
Inspect; aUo to overlook. 

Overseen, ^Ualx ghaltdn. See De- 
ceived, mistaken. 

Overseer, %. Jt^c^ mun^IstV, J«L^ 
mubcLBhir^ jla\j ndzir. 

Overshade, overshadow, v. (throw a 

shade over), jU^ zaUal. 
Overshoot, t;. (shoot beyond the 

mark), ^JJL^\^j^s.jl^\l^j^^ 

darah ab^ad min al nUhdn, 
Oversight (error), llaj>* khatd^ LLi 

ghaUt, ^ sahiL^ ^^^ Mi^^v3^^<k 





Oversleep, v, /^^,^\'iji^ kitrat 
annatam, [^ghafal. See Neglect. 

Overslip J^lfi tahdmal, JiUj ta- 

Oversoon, cuJijilJ^i kahl alwakt. 
See Too soon. {^f,admdn. 

Overspent, ^V^i^^ tnunfanl, ^Ujcc 

Overstock, v. ij[)'JiiL* malldh 
bizyddah. See Crowd. 

Overstrain, t;. (stretch too far), iJua^ 
»jlo toatsa^ho bizyddah; (to 
make too violent efforts), J^^ J^ 
9S^ ^amal hadd j'ahdoh. 

Overtake, j;k. lehek, ^j»»J^ kabat. 

Overtax, v. ^ ^)j f^-^ ^ w,,.^. lr> 
tcUab takdlif tay^dah. 

Overthrow, v. (turn upside down), 

Km^^ kdlab ; (to throw down, 

ruin), *^j^ kharab. See Destroy, 

demolish. — (to defeat), v^>.,.Lf: 

yhalab, AjSb hatsuim. Sec Conquer, 

Overthrow, «• (defeat), 

inhizdm, ^Jib hazimat ; (destruc- 
tion), 4-^]^ khardb, /^\j^\ 
inhiddm, ^JUb hadm. SeeKuin. 
Overthrown (turned upside down), 
c^ii:w« munkalib; (destroyed), 
^%jS^ makhrub, /•j^)^ mah- 
dum; (defe8ited),(^j^Jf^ mayhlub, 
/^J^i^ munhazim. 


See Discovery, opening. — (a |iro- 
posal), ^j£. ^ard, ^^j^'^ 
takdlm rdy. 
Overturn, v. u-Ji kalah. See Over- 
throw. — To be overturned, l.^^JlS;1 

tnkalab. Overturned, c,yjJ-.5^ 


maklub. See Overthrown. 

Overvalue, v. See Overprize. 

Overweak, ]Ss^i^jLJL^da^fjiddan. 

Overweigh, v. See Preponderate. 

Overwhelm, v, ]tXp^i^^nl] at^ 

Overwrought (too much labored), 

iUind ^zlm. 
Overworn (fatigued with tml), 

j\iSi\n^yOy mut^b bU ifh&r. 
Ought, aught (anything), ^JU tJuf. 
Ought, ^}i}J^ kdn Idytk, %4j^j» 

darUri, /^Ji Idzim^ v.;..^l:w«fnimdM}. 

Oviparous, ^-f'.V ^^y^» u^Wh 

bayydd, [a¥f(kki\ 

Ounce, s. L3^ icaktyai (plor. ^J^j^ 
Our, \j nd; as Our books, I '*,«»•; i 

kutbund. Ourselves {lit. we self), 

Uuuuij nafsund. 
Out (not within), \jJ barrd ; m^j\>- 

khdrtj; (to go upon an expedition), 

(to become public), ^i^^jMu^ltf idr 

Overture, I l.kl izhdr^ v— p»w^ ktt«Kf.\ mcwKKikr, QrQ.\. <i€ hand, JW 




kdUan, See Instantlj, immedi- 
ately. — ^To copy out, Jii nakal. 

Outbalance, v. {^]jy^^'^j rajjah 

Outcast (exiled, expelled), ,<Ai^ 

Outcry, LZJya sawt, l^ hulsa, \jj 

nidd. See Clamor, exclamation, 

lamentation. — (an auction), j|u 

Outdo, V, ^J^^^ f&k ^W, See 

Excel, surpass. 
Outer, ^^^ kh&rij. See Exterior. 
Outfly, V, (run away faster) ^J^ 

Outgive, V, (give more than another) 

j^^JlcI Vi n ly jL> fak bilcatd 

^ala* ghayrihu 
Outgo, V. (go faster) ^j;^ sabak, 
Outguard, 8. (J^]/ kardwul, <uJ^i9 

tdtl^hy ^TS^y nawhatjl. 
Outlandish, e--o^ gharlh, (Jly 

harrdnl. See Foreign. 
Outlaw, V. ijUjJ^\i^\^^jS.^j\:>^ 

khdraj can siydnat ashshari-^at, 

fj2ji[j mahkum colayhi hil katl. 
Outlet, s, '^jS^ makraj. 
Outline, «. ^uLft3 nakshat, )a:>- khat, 

Outlive, V. ^[^-i^^^^j^^ ^fi«A 

ak»ar m%n ghayrihu See Survive. 

— An outliver. See Survivor. 
Outmeasure, v, J^^ jli/d^ al hadd. 
Outmarch, v, ^J^ sahak. 
Outmost. See Outermost. 
Outprize, v. See Overrate. 

Outrage, (J^^Su^ nakas f\ Hak, 
\ jJ^ iftird. To outrage, commit 
an outrage, ^j:>- vi^/^ nakkasfl 
hak, ,X^t^J^\ iftara* ^ala\ 

Outrageous, (jA(^>-vi fdhuh, .^"^^^ 
mufdth, v^JuCL^ tnuta^ddifi^jiSL^ 
muftarl. See Violent, tumultuous, 
turbulent, enormous. 

Outrageously, 1^1 J^ hikol iftird, 

Outra|2:eousness, ^^Jucj tacoddi, 

\jX3\ iftird, [rikh. 

Outride, t;. l^J\}^J^ sahak hU 

Outroot, t;. ^3 kala^, c JJ ftasa&. 

See Eradicate, extirpate. 
Outrun, V. ^^J\jfj^ sahak hilrakd. 

Outsail, V, ^^ Ir^c? ." "^^'^ ^ 

markah sahak markab. 
Outshine, t;. (excel in lustre) ^li 

^^b fdk hillam^. 
Outshoot, V. fj^*^^tt^j3 kawwas 

ah^ min. [superficies. 

Outside, s, J^^ sath. See SurfiEu^, 

Outswear, s, ^^^^^j^tM^-tf^jsl^ 
halaf dhan min gKa^jvii^. 




Out-talk, V. »j^^j^ji\^^^^ haid' 
aisar min ghayrihi, [hir^at. 

Oatvote; f. ^yfilljc,^***^ heneh hil 

Outwalk, V. }ij^^jJLS\^^l^ 
meshl aksar min ghttyrihi. 

Outward, *^J<s>- kharij. The out- 

wa^ appearance, ijib\^\ijyA\ 

as9urat audhirat, ^L^j wqfh, 
j^b^ t&hir. 

Outwardly (externally), Ljj^— « 
suratanf \jb^ zdhiran, ^^\j 
JbUoll hUtoajh asaUlhir. 

Outwards (towards the outside), 
-.jUt'lj hilkMraj. [wazn. 

Outweigh, V, ^^j^^'^j rajjah al 
Outwit, V, (deceive) ^jLc. ghaahfjSi. 

ghadar. See Cheat. 
Outwork, 8. fj,\ji\2^^ hayt barrdnl. 
Owe, V. (be in debt) ^^ j<L-Jl^ 

calagh dayn. {_hilmat. 

Owl, 8. (owlet) ^y) hum (fern. iU«j 
Own, V, (acknowledge) jJ kar, 

i-J^\ f^taraf. See Confess.— 

To own or possess, (Jj3^ melek ; 

(claim), I^jJn^ ^mal da^wd. 
Ownership, <lJLJL!L« malikigat, 

i^^4.7 tamalluk. See Possession. 
Owner, «. lI^U mdlik, v»^.o-L0 

9dhtb, i^jioCL^ muta8arri/. See 

Possessor, master, lord. 
Ox, 9. MjA) i0kara (plur. jA^ balarV 

Ox.8tall,^1^y;.t aM«r ml baUr. 
Oyster, IjJ^\. uttridi^^ cJju0 


P has an uniform sound in English, 
excepting before h, where it 
sounds like /, as ' philosopher.' 
At the beginning of some w(»ds, 
when followed by t, the sound ie 
not perceptible, as ' Ptolemy.' 
The Arabians have no charaeter 
for this letter, on which aoooont 
they substitute, in general, c^, 
when they adopt words where it 
occurs, from foreign languages; 
as J^ for J^, 'an elephant;' 
(j*jj\i for i^J^ 9 ' Persia.' Some- 
times they use c-^ ; as ^/Jv ibr 
Paulu8y * Paul.* 

Pabular, pabulous (alimentaiy), 
Jj^L« mdhuL 

Pace, 8. ^jJ kadam, ija:>. ikaimd 
(plur. CL^fjkfiL khatwdt). See 
Step, measure. — ^Pace by pace, 
^ JJb^j* Jj kadamin hi kadam. 

Pacification, L.k.La^ musdloM, 
^^ 8ulh. A pacificator, paeifier, 
JLa^ mmdlih, 
\Y^\&si,, ^-jL-i iolim, Pku^ficaUy, 

PAG 755 

hUol sulhin wa saldmah. See 

Pacify, r. (make peace), f^^ 

^nuU tulh, 1^*^ Kadda\ See 

Beconcile, appease. 
Pack, package, 9. (load), <Uj». 

htaunat; ^\) hdlah. See Load, 

Pack, r. (bind up), a\s>^ hawm. 

Packer, «. (^\}^ haudm. 

Packet, 9, (mail), (jl^^Ij pdkit. 

Pack-saddle, 9, ^\j pdldn. 

Pact, paction, 1?^ ahart^ J^ ^aAi, 
J^ ^aiS;i. See Contract, bargain. 

Padlock, 9, Jiji ib/f. To padlock, 

Ji3 i^a/o/. 
Pagan, 9, ^^^ wa9ani. See Heathen. 

— ^Paganism, ^L^^UjLc ^tbddat 

al a9ndm. 


Page, #. (of a book), i«*^ «a/l&a^ 
(plur. d^U-*-^ 9afhdt), i^susf^ 
9ahlfah (plur. cJjU:*^ 9ahdyif), 
The two opposite pages of a book, 
^^li^\liiJ daffatd al hitdh. A 
page boy, Ai. phaldm, ^^ 9dki. 
See Attendant, cupbearer. 

Pageant, 9, Jo:,^ tnantar, j^ol^ 
nunhar (plur. ^Ux« matdhir). 
See Show, spectacle. 


Pagod, 9, (idol), Ji^ wa9an, ^i^ 
9anam, See Idol. 

Paid, f y «>^ mad/A^. 

Pail, «. (for milk), ^^..JJLflej wa^ 
al haiih, ^ffL# ma^n. 

Pain, jj>-j traf<t»^> JUiil tn^^d/, 
Jt a^0f», J'b iaaUum, ^^ ham. 
See Anguish, grief, trouble, tor- 
ment. — (punishment), Cyjln.S.r 

Pains, <Us<* miAiki^, ^L.A.JL-^ 

See Labour, toiL — ^The pains of 
child-bearing, yjoiss^ makhdd. 

Pain, V. ^^j t^^ft^'^y Jf o^^om. See 
Afflict, torment ; aUo ache. 

Painful, pained (full of pain), Jli^ 
mutaaHim; (difficult), y,,.^ ir ^^ 

Painfully (with great affliction, Ju 
highamf ^5»-jj^jJ\JCj hikol 
alamin wa wqfa^; (laboriously), 
J^^j^J^ J^ hikoljaddinwqfakd, 
^^l^JCj hikol M^{. 

Paint, V. (represent by delineation 
and color), jjl^ 9awwar; (to 
color), ^^ iaNw^an. 

Painted, ^^^^^ m/iiiirfl«A ; (as a 
picture), jjld^ fnu9awwar. 

Painter, 9. jyo^ mwawwW, 

Painting, part. jV^^ mvMMB^T. 




Painting, «. ^^SJu fiaksh, jiyoj 
toitolr. See Picture. — The art of 
painting, j^i.^ \ Ae- ^Im attastolr. 
Pair, 9, — •) %awj. See Couple. — 
A married pair (husband and 

wi^©)> {jM'Jj %awjan. 
Pair, f^. (join in couples), ^.jj taw- 

waj ; (to be joined in couples), 

^^ji tcaawwaj* 
Palace, c^U»> iQ/riky , j>ak j[;a«r(plur. 

jyaH ibMtZr). 
Palanquin, «. ^J<^J^J:^^^a :r iakht ruan. 
Palatable (agreeable to the taste), 

jj jj lault, ^jt*^ nafii. 

Palate, «. CS*'-^ hanak, ^jil^lujiiL} 

sakf al hoik. 
Palatine (possessed of regal rights), 

^^ fjix:^\t^^'^\^ suhih iatikldl 

hdll. See Sovereign. 

Pale (in color), JuA aafar (fem. 
\jSuc safrd). 

Pale, », (for making inclosures), JJ^ 
watad (plur. J[jj\ awtad). An 
inclosure or fence of pales, a 
palisade, palisado, ^aj^ljj 

Palefaced, i^^\jLJ\ asfar al wajh. 

Paleness, iU*tf aafdr. 

Pall, V, (become insipid ar vapid), 
^JiL^ 8dr dele^i (to make in- 

tipid), ^ J dalla^ 

Pallet, 8, (mean or small bed), 
i j ^Js^ <0>yi farsha hakira. 

Palliate, v. lZj\j^x^J^ ^miud 

^uzurdf ; (to mitigate pain, etc.), 

^LSj^j ray yah kalllan, 

j-j>-^l khaffaf al waja^. 

Palliation, palliative, i— n ,.j lu 

hil I & ^tak/r. See Excuse, apology. — 
(mitigation of pain, etc.), i^jLiaT 

maddrdh hdtilah. 
Palliative, adj, (mitigating pain, 

dawd hattdl yarayyih kahlan wa 

Pallid. See Pale. 

Palm-tree, s, A^sT nakkid. The 
fibres of the palm-tree (of which 
they make ropes, etc.), cjLl Iff, 
The palm (victory), i^ fuurat, 
jsio zafar. See Triumph. — ^The 
palm of the hand, Ju!1u^ kafdl 
yad, ^1^ rdhat. 

Palma-christi, f ^^ khurwi^. 

Palmer, «. ,^yrl*- hdjfi, ^^jji^ 
tnakdasl. See Pilgrim. 

Palmer- worm, s. ^^z*^ umm ^mh. 

Palmistry, jJtJj: ^ilm al yad, 
L^^«*»J\ Jlc ctlm asiimid. See 





Palpable (perceptible by the toacb), 

kahil al lams; (manifest); ^\? 

wddih. Palpableness (to the 

toacb), ^jMMiDlXJaU kabiliyat al 

lams ; (manifcstDess), ^f^y^ 

iawdih, ^^jt^ tahyin. Palpably 

(by tbe touch); (j^b^V ^ laim\ 

(manifestly); t^^JbLl? zahiran, 

^\j^iL^y hi wajhin wddih. 

Palpation; \ju>^ lams. See Feel- 
ing, touch. 

Palpitate, v, fjA:>- khafak, i^ji^^ 

rqfaf. See Tremble. 

Palpitation, i^^ifiH^U&jw khafakdn 

al kaJh, s^AlW^^s^j rajafdn 
al hall. 

Palsy, «. -tf U fdlij; (hemiplegia), 
-tf^U fdlij ; (paralysis), IJ^^^j 

Palsied; <^^1^ ma/luj. 

Paltry, ^,Ji>. haJ^r, J J dani, JJ J 
%alll. See Mean, contemptible, 
pitiful. — Paltriness, ^\ fl rw 
hakdrat. See Meanness. 

Pamper, v, if jLjj^ ^«.ji^f a^^am 

hiziyddatf j! J <^//a/, ^^.4^ samman. 
Pamphlet; s. jL>.lj;>-^^-jiilLjj 
risdlat kadh f\ hak ahhad. A 
pamphleteer, j«m tH^^^-^-y^^jU 
i^dc^tA /! Aa^ a/ gkayr. 

Pan, «. (for f^ng, stewing, etc.); 
JlL« makW, iflL« makldt (plnr. 

Panacea, t. (universal remedy), 
^y^f^ia^JL^ ^%ldj mutlak 


Pancake, ». LSij^yt naw^taldhiyaL 

Pane, s, ^,j^ murahba^ i^xJSj/9 

murahhatat, A pane of glass. 

Panegyric, ^J^ madh, U sand, 

k^A^y tposf, [Encomiast. 

Panegyrist; s. ^^^ madddh. See 

Pang, s, M^ yham, J\ alam, yjoLAj\ 

Jb\^\ inkihdd al khdtir. See 

Anguish, pain. [torment 

Pang, V, ^T} ^^^t* ^^ P&iQi 
Panic, s. \ - *ii i 

khawf min dUn sabah, 

khawf. See Terror, fHght. 
Pannel, s, (pack-saddle), ^L^ 

pdldn,jA>^ samar, ^*^ harda^ 

(plur. cjl^ harddiQ, 
Pannier, s, Ji^J sanSi/, JJ^^i 

X^ar^o/; <ui kuffi, iL» salU. See 

Hamper, basket. 

Panther, «. ^ numffj^f hdbr, 

Pantofle, s, fj^^\^, hdhnsh. See 

Papa, \j\} pdpd. See Father. 

Papaverous Ct«fi«a&AxDk% v^\^^ 




Paper, j^j wirak. Blotting-paper, 
cJliJj;j warak natihh&f. A 
■heet or leaf of paper, iJij^ 

Par (equality), StjU^ miMdirdA, 

Parable, «. J.2i^ mom/, 
tamAl. Parables, ClSit 
iaktt, CI^'IUjiJ tamHldt 

ParabolicaL ,<^ ffUMo/i. 

Parabolieally, l,,;. \ ^ ^ toaMl/on, 
J>-f^^^-^j« 5i vajh al taaMUL 

Parade, ij^ ^mawutt. See Pomp, 
magnificence, sbow. — Military 
parade or array,^Ljii\^^J^c-iu*i 
kiUkf cala' al ^akir. A parade 
or place for military exercise, 

Paradigm, «. Js^ mom/ (plur. ^1:^\ 
anutZff^). See £xample. 

Paradise, (jM^^ijifardiU (pi. j^o'yi 

fardiU), ZIsj- jantuU (pi. <JL?IIp- 

/ofuidl). Belonging to paradise, 

paradisiacal ; oZto the blessed, or 

the Lohabitants of Paradise, 

^^Jji finrdusi. 

Paradox, «. (a tenet contrary to re- 
ceived opinion), c\jcj^ ihtuld^, 
i^jj hiizat\ (an assertion con- 

753 PAR 

trary to appea ra nce), AkJL*-^ 
mugk&UM. Pandozieal, Jk*a-i 

Paradoxioally, ^JcjU ^' •^^mU^ 
^jo-jSI^j^^^ mm nmm^ d 

Paragon (model, pattern), ij^^Li 
id^Mla^; (sapremely exoeUent), 

iiasir, aSJU) 2fi a^ai Ma. 

Paragraph, «. J..a-9/aa/. See Sec- 
tion. — Paragraphically, 
J..nRi\ ^' MmJM. 

Parallel, i^j^f^ wnUawdwi^ ^J^T* 

Parallel or parallel line, «. L.^ 
,^;^yL« ibAaM mutawd^. A pa- 
rallel figure, t^j\ji^JCj^ MkM 
mutawdia, A parallel (compari- 
son), l^^ t4uhhlk, Jj ^ 4 ^ 

faiMl/, (jmLS A»yd«, iUU^ aw- 

wtdsahi; (confbrmity), lJLJ\y^ 
muwOfakai, ^*\k« wmfiih ^k mi . 
arallel, 9. (place in jfhrallel lines), 

mutawani^iU; (to be equal to), 
^^\\^ fodMm\ See Resemble, cor- 
respond. — (to compare), ^LmmJJ^ 
^amal tiukink, abU^Jf ^Mrf 

mnAdMo/, ifj^yji ^fmtd aw- 




ParaUeliam, if\)\y^ muwdzdh, i^j^y 

Paralogism^ paralogy, s, (false argu- 
ment), iiSAJ^'i^\jbj) htrhdn Id 
haMat laho, Jlb^^ JJ J daM 
ghayr hwrhdnl. [See Palsied. 

Paralysis. See Palsy. — ^Paralytic. 

Paramount, \s\ a^\ jS\ atbar, 
f$Vi r\ a^m, aj^\ akram. See 
Supreme, eminent. 

Paramour, 9, Jh^Ic ^sktk. See 
Lover, mistress. 

Parapet, s. (wall breast high), »j^ 
sattdra, A parapet of lattice 
work, ^^^Ji^j*^ dardhUn. 

Paraphernalia (goods in the disposal 
of a wife), j\^ jahdt,j^ tnahr, 
j\ju0 Boddk. 

Paraphrase, «. U^^=^<r/^ shark 
fnajd%l, jfjuJu tafiHr. See Com- 
mentary, interpretation. — To 
paraphrase, rj^ sharah, J^ 
jii***ki ^amal tt^sir. A paraphrast, 
^1^ sharrdh. See Commentator. 
— ^Paraphrastical, ^^Lb^^-^Lj 
hsharhin m<ifdz%. 

Parapluye. See Umbrella. 

Paraaang, «. (a Persian league), 

'^ji farsakh. 
Parasite, 9, (feast-hunter, flatterer) 

Jksu sajldk, ^XJiff tufaifh. See 

Adulatory. [TTmbrella. 

Parasol, 9, S^»^,4J^ 9ham9iyat. See 

Paroel, «. (small bundle) ^jbH htl^'a ; 
(apart), ^a>- hmah, hiiaS hU^ ; 
(a number), JJuc ^adai. See 
Quantity, mass. — ^To paroel (di- 
vide), ^jAa>- ^jAa>- amJ • ka99am 
hH8a9 hu9a9. 

Parch, VM. ^j^ harak, ^^L 9hawa\ 
^^J» 9halwat. See Scorch. 

Parchment, ^j r<Mi. 

Pardon, ^ ^q/il, IjAjl^ maghfarat, 
^]/Le. ghufrdn, A pardon (war- 
rant of forgiveness), ^\jyLe. ^afa 
ndfna. To ask pardon, .« nz^mA 
tBtaghfar. To ask pardon, or 
make an apology for past offences, 
Aiwn (^ L j . J jflAJ^j JCLc \ i^tatar 

^n tak^rin Bolafa minhu. 

Pardon, v. ^\;f^ ghafar da*, J^ 
^ 9afah ^an. See Forgive. 

Pardonable, ^;W gugh/ar, (i»^<^tj 
jAjiSt wdjib al ^f% v_ ^r-j-mn-r 
^y^\ mu9tawfib algkufrdn. 

Pardoned, iJ^jyJLM maghfar laho, 
j^<Xk^ ma^Ur, IghafEir. 

Pardoner, «. jl-Lc ghaffiir, jyA^ 

Pardoning, adj.jsXc ghdftr. 

Pare, v. ^i fearad,* "^^ \«t^ <^ 





the skin or rind, -J^ talakh, jJLi 

Pared, ^^Jiy mukr&d. 

Parent, «. <«.-^}/ kardtfh, jJt^ wdUd, 
Parents, ^ji^^^ u!&liduyn. See 
Father, mother. 

Parentage (eztraodon), J«0\ ad, 
J^mJ muilf c,^*^'> fuuab* See 
Descent, genealogy. 

Parental, ^<«mJ na%ahl. 

Parity, ^LbL« mushdhahat, Jljo^l 
i^tiddl, ^UJ todhdbihf LLj\a^ 
mumdsalat. See Equality, re- 

Park, s. ^\s^ hwtdn, CJj\) pdrk. 

Parley, v, w«^ljj ttttdkar ma^. 
A parley, i>^\S^ mukdlamat, 
dutlfl^*^ mvkhdtahat. See Con- 

Parody, «. J.!^ miMa/, ^UJLJ kuhbih, 

Parole, iJl^ kalimat. See Word.— 

(promise), Jlcj tra^c^. 
Paroquet, BjJuffij^ durrahsaghlrah. 
Paroxysm, «. cuJj wakt,jjJ dawr ; 

(of a fever, etc.) ^^^\;^*^ dawr 

al humma\ See Fit. 
Parricide (murder of a parent), ^jsJ 

j\\^\ katl al wdlid. A parricide, 

d jJ!. JjU idiil wdlidaho. 
Parrot, #. Bj^ durrak. 

Parry, 9. (the thrust or Uow of a 

sword) ^JLj\}j0^J^^m Bi}^^w>tj 

darhdt auayf. 
Parsimonious, J-^oC ^«Mi/. See 
FrugaL — Parsimoniously (ooTet- 
ously), iL^fsT c aJnJ &»iuiir&tii 
hakhil. Parsimoniousness, par- 
simony (frugality), (Ja^ hdkhid, 

Parsley, ^^j^Xftj hakdunts. 

Parsnip or carrot, *. jjs*^ yanir. 

Part, t, (piece, portion) ^uLS iol^tf^ 
See Share, portion, lot. 
lot, portion),>. AimoA, 
kismat; (business, duty), 
^amal, j^\ amr, <Ccr^^ m ail ^ ^i * 
See Action, conduct — (side, 
party), i-J^ <tfra/, u^ls^/diw*. 
The best part of anything, A^^ls^ 
khuldsat. The third part (of any- 
thing), ciJj «u/«. The fourth 
part, ^j rub^. The fifth port, 
^^«M#c^ i^tfifM. From every part, 
^^\s>-J^^j^m%nkoljdnib. The 
forepart, jJu0 «0(^. See Fore, 
front, first. — The latter part,^T 
dkhir. See Latter, hinder. — ^In 
whole and in part, y^*j>^^i^^ 
min koUl waju£i. Parts (faonlties, 
abilities), cJljj\ iirdk, Jajs 




^akl, iJ\ji fardsai ; (quarters, 
regions), i^|^\ atrdf, ^^-JLSl 
akdlim, lI^U^^ mam&lik. See 
Country, district. — ^In every part, 
t^l^J^J/t kdjdnih. 

Part, V, (divide, share), Jt^jj kassam ; 
(to separate, disunite), ^Jai kata^, 
J^j3 farak, J-isi fasal. To part 
(be separated), J.«aAJt infasal; 
(to take farewell, cJj tcadda^. 
Partible (divisible), j\j^'i\jU^ 
mumkin al iftirdk. 

Partake, v, (to have share in any- 
thing), d^0a^J^\ akhad hmah, 
cL^Ll shdrik. See Participate. 

— Partaking, s,LS^j^ sharlk. See 

Partaker, 8. A-a^. a1 /aAo hissahf 
a^i^-AsLI oMti^ hissah, CS-ijJ^ 
sharik, CS^J^ mashdrik. See 

Parted, ^■>.m:.a>< mu^to^am, A^y^ 
mafruk, ^Jy muwauta^. See 
Divided, separated. [wri^aU 

Parterre, «. <^^j rawdat, ^jj 

Partial (inclined to favor one side), 
\j^J^ muffhrid; (not universal), 
^^U^ khu8, ^y^j^ ghayr 

Partiality, <U^^ gharadiyat. 
Partially, ^;m^ J^ hikolgharadiyai. 

Participate (capable of being shared 
or participated), ii^ll^l^^^db^ 
mumkin al mttshdrdkat, J^LS 
<b tL2L«j\ kdhU al mttshdrakaL 

Participate, p. X.a>. j^\ ait^ Amm^, 
clXi^jUtf «ar sharik, ii^lu^ Jl^ 
^amo/ tnushdrakat. See Share. 

Participation, cJt/:^t iahtirdk. To 
give a participation, <Ua>._Le! 
acto' hmah, ^jAa>^ hoiios. 

Participle active, 8, JrUil^t ism 
al fd^il, A participle passive. 

Particle, s. ijj tarrat or darrat. 
A particle (part of speech), i.J^ 
^ir/ (plur. c- ij[^ hurHf). A 
conjunctive particle, 
cektl \ harf al ^tf,j^^*jJc\ \ . 
harf attaftlr. A particle of 
action, j£U!ti?\j\ addt al fd^* 
A vocative particle, \jcJl 
harf al nidd. 

Particular (not general), 
makhsus, ^joU- khds, ^yA£>jfS. 
ghayr ^mUmi; (single, indivi-^ 
dual), Jj-Jl^ mufrad; (odd, 
whimsical), ^^jv^ ^'^h; (un- 
common), Scju4j^ ghayr tnu^d, 
l^jJljl.^^^*ju^ mustaghrab. See 
Singular, strange. 

Particular, «. (anything lMl<^^<^gaBk% 




to an iiidividual);_.0^i4:>. kkuiiUi, 
<yrf?^.af». khuiiliiyat ; (an indivi- 
dual), (jcas*^ thakhi, Jji ford. 
See Person. — (a single point, 
thing, or instance), Jjifard; (a 
minute detail), Jy^ii taftiL 
Partioularity (something peculiar), 

(individuality ),iLj \»:ijifarddniffai. 

Particularize, particulate (mention 
distinctly), Jyaasllj^,^ tharah 
M tafHl 

Particularly (distinctly), i*»n i 7 
tafiiUm, J J ,»<ai,r» I^^Jlc ^M 
attafsilf ^Lasu* unafassaUm ; (pecu- 
liarly), \^ya;:>* JthtuiUan, i^\^ 
khdsatan ; (extremely), <^U-^ 
ht ghdyat^ LU ghdyat, Lli 
X)UIt ghdyat al ghdyat. 

Partisan, «. Ju^ harhai. See Hal- 
berd, javelin, pike. — (an adhe- 
rent), fj^j raflk ; (a commander 

of a party), ^^os^jmJj rayyts 

Partition (division), <UmmJ kitmat, 

m*mJj t4ik9lm, ^jy iaw%l^. 

See Distribution. — The partition 

of an inheritance, Cjl^^l^LuiJil 

ikiisdm al mlrda. The fee to a 

judge for determining a partition 

o/ inheritance, ^^Muilf amsj rasm al 

kismat ; (separation), j{\^ Jirdk, 
j\jxi\ iftirak, JLu)\ n^lM. 
A partition (wall, etc.), ^U 
fdrik, i^\^ h^'ah. 

Partition, 9. (divide byawaU^etc.), 
^1^ ibtom, ^loS tata^. See 
Divide. [iakrihm. 

Partly (in some measure), Ui^ 

Partner, «. cJo^ «A<irfib, CS^\£^ 

Partnership, i^\jJii shardkat, ^J^ 
shirkat, cJ]/^\ uhtirak, ZJLL^ 
mushdrakai. To be in partner- 
ship, C^jJ^j\^ idr sharik. 

Partridge, «. J^ hqfal, 

^arty, Jjy farik (dual, ^^ 
/arf^In). A party or select 
assembly, ^^Lr^^^^^^^J^jB^ maflu 
khds ; (side), i.J^ taraf, \__^pW- 

Party-colored, (^^!cl^ mif/a&HMm, 
i^^^lLt mudawtoan, [^<t^* 

Party-man, «. cJ^v-^^^^^U ««lM 

Party- wall, «. ^Uk^ haytkdU^. 

Paschal, ^^'^ fatkl. 

Pass, V, (go forward, by, or through), 
C;^ J soAo^ ; (to cross over or 
through a river, etc.),^^ ^jB^ar, 
j^ tnoTf jJu nafad ; (to be at an 
end), ^-fLi^iU sdr mimldki. To 
depart this life, JUI\lJu^^^Jo^1 




ffiakai min hmA al ^iam. See 
Die. — ^To pass a law, Jl»- hahun, 
CjJ^ thara^. To pass sentence, 

ihtH^a^ To pass, pass by^pass over 
{ojxdi),LiSp iaralp^gmjneA. See 
Neglect To pass (allow, admit, 
approve), ^j^^s^ tahassan, J^i 
kshel. To pass upon, iLk^fJf 
^amal hllah. To pass for (per- 
sonate another), ^U-Jif ^mal 

Pass 8. (narrow road or passage), 
Jla;^ man/ad; (of a mountain). 

Passable (possible to be passed), 
j^^ \ ^^S*A^ mumkin al^Ur ; (sup- 
portable), f^^ks^^ yatahammal. 
See Tolerable, allowable, popular. 

Passage (road, etc.), (jij^ tarik. 
See Way, ferry. — (journey), jL^ 
safar. A passage in a book, J liU 
mukdl, Jy katpL 

Passed over (neglected), 
munsa^ ; (forgiven), ^j 
fnoffh/Hr laho. 

Passenger, «. j3\***^ mmdfir, jIc 
(JiJ^\ l&hir attarik, J^\j rdhil, 
«J;**mJ^U ^aitr MioblL See 

Passing impart), jJ^x- ^dMr. 

Passion (opposed to action), JUAj^ 
tf^i^lf ^jMjciWyb hawd ammafi. 
See Grief, sorrow, anger, rage, 
love, lust, desire, hatred, malice, 
etc. — ^Without passion (or anger), 
v,,.^.irlb Ma ghadab. The pas- 
sions of the mind, LjLua3^|^! 
dghrdd naftdniffot. The passions 
of love, jH^f\^ hawd dl ^iihk. 

Passionate (prone to anger), ^ydC' 

phadnh, ^1jJ\_^U. kdna al 

Passionately (angrily), iJi^-^J^ 
hikol hammiyat ; (with strong de- 
sire), JLc^ J^ hikol rughhat. 

Passover, ^*^\jufi ^d al fatih, 
j^\s^ ^d al kaMr, 

Passive (unresisting), J,4>-fgu# 
mutahammilf JjbLMw« miudhU, 
See Patient. — ^A passive verb, 
J^*i« maf^, J^f*^ ^hul. 

Passively, j .n i<ijjL4>a^JCj hAol 
tahammul waMhr, See Patiently. 

Passiveness, mJao^ tahammul, r^^c 
tahr. See Patience, submission. 

Passport, «. CL^Lyj paadpori. 

Past (not present, gone), ^<<i^U 
md<ft, (^L« 9dltf, i^jJis^ ffiMto- 
kaddim, J^L> td^ti;. 

Past^ a. JjUt OMd^, ^Ul\ 
almddi. Things that ax^ ^^u^^ 




w^f^ tawdlif, fjj}^^ satcdbik. 

Those who are past (predecessors), 

^jm^*Xh^\ al mutakaddimln. 
Past (beyond, above), jy fawL 

Past hope, J^UII jy fawk al 

mdmuL Past ability (of doing 

anything), ^JjL hUd kudrat^ 

SjJih hila knwat. Past all danger, 

jk^L hild khatar. The participle 

past, Jyu^lw\ i$m al maf^uL 

Taste, ij^^AS^ khamlraL See Leaven. 
— (flonr and water for pasting), 
^o/ln. To make paste, 
i^ ^ajan. To paste or fasten 
with paste, Jh^ lasak. See Glne. 

Pastime, ^r-J^ tafarruj. See Amuse- 
ment, diversion, play, [grazier. 

Pastor, 8, ijf^^j rd^. See Shepherd, 

Pastoral, d^e-Jlf^yn ; ,^ mamuh 
lilru^dh. See Rural, rustic. 

Pastry, ^^p^si^^cr^Liar* muhliyat 
1n^ajlnfS^\^yM^fnab»u9dt\ (con- 
fectionery), CL^LLsr^ tnuMiifuL 

A pastry cook (or confectioner), 
vjl J.>- halwdni. 

Pasturable (proper for pasture), 

^jAi\^jS>^ kharj al mar^\ 

Pasture, pasturage (grounds), ^j^ 

mar^\ t^ ^^^^f ^^^s^^re, 
pasturing, ^juy tnarta^. 
FM8ture p. (feed as cattle), ujiL: 

^laf; (to feed cattle on paatnre 

grounds), -Cj ra^\ 

Pat (exact, suitable), ^1 Idyik. 
See Fit, opportune. 

Pat, t^. (strike gently), <-r^ iarab. 
Patch, 9. (on a garment, etc.), iMj 

ruk^h. To patch (a garment), 

^j rakka^. 
Pate, (j^\j rds. See Head. 
Patent (open, public), ^l^ ^kdffi^, 

JfeU? zdhir. 
Patent, «. ^^^/9 farmdn^ <^^*|/ 

baraaty jy^''^ rnamhUr (plnr. 

^^^-.^L^ ma»aMir). The royal 

signet on letters patent, ^-^y 

^^j tou7^^ra/!^. [haraaUl. 

Patentee, #. JjU^/armd«A, ^J^^;^ 

Paternal, ^j^\ ahawl. Paternal 

succession, t^jL^ mirds. See 

Path, «. ^,Jh tank, A path which 

has no thoroughfare, j^a:^4]U 

mdiaho man/ad. See Bead, street, 

Pathetic, 4^ haligh,.^f<^muhayfij. 

Pathetically, ^^ ^ c^ ^tnni^^Mi 

muhayyij. To touch pathetically^ 

Patheticalness, ^j^tA:i\^j^ tah^j 

annafs. See Pathetic 
Pathway, #. Jjj^ torfX. See Path. 




Patience, ^^ sabr, fjActrtahammuL 

To have patience, j^^a $abar. See 

TaXieni,j\a sdhir,jy^ tabur ; (in 

grammar), J^^^ mqf^L To 

be patient, jL»4a<' iahammal,^^ 

Patient, 8. (person indisposed), 

^j^^ marid, JJlc ^allL 
Patiently, j^J^ hihol sahr, j^^ 

hi sdbr. 
Patly, Liji Idykafiy ^L^Ljw^J^ 

biJcol mundsabat, JLjUJ^ hikol 

laydkat. See Fitly, opportunely. 

Patriarch, lIS^Joj hatriark (plur, 
JL^LJa; haidrakat). A patri- 
archate, LSjJoj hatrahiyat. 

Patrimonial, C^jf^-^ mawrus, 
^J^ mulkl. Patrimonial pos- 
sessions, ^^^jj^J^ ^^^ maw- 

Patriot, 8, jjt^lc-^vs:^ muhih al 

tcatan. Patriotism, t^^^n_-'^ 
^'^^ a/ tcaian. 

Patrol, «. (night watch), jJtA^^l/^^ 
^dn« a/ layl, ^j**m*£> ^asas. 

Patron, #. (jmj\^ hdris. See Pro- 
tector. — ^A patroness, <L.i^L.». 
hdrisat. Patronage, ^Ub>. hi- 
mdyaty ij\^ saydnat. See Pro- 
tection, guardianship. — To pa- 
tronise, . «^«^ft- hama. 

Pattern, «. ija^^ mcatarat. 

Paucity, ilj killat, /^Jx. ^adam. 
See Scarcity. 

Pave, V, LL 5a/Za^ 

Pavement, «. t^ &a/d^. 

Paver, pavier, a, l^L^ mubaUit, 

Pavilion, <U>j>rw khaymat (pi. ^»^ 

khuyam), ^\„j .'^^ khiydm. See 

Pauper, «. ^jjLm^ miskln, j^J^ 

fakir. See Poor man, beggar. 

Pause (stop), cjiiJ tawakkuf. See 
Interval, intermission, delay. — 
(suspense), <(^^ shuhhat, eld 
«Aa^, j3^ faraddud. See Hesi- 
tation, doubt. — To pause (make 
a stop), ii.jLiy tawakkqf, i^jLJj 
tcekef\ (to hesitate), JJ^ to- 

Pawn, #. ^^ roAn. See Pledge. — 
A pawn at chess, ^ Juj hay dak. 
— To pawn or give in pawn, ^jtbj 
rahan. To redeem a pawn, vl^ 
fji^J^ fak arrahn. 

Pawned, ^2}^J^ murtahan, t^^j^ 
tnarhun, A pawner, ^\j rdhin. 

Pay, V. ^J dafa^, J,^ ira/b'. To 
pay wages, ^jUll^J dafa^ al 

Pay, i-i^ ^ulujol* '^^^ ^^s^k^- 




pension, stipend, hire. — ^Monthly 
pay, Ljb\^ mdkiyat. 
Payable, ^ Jitlu-^^^f^ tcdjib al idd^ 

Pay-day, ^jJ\/*j£ yatcm addaf^. 
Payer, s, (of debts, etc.), ^\j 

^ jJ\ dafi^ adda^. 
Payment, \J\ idd, [ij umfBL, 
Pea, peas, «. ^^^a^t^^^ hummus. 

Peace, J^ »ulh. See Quiet, eon- 
tent, amity, silence. — A treaty of 

peace, J'^\ja& ^akd al iulh, 
^ik^Lfi^ mmdlahaif SjJbU^ mu- 
^hadat. The peace of God, 

^t^X^ sdl&m allah. Peace be 
with him, |*1LuJ\^lJlc ^alayhi 
assaldm. To make peace, Jl4X 
J^ ^mal sulh. To renew peace, 

J^\j1p^ jaddad al iulh. To 

sne for peace, ^^^1l.^.JJ? talah 
auuJh. To infringe the peace, 

J^\J<:>^ hhdn asiulh. To ob- 
serve the articles of peace, ^]j 
^**^\l2— j|^P-i rd^a' shardyit 

auulhy ^^^Sp^^^Ltf Ban ihurUt 
auulh, [See Mediator. 

Peace-maker, «. J\»r ^ musdlih. 

Peach, s, ij\jJ durrdkak. 

Peacock, s. (jm^IL tdwus, or (jmjjU? 
Idwwus (plor. ^/*i^^ iaiodiouV 

A green peacock, yioe^-l^jw^Lt 

Peak, 9. (top of a hill), J^\fjjj 
rd$ qjjdbail. See Summit, point. 

Peal, «. (of thunder), «xe^ ru^\ 

{pt bells), <i;kvb ^ontoiai. 

Pear, «. ^la^ f^S^^, ^L^W^ m- 

Pearl, «. ^jS /il/fi. A large or iqyil 

pearl, ^liSlS]^ i^iirra^ a#^;. 

Peasant, «. -.Is faHdh, ^j\j tari^ 

See Countryman. 

Pebble, «. Li=w AmS. 

Peck, V, (as a bird),^iMi0r. 

Pectoral (belonging to the breast), 
ij^Jl^ Bodrl. 

Peculiar (appropriate, not oommoii 
to all), ^l^ khdSf ^^j -^ '^ 
makhsiU, ^^j^ ghayr ^iwit«i. 

Peculiarly, «L.;%-«pL.£w khdssiyat, 



Peculiarity, \^^mn <. 

khdssatan, [naiii. 

Pecuniary (relating to money ),^^ji; 
Pedagogue, «. J^jl^i-fc^ m%t^aOm 

awldd. See Schoolmaster* 
Pedal, i)^J^u^assr yukkut orrifL 
Pedant, «. v/^^^ noAoiPf, ^^,4 '*^;*^ 


Pedestal, «. (base of a pillar), 

Pedicle, 9. jL idk. See Stalk. 
Pedigree, c,>%mJ nasah (pL c»;Ljt 

ansdb), J^\ asl (pi. J^\ urtl/), 

JlmJ fkM/ (plor. JLuJt aiMd/). 
Peel, f.yuJ kcuhar. 
Peel (rind), ^ *a/aM,yLi koihar. 
Peep, t^. ^ lamdh,Jix> ncaar, la^ 

^Aaz. See Look, glance, inspect. 
Peep, #. (sly look) ^ lamh, is^ 

lamhat, ^^Vs^ lamahdn, i^JaJ 

naswat. See Glance. 
Peer, «. (equal) ^jliU mukarin. 

See Companion, nobleman. 
Peerless (unequalled), ^^JaJ^L« 

tndhko ncmlr, J^dlU imii^Ao 

Peevish, ^|j^lj^ ^(2(i a/ misd;, 

c,»^»ar ghadah. 
Peg, «. Jjj K^a^ai^ (pi. jljjl awtdd), 
jVa^jjj^ muamdr (plur. ^^L*<b^ 

Pelf, JUiwa/. See Wealth, riches. 
Pelican, s. ^j rakhm, ^]/^(^\ 

PeUucid, cJlI:, #A«^/. See Bright, 

clear, transparent. — Pellucidness, 

^U^ shafdfat. See Brightness. 
Pen, <• Ji kalam. 
Penal, ^^*\js>^ jaza% ^[ac ^H. 

767 PEN 

Penal laws, J^Jk». hudad, J^jJk.i 

Penalty, «. i^j>' jarlmat^ l^SjC. 
ghardmat. See Fine, mulct, pun- 

Penance (chastisement), c^\j 

^%dby c-^LLc ^fkdh, 

Pencil, 9. ^Ltf; Ji kalam roads. 
Pendency, JmSj^ to^/fi^ ; (suspense 

or delay of legal decision), ^^^b 

jJXA idkhlr (d hukm. 
Pending (not yet decided), j^^ 

^j^^i,s^ ghayr mahkum hthi. 

Pendent, pendulous, jJljc^ muta- 

^fkdh, ^yJLS. 

Penetrable, jlLll^^^db^ mumkin al 

nafdt, ^Ul JjU k&M attdAr. 

Penetrability, jU:J\^lL«i mkdn 

al nafd%. 
Penetrant, penetrating, penetrative 

(piercing, entering into), JljU 

ndja. Penetrating (inspecting), 

^ 1 ■ Vi >^ fMttiali^ Penetrating, 
penetrative (acute), f»|iJt^j^ 
MTf ^ alfahm. See Discerning. 
Penetrate (pierce), dJu nafan, J^L j 

dakhaL See Bore, enter. — (to 
reach the meuiing, inspect nar- 
to^ly'i, vj*^^ awv^, Ci^viv 




adrak, ^^ fehem. See Compre- 
hend, conceive, understand. 

Penetrated, jy« muassar. 

Penetration (into anything), j\su 
nafad,j^\j taslr (plur. ci^j/JU 
tdslrdt) ; (acutcness), JLsVj^rd^a^, 
Jac ^akl, M^fahm, cJ\jJ\ idrdh 

Peninsula, g, iyj^ jazlrat The 
peninsula of Arahia, v.-.yj\ Jj>- 
jazlrat al ^arah. 

Penitence, iUljJ naddmat, hy 
tawhat, ujl^'ljf taassaf. See 

Penitent, penitential, /^j\j nddim, 

^^\^Jj nadfndn. To he penitent, 

l^jj nedem, [nddim. 

Penitent, 8. cji^'l:;:^ mutaassif, ^ jlj 

Penitently, ^Ijcj hi naddmat, 

UxJ tanadduman. 
Penknife, «. ^\jiA\i ktdamtrdsh. 
Penman, #. (fine writer), c-^l^ 
yibL^ kdtih mdhir; (author), 
i^jL^o^ musannif. See Writer. 
Penny-royal (herh),^^i*-j sartor. 
Pension, «• ii^ ^Infat, _^U^ 
ma^dsh, [^^tdafat. 

Pension, v. ^Jx^Ji^ ^mal laho 
Pensioner, pensionary, s. iii^i\ 
iai0 ^ul^fat, ^^^^^.^^Ltf adhih 

Mutafakkir. See Thooghtftil, 

melancholy, moumful. 

Pensively, ilftj hifikr. See Mourn- 
fully. [muL 

Pensivencss, ^ fikr, (>«*ljf tooM- 

Pent, pent up, Ju^:^ mtuMoi, 
J^JuM^ masdad, ( ^ Jc^ mmh 
ffhalik. See Shut. 

Pentagon, s. ^^^*m«J:^ mtti^amiyuw. 

Pentagonal, pentangular (having 
five sides and angles)^ ^j^Jias^ 
mukhammae, [^al tawrdh, 

Pentateuch, s.djj^ tawrtt/at, s\jyi\ 

Pentecost, ^^;>m*^<^\jux ^ddHham- 
sin, J jg^l jufr ^f(/ OMU^fid^. 

Penimous, J j '^ 

r, JL«'ls^ miitoammil, ^io^ 

; hahhlU See 
Niggardly. [«^uAAtn K^a hML 
Penuriously, Jja^^^^J^j ^iM 
Penuriousness, J^ lukld. 

Penury, ^l:^:^»-f i^tiy^jt ^ kUUt. 
See Poverty, want, indigence. 

People, j;L>- khalk (plur. ^Ji}^ 
khaluyik)f aJ ^trm (plur. a\«S1 
akwdfn)f iA)^ tdyfat (pi. v_aj;^jl? 
tawdyif), ^^%JL sha^h (plur. 
c-j>^-n-^ «AM^t25). People of 
various nations,^i,.,^\jb 
tawuyif muhhtdlifat. The common 
people, {jJc^\m\^ ^modm anfUUy 
it«U ^mmat. See Commonalty 




Peopled, jf^i^jt^ ma^Ur, 

Pepper, JiLi fulftU. To pepper, 

Jili fal/al. Peppermiat, ^-^ 

na^na^^ See Mint. 
Peradventare, ^J-^cJ la^^al. See 

Perhaps ; also doubt, question 
Perambulate, v. (walk through), 

jj-«c:^\i fat min. 

Perambulation, j^ ^bur,j^ sayr. 

Perceive, v. C/< jf adrdk^ ^fehem. 

See Understand, see, hear, know, 

Perceived, (^j^-^^^ ma^lum, (^y^^ 

mudrak. [lit/at al idrdk. 

PerceptibiUty, cJ\jCii\Uj}i kahu 
Perceptible, perceivable, jj— jL5 

c)\jSi\ kahil al idrdk. 
Perceptibly, perceivably, |^— toLk 

Perception, (jwL-^*-! ihs&s, C^\jCi\ 

idrdk, ^ f i fahmf ^\ >» ". «ol 

istimd^, joi hasar, Jx ^t7m. 

See Knowledge ; notion, idea. 
Perchance, liUj'1 ittifdkan. See 

Percussion, <L«Ju9 sadmah. 
Perdition, cJ^ Aa^^*. See Ruin, 

death. — Perdition catch thee! 

ij^ LuaJ ta^an lak. 
Peregrination, ^^ Bofar, i^\^ 

iiydhat, ^j^ ghurhat. See 

Peremptorily, ^li^to-y hiwafhin 
kdti^, ULli kdti^an. See Posi- 
tively. Peremptory, *-tl5 i&d^t^, 
jlffl; nd^iX-, 4^ «^«A- See 
Dogmatical, positive. 

Perennial, mAj ddyim. See Per- 
petual. — Perennity, aIj J dawdm. 
See Perpetuity. 

Perfect, ^Uj iamdm, aU ^cEm, J.^1^ 
kdmil, ^JA^ mukatnmal, JLi 
«a/im, A«4CL^ mM^mmam. To 
make perfect, J^^l^^d^ ^amaldko 
kdmil t /»Ujdd^ ^ffma/bAo tamdm. 

Perfection, perfectness, A ^- A 
itmdm,- JU^ katndL 

Perfectly, JL.^ hi kamdl. See 
Exactly, completely. 

Perfidious, ^l^ khdyin. A per- 
fidious villain, ^y>- khawtodn. 
See Villain, traitor. 

Perfidiously, ^.JL^JCj Mib/ 
khiydnat. To act perfidiously, 

Perfidiousness, perfidy, <CJv.j,j». 

khiydnatf jS£' yhadr. See Fraud, 

deceit, treachery. [Bore, pierce. 

Perforate, v. l,,.>% S t »akdh. See 

Perforated, «>,.>.fl'.,*. ,\^ munsakibt 




Perforation, l,,.%ai Moib. 
Perforator, «. (boring instniment), 

i^^ili^ moikah. See Anger. 
PerfbroOi \j^ kahran, \jf^jdhran. 

See Force, vidlenily. — ^To seize 

perforoe, j^j1\){^^»h^ mettJt htl 
Perform, r. ^ tammam. 

Performance, ^}^%^ ^amal, (J^oji^, 
\js^\ ijrd. See Action. — (literary 
composition), kJi^\^ tamlf, Ujf 
ifUhH. Performance of a pro- 
mise, \aA f/d. 

Performed, J^«a^ maf^, c y»a^ 

Performer, 9. J-^Lc ^SmtV, J,ftLJ 
fd^f OL0 «dnf^. 

Performing, |?ar^. JcU /d^t/. 

Perfume, i^d^ hakMchHr. Aj^iar\ . 

r&yhat tayhah. 

Perfume, r. j6er hakhkhar. 

Perfumed, Jo^^ mu^aitar, ^^ 
mubakhkhar. To be perfumed, 
Jioju ta^attar. 

Perfumer, «. ^Liax: ^o^^r. The 
trade of a perfumer, fjlkc ^o^rff^. 

Perhaps, liLi-jt HH/dkan, J-k! 

Pericardium, «. (the envelope of the 

Pericranium, «. (memfanme whidi 
covers the sknll), ^^^^ amnk&i. 

Peril, ^^ iMar, ijb[i^ wm- 
kh&tarat. See Danger, haiaid. 

Perilous, Jais^ mukkHr, i^ji^ 
mukhawwif. See Dangefooa.— 
Perilously, ^^La^ hi khaim^. 

Period, «. (round of time, cirole of 
years, days, eto.),^jJ tUiwr (plnr. 
jI^jI adwdr) ; (time), ^^ - fj 
wakt, ^Uj namdn, J^ ^«M; (a 
full sentence), JLiASf- juwUai. 
Period (condusion), aUj ^omdsi, 
<L«jl^ ndhdyat. See End. — 
Periods or cycles of years, lUjI 
j^y^} adwdr wa akwdr. 

Periodical, v^\jO daunodrl. See 
Circular. — Periodically, ^%-J 
nau^^^aii,^ etc. 

Periosteum, «. (membrane that 
covers the bones), ^j^ dari^ 

Periphery, i^lj ddyrt^. See Cir- 

Periphrasis (circumlocution), Jjlil 
,*K!1 f/d(^^ d kaldtn. 

Peripneumony (inflammation of the 
lungs), <Lj^1c:j1 J zdt arriydk 

Perish, r. CS^ helek. See Die, 
rot, decay. 

Perishable, Jj\j n&yil, Jl,jJ»J^l5 
\ lt(ib\l auA>oa(^ ^li fdnf, f-Jy 




iJtjipt 9atl^ aamifdL See Frail. 
— ^Perishableiiess, \:»i fond, aJuc 
\SJ\ ^adam al bakd. 
Peritoneum (a membrane which en- 
doses the bowels), ^UiJI amfdk. 

Perjury, j^j %ilr, c-^jl^j^Li-l^ 
halafdn kd%%b. [haiaf hikUr. 

Perjure one's-self, r. ^^buJl^ 

Perjured, C%kiP^ muhannts. 

Permanence, permanency, /^^ 
kiyOm, \a) hakd, CI^Lj sahdt. 

Permanent, ch^Lj adhit, 
muiiamH; See Perpetual. 

Permanentlj, Ujf<i> ddyman. 

Permeable (possible to be passed 
through), jUJtJjliibd&f? ail nafd%. 

Permissible, ij\^'i\t^^;0^\^ todjib 
al ijdtat. 

Permiasion, ij\>'\ ijdzat, ^ .^i <^j 
ruhhsat, ^jt izn. By the divine 
permission, ^\ju^\j/*\j hi amr 
aUah ta^la\ JUj^l^jb hi 


itn dllah tas,dla\ 
Permit, r. ij\>-^^Je2^\ a^' ifdMat, 

^o\ a^* izn, ^^^ samah. 

Pernicious, yd^ mudir, [darrat. 

Perniciously, HjJl^jC^ hikol nuh 

Perniciousness, jj^ daro/r, ^ 

Peroration (conclusion of an oration), 
^KltJL«jU^ ihdtinuU al kaldm. 

Perpendicular line, «. f^MM^.'^licl 

khoH mmtaklm, J^la^ hhatt 

^am^. Perpendicular, Ji4ji^iitti- 

^ammad. Perpendicularly, !j^ 
^amudan. [irtiltab. 

Perpetrate, r. (a crime) i^X 2j\ 

Perpetration, s-^l^f irtikdh. 

Perpetual, >-»1j ddyim, a-^Jcu*^ 
mustadim, v/Jl«^ sartnadi, ,^S)\ 
ahadi. See Eternal, continual, 
permanent, perennial. 

Perpetually, l-^^^^ ddyman, _]lc 
^IjjJt ^ala^ addawdm, ^UXI^tj 

. ddyim al ayydm. See Always, 
constantly, continually, inces- 

Perpetuate, r. i^j\jll^ ^emoMo 
ddyim, \^>Cu**^<.Lmr>- ja^alaho 
mustamirramj /»j J dauwam. 

Perpetuation, perpetuating, j|^^«&..if 

Perpetuity, ^^tj J dawdm, a^J dawm, 

j\jA3mi\ i%timrdr, U^ haikd, d^lJ 

Perplex, v. (distract the mind), JjLwi 

JU\ ihayhyM al hdl, J^ kay^ 

yar,^^8hawwash. SeePuzile, 




intricate, confound), lal^L khalat. 
See Involve, confuse. 
Perplexed (intricate), JiLuL« mu- 
shakkal, ^jfJL^ mushawwash, 
IoLls^ mukhtalit, j***jc>^ muta- 
^isar. Perplexed in mind, f^^y;^ 
hayrdn. See Irresolute, doubtful. 
—To be perplexed, ^j^^X^ 
B&r hayran, j\:^ iht&r. 

Perplexedly, ^^-j^J^ likol hlrat. 
See Intricately. 

Perplexedness, perplexedly, laLi^ 
hhaltf ^JUjyJ^ tashtciah. Per- 
plexity or distraction of mind, 
c^^JL^f idtirdh. 

Persecute, v, c\^b^\ tttahad. See 
Torment, importune. [had. 

Persecution, Jsl? 2u/m, jl^kif itti- 

Persecutedi S^^a^ muttahad. 

Persecutor, 8. t\^Vi»tr^ muttdhid. 

Perseverance, persistence, iJ^\y^ 
muwdxahat, ^^\tX^ mtiddtDamat. 
See Assiduity. — Perseverance in 
anything bad, j|^\ %»rdr. 

Perseverant, persevering, persisting, 
persistive, part^ ^^n\y muwd- 
%ib, j^Km*^ mustamir, (^j^*^^ 
muddwim, /^jL* tntddwm. See 

Perse veringly, j^^as-j^J^. ^^^^ 

ittimrdr, i^o\y9j^ hiiol 
tahatf <t«j^.X«j himddwmnai. 
Persevere, persist, v.jj^s^ igtam^r, 

ddwam ^la\ 
Persia, f^js^\JL^ htldd al ^ajam. 
Persian, adj\ ,c-*^ ^jamU, ^d^J^ 
fdrsl. The modem Persian lan- 
guage, ^^-^.^g^^Li^J lUdn ai 

Person, «. ^^.Asr^ shaks, yo nafitr. 
See Man, woman, individuaL— 
Person (exterior appearance), 
ijya surat, JCl BhaJdy JW^ 
hhaydl. See Figure, form. — k 
person in the Trinity, /%y3t ai- 
num (plur. /*^^\ ahdnlm). Per- 
sons, ^Is^f ashkhus. In person, 
d^t jJlj ^tzsd^ A certain person, 
^li fuldn; (in grammar), The 
first person or speaker, Ais^ 
mutakallm. The second person, 
or person spoken to, \_ -V^^^-^ 
mukhdtah. The third person, or 
person or thing absent or spoken 
of, ^.^^ ghdytb. 

Personage, b, (person of distanction) 
jM^^^j rujol tnu^t4thar. 

Personal, . ^asA shakH, vjl J sdA, 

- 1. 


Personality, i-a^ 



d-tfU^ hhdBot. See Person. 
Personally, CL;fjJb hvadi, <ui:j 

hi nafBthiy i3\s) bizdtihi, ^.Asr^ 

hi shakhsihi. 
Perspective (glass), ^j^J dnrhln. 

The science of perspective, Ac 
^^iaJt ^ilm annazar, j0aJ\ Jx> ^Im 

al haaar. See Optics. 
Perspicacious (sharp of sight, acute 

of discernment), ^.-^d'y,,-.^!,^ 

Mdhih hasirat, 
Perspicaciousness, perspicacity, 

^^jMdj hasirat, ^uki Jitnat, Jib 

^kl,j^S) tadhir, ii\j^ hazdkat. 
Perspicuity, perspicuousness, j^Lj 

haydn. See Clearness ; aUo trans- 
Perspicuous, ybU^ saAiV, ,jJw« mu- 

hay y an, ^\^ wddih, ^\j ndtik. 

See Clear, evident. 
Perspicuously, )^\^^i^^ hiwajhin 

wddih, \jJb^ %dhiran,Jb%^i^y 

hiwajhin zdhir. See Clearly. 

Perspiration, j^ ^arak,j[srhukhdr. 

Perspirative, perspiring, ^J/^ mu- 

Perspire, v, jjS- ^erek. 

Persuadable, persuasible, ^*Ji ;^ 

yunkani^, A^.MaiJIJjLi kdhil 


Persuade, v. ^3 kana^, ,^ na»ah> 

See Advise, incite, influence, 

Persuader, «. ^U ndtih. 

Persuasion (endeavor to influence), 
<t,<\^^ na%\hai\ (opinion, belief), 
jlcxf i^imdd, jUiicf i^ikdd. 

Persuasive, persuasory, ^U ndsih. 

Persuasively, f^^^^y, hi toajhin 

Pertinency, ij\Ji laydkat, l^\:^t 
mundsahat, <Ui^^ muwdfakat. 

Pertinent, (jj\^ muu;dfik, ^Jj^ 
Idyik, ^..^^.w^L/t tnundiih. 

Pertinently, ^L^l:^^ Jij hikol mund- 
sahat, ijiil^ Jij hikol muwdfakat. 

Perturbation, ^JL^jJ^ tashwUh, 
c^tixil idtirdh, ij^^>^ hirat. 
See Distraction, disturbance. 

Perturbate, ^Att 5^ J^ ^mal iash- 
wish, im^\ja0a\fj^ ^amal idtirdh. 
See Disturb. — A perturbator, 
^vii]\^^\^ rdml alfitnat. 

Pervade, r. J^J dakhai. See 
Penetrate, permeate, enter. 

Perverse, J>..j:».,r. ^nid, OJU^ 
mu^nidfjjjJ^ sharir (plur.^«\^l 
ashrdr), («y^ ifUiy«Ailm, JL0 
<2d^. See Obstinate, peevish, 

Por\ctw\y, cN-**i v^^\>\)mA. JfiAft.^, 




Penreneness, perversity, jLe ^4ndd, 
jLJ fMdd. See Obstinacy, 
peeyishnessy stabbomness. 

Perversion, c^)Ujf inkil&h, J)Li 
daldlf fflyj ta^lj. 

Pervert, r. JuaJI afsad^ {j*^ ^aka%. 
See Cormpt, seduce. [munkaUb. 

Perverted, jy^X* mafaild, v,,.Jfiv^ 

Perverter, », JumA^ mu/M, fj^a^ 

Perusal, ^lL/« mutdla^t, i^ij 
taldteat. See Lecture. 

Peruse, v. ^U^ tdla^, Jj ^a/a\ 
See Bead. 

Pest, bj tro^d, ^^^IL td^Hn, See 
Pestilence, plague. 

Pestilence, s, ^^^U? td^n, ij\^\ 
udhat, ^\^8frdyat, SjJ^ ^adwat. 
bj «7a3d. 

Pestilent, pestilential, pestiferous, 

^^-^ mudirr, Cj5 J^** wwt<?l, c5;^ 

«drf . See Infectious, malignant, 

destructive, pernicious. — ^Infected 

by a pestilential disorder, ^jy^ 

Pestle, 8. (of a mortar), jj(^1^1*Xj1 
iyd al hdwan^ J J^ mudaL 

Petition, «. (jOjC- uird, JU-j^^,^ 
^arrf Ml, JljM» 9Hdl, jjkwLcJl 
iltimdSf Ip- • ro/d. 

Petition, r. (j^nt torai, ^j^j^ 


iUamoiy \p^ja^ iadimm nyH, 

taffkHMta'. See Supplicate. 

Petitioner, «.jjO^ mu^rid, |^^*m«sL« 
multamis, ^^IL td^ii^, J^Li fdyil 

Petitioned, c,j>|llxx maiM, ^}ym^ 

Petre, JjjU\^ mOh al hdrU. 
See Saltpetre. 

PetrifEiction, j^sf^ tahffr* To pe- 
triiy (change to stone), j^^ 
^mdlaho hajar. — (to become 
stone), ^jSyl^ sdr hajar. 

Petticoat, «. ^^\lMJ Jktdn. 

Pettiness, jk^ tughr. See Small- 
ness, meanness. — Pettish. See 
Fretful, peevish, [considerable. 

Petty, jJt^ Boghlr. See Little, in- 

Petulance, i^\kL ahakdtcat, ^J^ 
L^j\ ^adam adab. See Pertness, 
sauciness, insolence, peevishness, 

Petulant, ^JJ^ shakl, S^'jlli h3d 

adah. See Peevish, saucy, pert, 

insolent, wanton, perverse. — 

Petulantly, ^^l a ,mtJC-j JM 

shakuivaL See Pertly, peevishly, 

Pewter,^ Ju^ kasdtr. 

Phalanx, «. ^Lm^ ^dkir, 

^VoslVae^, '^\i^i[ilafima (a vain imi- 




gination)| (J^V JW^ khaydlhdtU. 
Phantasmas, d^^^L:^ khaydldt. 
Phantasticaly phantastic, 
hhaydU, See Capricioas, whim- 

Phantonii b, ijyo sUrat, JL>^ 
khaydl. See Ghost, spectre. 

Pharoah, ^^^far^n. The people 
of Pharoah (the Egyptians), ^y 
^y£ji kawmfar^Un, 

Fhannacopeia (treatise on drugs). 



)\s^ kitah tarklh 

Pharmaeopolist, ^^s^-Jj-^l afzdfi. 

See Apothecary. 

Pharmacy, Z|jj3ll Ac ^hnaladwir/at, 

tarklh al adwiyat. 

Pharos, «. jjw^yli fdnus, iij\:>^ 
mundrat, JjLL^ mash^L See 

Phenix, «. Uxc ^ankd. The phenix 
of his age, ^UljJil^SUy 
farid alawdyU walawdkhir. 

Phenomenon, ^oU nddirat, CjoUw 

Phial, 8, dJj^ shishah. 

Philanthropy (good nature), L.s^ 
^U! muhdhhat annas. Seo Be- 

Philologer, philologist, s. c^jl 

adlh, CL>\ii ^\a cdlim loyhdt. See 

(Grammarian, critic. — ^Philology. 

See Criticism. — Philological. See 

(Grammatical. [ingalc. 

Philomela, JJj hulhuL See Night- 
Philosopher, B, f^^ hakim (plur. 

U^ hiAkamd), i^yA^ faylasuff 

(plur. liJiifaldsafat), Jlc ^dlm. 

The philosopher's stone, Jjk/« 

L.4m>^ mucallim kHmld, 
Philosophic, philosophical, iSy*^ 

Philosophically, <L-LJJj<L4x>-^J^ 

hikol hikmat wafaUafat, See 


Philosophy, i 


Mm al 

hikmat f dJuAJi\ alfalsafat. See 

Wisdom . LEeason . 

Philosophise, r. ^.QmA b.7 tafaUaf, Seo 
Philter, «. (love potion), ^\^^^ 

fjjjjji\ ma^'Hn al^shk. 
Phlehotomist, «. Juki fiusad. To 

phlebotomize (bleed), iXioifasad, 
Phlegm, J(b halyham. 
Phlegmatic (abounding in phlegm), 

^^«b«]j balyhaml ; (cold), J^b 

^fu!\ hdrid al mizdj. See Frigid, 

Phosphorous (morning star), <U^ 

^\ najmat a»abh,jJ\^4 

fatwfcab aljojr. 

,«L^ sarsdm. See iladness. 

i'liJsioaKrektiiig to nature), ,jt^ 

tablet, JIJ sen. See Ntiturai.— 

Phyaieally (according to nature), 

hiieajhin tali^l. 
Pliysieian, c™t tohih (plur. U.-1 

atma), ^ haiim (plur. '.*L.. 

Plipio (the science of healing), 

(niedicino), _1U .JlaJ, l.j rf„,^rt ; 
(a purge), J^ imuakhU, i^ 

PJiysiognomiet, ». L-Li, o.'^* 

'"'"'"™"'" '""ience of), *s-j]1 Jj; 




sakah. See Prick, pene- 
trate, bore, perforate, enter. 

Pierced, c^^,ftf>;^ munsakih. See 

Piercer, «. (boring instrument), 

Piercing, part JjU ndfid. 

Piety, 1^^ takwa\ ^to daydnat. 

Pig, a.jiji^ khanzlr (plur.^jUri* 

Pigeon, «. <t«Uk>- hamamat. The 

domestic pigeon, <^Uj yam&maL 
Pike, «. i^ harhatj t^j rumh 

(plor. »-L^l armdh, J^j rumdh). 

See Spear. — ^A half pike. See 

Pilaster, %. jJuc^^as. ^arnHd sayhlr. 

Pile, s. l^^ kawmat. See Heap. 
— (a piece of wood driven into 
the ground), Jjj watad (plur. 
jljjt awtdd), A pile of buildings, 
Uj hind. See Edifice. — ^The piles, 
^^Iftj hawustr. See Emeroids. 

Pile, r. f-^^sT" jaina^y /^^ kawwam. 
See Heap, accumulate. 

Piled, (M^ mukawwam. 

Pilgrim, «. jU sayir ; (to Mecca), 
U- haj (fem. t^U- hdjjat). 


Pilgrimage, «. ^t ; ziydrat, ^Lmj 

siydhat. The pilgrimage to Mecca, 

^ haj. To go on a pilgri- 
mage, j\j iar\ (to Mecca, etc.), 

^ haj. 
Pill, «. <3u>. hahhaL 
Pillage, i^li ghdrah, Uju yaghmd^ 

«^.^^ itaA^. See Booty, plunder. 
Pillage, 9. L-^ na^a3, Uju J^^x 

^amal yayhmd, \^'\,t^8alah. See 

Pillar, «. Jj^i^ ^amd(/. See Column. 

— ^The pillars of the state, (j^\ 

^jjkll or^n addawlat. 
Pillow, «. ifSs:^ mukhaddat, dj\^ 

Pilot, «. (^..^^^^^Ijjli iteyt(^ al 

markahy \^ kaldwuz. 
Pimento, 1 1^ hahdr. 
Pin, «. {jMjJJ dahhUB. 
Pincers, ^f^ kalbatUn, 
Pinch, V. jjfi^ karas. 
Pinch, 8. ^Ji karsah. See Squeeze. 
Pinched, ^jj^ makrHs, 
Pine, 8. (tree), ji^'^ 8anawhar* 

Pine-apple, (jwU^^^,i»-r. ^yn 


Pine, V. (languish), u-fiM de^f. 

Pink, 8. (flower), Jii Ji kurunful. 
To pink with the eye, Ui yhamaz. 
See Wink. [^ila^. 

Pinnacle, ^^^ <, ^NJvc^g^ ^orn^ oX 

PIT 778 

Pious, JU aulih (plur. ^jf^^ 

Pioaslyi \yi3fjL) hikol takwa, jCj 
(^yij hikol tahwa\ [See Chirp. 

Pip, V. (cry as a bird), j^^j rnhmh 

Pipe, «. (tube), <Ui^ huahai. A 
water-pipe, ^-^|//• iwMzrdJ. A 
glister-pipe, ^jSlss^ mahkun. — A 
musical pipe, ^^U ndtf. See 

Pique, ^^akj httghd, «Xft»- hakd, ^^IC 
nalcayah. See Ill-will, malevo- 
lence ; a^so punctilio. 

Piracy, yScObkjm takshlt hit hahr, 
iu^ji karsanat. {Jtursdn, 

Pirate, *. (^^,•y kursdn, ^}'*^Ji 

Pirate, v. ^j^Ji karsan. 

Piratical, (JLsiJ kikrsdnl. 

Pish ! ^ tufUL. See Fy ! pho ! 

Pismire, b, ^LiJ namlat. See Ant. 

Piss, V. ^ shakh, ^jjj hawwaL 

PisB, Jy bawl. See Urine. 

Pistachio-nut, «. ^JsomS fustuk. 

Pistol, «. ^^Uj^ tahdnjah. 

Pit, *. jU ghdrfj^ hlr. See Well, 
ditch, abyss, gulph. 

Pitapat, ^JlaJI^UacL khafakdn 

al kalh. See Palpitation, trip, 
Pitch (inspissated resin), u:^ ij 


pitch, Jli-jli kdr Mi^yOl. PiWi 
(measure, degree, extent), tl^ 
Aii^, ^Lia^ imf^Mbi^. See 
Proportion, rate. — (stature), hJi 
kdmat, JlJ kad; (height, ele- 
vation), f\suj\ xrtifd^ 

Pitch, V. (smear with pitch), 
tqffat; (to fix, plant), 
noiah. To pitch a camp, 
^L^l nasah al khiydm. See 
Camp. — (to fall headlong), LLi 
sakat, (^yb hatca' ; (to choose), 
V— ,.ogul intdkhah, J ^m. 

Pitchiness, iuU? xuZma^. See Daik- 
ness, blackness, [black, dismal. 

Pitchy, ^:ju% mu^tim. See Dark, 

Piteous, pitiful (exciting pity), 
c,. Jftilm,s>j^ mujawtoi^ al kaU; 
(compassionate), m j o^j roAiM, 
fjkL^ mushfik; {peltry), yJL^>' 
hakir, /♦^•Ju.^ mazmiim. See 
Contemptible, wretched. 

Piteously, pitifully, iui-1 Jio MM 
shafakat. See Compassionately, 
sorrowfully; a^o contemptibly, 

Piteousness, pitifulness, ^ q ^ ^ 
sha/akat, <U>-^ marhamai. See 
Compassion, tenderness, sorrow- 
fulness; <ii«owretchedne8B,.p«ltri- 




Pitiable (deserving pity), 
^J\ wdjtb arrahmat, 
^ssmjW muBtauDJib ashsha/akat. 

Pitiless, <Uu^l^j^ ^adim ash- 
shafahaL See Inhuman, cruel. 
— Pitilessness, <UujuJ1/»Jlc ^dam 
ashshafakat, <LjLJ^!/»Jlc cadam 
al insaniyat. See Inhumanity. — 
Pitilessly, ^fti^lj hild shafakat. 

Pity, ^3jlL shafaJcatf i^\s^j^ mar- 
KamaU See Compassion. — What 
a pity ! u-io- hayf. 

Pity, V. ^j raham, 

%hafak ^la\ See Compassionate. 

Pix, *. (vase), *-J^ zarf. 

Placable, aJl^ halim. See Mild, 

gentle, pacific. [ness. 

Placableness, A^- hilm. See Mild- 

Placard, «. (manifesto or edict 

posted up in a public place), 

Place, j^lil* makdn, J.s^ mahalf 
hy mawda^ (plur. w-J1^w« 

matvddi^, ^JLm^ maskan (plur. 
^\mj^ masdkin). Place (priority 
of rank), jS^^ sadr, i*\x,^ 
saddrat. See Precedence — Pub- 
lic character or employment, 
(^.^.Mia:^/* mansah, <t«J^ khidmat. 
See Office, degree. — ^A market- 
place, j\j\j hdzdr. A place of ( 

destination, a halting place, (Jj^^ 
manzal, Jji-^^J*^^ mahal an- 
nusiuL See Inn. — ^A place for 
gymnastic exercises, ^\r,\ , j ^ 
middn. See Gymnasium. — A 
place of meeting or asBembly, 
^^4JB^ majma^ ijtAs^ mafUs. 
A lurking place, ^jJ^ Jtmmmln. 
A place where any show is ex- 
hibited, ^.^..'OtL* tnal^. Any 
place where one etandsi ^[L^ 
makdmy l^Ut mdwwd. Ajoj place ^ 
where one sits, ^l^ makdn. A 
place where one trips or falls 
down, Lam^ maakat (plur. kSLMt 
i?»a«d^i^). Any place to which 

mucdd. A high lying plaoe, 

Xif ^lUyat\ Whatever is sub- 
stituted in the place of another, 
Jjj hadal^ uf^ lOiwad. From 
place to place, ^J^^\^J^^ 
min makdn Ha* makdn. In the 
first place, )jl awwalan. In the 
second place, l-^l7 tdniyan. 
Prom another place, ^iJ'S:^^J^ 
j^ \ min mahaUin dkhar. Places, 
lU%s^ mdhalldt, ^^^y ^ma* 

wddi^, ^Uf amdkin, rj^^^ 
Place, V. ^^VDoda^W- VqX. 




Placed, 9^y mawdu^, k^Lsr* 
mahtnt. A placer, ^^^^ wddi^. 

Placing, part, ^^^j toddi^, ial^W 

Placid, aJlmi sallm, f^^^^- hallm, 

attab^ See Gentle, quiet, mild. 
Placidly, a^I Jy hi wadd^h,^^y) 

AjLv. hiwqfkin hallm. 
Plocidness, A^ hUm. 
Plague, i. ^^U^ td^n, \i^ wabd. 

See Pestilence. (anything 

troublesome), wjJuoJf tasdl^, 

c-gjlO takllf, i^\Ja^\ idtirdh. 

Plague, V. (infest with pestilence), 
^fft ta^\ (to yex, tease), ^ 
«^Ju£f^ ^mal laho tasdl^. 

Plain, «. (level ground), ^^Ju/« 

Plain (smooth, even, level), J'***^ 
musattah, i^^L^x^^ mutcudwl, 
(^jU*M« mu%du>a\ Vi j^^mJ &a«!^; 
(void of ornament), 2^jL» «d(?a; 
(clear, evident, not obscure), Jblb 
%dhirf Jb\j hdhir. See Discern- 
ible; mere, bare. 

Plain-dealer or plain-dealing, adj. 
JLtf idlihf JjU ^ddil, ^jl^ 
iddik. See Honest, artless. 

Plain-dealing, «. jjl^ «»(^j&, .l.^? 
^ saidA, See Honesty, 

Plainly (levelly), uyuM^ snit^a' 

t^'yan ; (without ornament), 

^jlb ^7^ sina^; (ainooely), 

jJualb hil sidk; (in earnest), 

4U;*A». ^i^ibr^an; (evidently), 

jJ^U^^^y &» wajhin zdhir. 

Plaint, LIL^ ihikdyatf i^y} nawhai. 
See Complaint, lamentation. 

Plaintful, plaintive, ^Jjls^ muia- 

Plaintiff, s. ^ J^ mtM^tid^t. 
Plait, s. ij^ tawyaty JLjJ tanyat. 
Plait, r. j^jL ^<u£^a', ^^^ iana. 

Plan, «. (scheme), ,^^,c^ yharai, 
JuaS ^a«(?. See Design. — (form, 
or model), i^^ surat, ^j ram, 
^\j kdlih. The plan of a 
building, ij\>k^\^j rasm al 

Plane, v. (make even), J^ mJIJU/. 

Plane tree, «. ^^ J <^w^. 

Planet, s, ^LJL^<< >» ,y^ najmat 
8ayydrat,jA^^ najm sdyir. 

Plank, s. -^l /att^A (pi. -1^1 o/tcdA). 
Planks, etc., for a house building, 
^::^\ « o kdrdstah. 

Plant, «. <di^ %hitl%hi {j^jC- yhari 

(plur. (jwl^t aghrdt). 
Plant, r. ^.^..waj fkwa J, ^jy^ yAanii. 
\ To '^laut a cannon, ^^lyLJ j^^l 




^ J^b akhm nUhdn hil mad/a ^, 
^X^\jj^ horror al modfo^. 

Plantain (herb), ^>Ll^U Itsdn 
ol homal, ^^Jurl^l J ddn aljadi. 

Plantation, planting, ^^•n'^ nosh, 
{^jS- ffhors. A plantation of 
trees, jLsr-»lv— fl-p saf oifdr. A 
plantation or colony, Jic\jjzard^t, 
Ljjl^ hohnid. 

Planted, ^jya:^ tnansnh, {j^^jk^ 
moghruB, Planted in a row, 

Planter, s. ^j^j^ gharrds^ UV^ 

ghdrts, (^..^i^li ndstb. 
Plaster (for walls), ^^m^^" jahsln^ 

Plaster, «. (or dressing for a wound), 
(tJ^r^ tnarham(yl.M:b\j>^mardhm), 
Ljji latkot. 

Plaster, v. (a wall), ^j*JS logyoi; 
(to apply a plaster to a wound), 
>A^U^J dohan hil morham, 
lJj]\2>^ hat lazkot. 

Plastered (as a wall), ^j^-JLL* 
muloyyas ; (plastered as a wound), 
dJp 4Jlc ^olayhi lazkdh. 

Plat, V. -f***^ nasojfjLa dafar. See 
Braid, weave, twist. 

Plate, i. ^jsr^ sahn. See Dish, 
trencher, bason, — Silver plate, 

sakf, i^ sath. 

i^^js^ sahn foddah, A. large 
plate, jfS^jSf^ sohn kabir. A 
thin plate of any metal, ^L^lL^ 
safihot, i^ tanokot. 

Plate, V. (with silver), ^jo^ai faddad. 

Platform (on the tops of houses, 

Play, V, c^^ le^eb. To play or 
jest with anyone, w*,-/^ harroj 
mo^ See Jest. — To play with 
life (to expose one's-self to 
danger), ^wmAJj^Is^ khdtar hi 
nafsihi. To play upon (ridicule), 
tadohhak ^alo\ See 
Deride, gibe, laugh at. 

Play, c^.^ lu^, <LaS lu^at. See 
Sport, amusement. 

Player, s, u^) Id^h, 

Playful, playsome, c-.-^ la^^h. 

Play-game, children's play, play- 
thing, Lji luJhot 

Plea, <LKf** hiffot, ji^s. ^i«r, c^<^ 

ihtijdj. See Lawsuit, allegation, 
apology, excuse. 
Plead, V, (a cause), ^^U. hdmo^ 
^on. See Defend, discuss, allege, 

Pleader, «. ^^«>IlJ:Oj trai^/ aJ- 
(2a^ird. See Advocate, coun- 
sellor, lawyer. 




Pleading, «• -p.l2C\»i.\ ihtijdj, Ai>>L^ 

Pleasant, l»BjW1 lattf, A pleasant 
place, -.^J.£r^ mahaU akarik. 
See Delightful. — Pleasant (gay, 

lively), j^j >»^ masrUr. See 

Cheerful, merry. 

Pleasantly (delightfuUy), ^|/jl J^ 
^iib/ iVwAiraA; (gaily), jjj**^ 
hisurUr, See Merrily. 

Pleasantness (delightfulness), 9-|/^ ^ 
iVwAfrdi^, U«tf «a/<l ; (sprighiliness 
of eonversation), coLS lutf, ^IL! 

Please, f7. (delight), -.^ Bharah, 
Lw ^a«a^ Lf-^ r<M^'. See 
Gratify, humor; satisfy, content. 

Please {imp.\ CJ^UeJli haUif 
hhdtirah Please to send us 20 
hales of T. cloth, l^Ly^^y 
c:.^^U^a]lj r * U narfukum tarsala 
Itnd ^hrtn hdlat khdm U. 

Pleased (delighted), \9y**^ mahsUt. 
To he pleased, Lu«j\ inhasat. 
See Glad, content. 

Pleasing, adf. law,!,*^ muhiit, ^f**^ 
muahrih. See Pleasant, delight- 
ful, agreeahle. 

Pleaanre^jj^ turUr, \La aafd, irjj 
h^lmauU. See Delight, gratification, 
^Toioptaousness. — (choice, will), 

jL^l Mtijfdr, o\j^ mmrdi, 

iJ\j\ Wddat. To pleasure. See 

Plebeian, ^^^ wadl^jji^- kabr. 

See Common, vulgar, low, mean. 

— Plebeians, ^\ii\j^\y. ^wdm 

Pledge, s. jjJbj rahn. See Pawn, 

gage, surety. — To give a pledge 
for the performance of any con- 
tract, etc., fj^jij^ tfj^to' raJm, 
To receive a pledge, ^J^«3^t 
akhaz rahn. Pledged, ^^.J^ 

marhun, ^ji^;^ murtahin. See 
Pledget, 8, ^y marham, iLaJ 
laskat. See Dressing (of a wound), 
plaster. [«urayyd. 

Pleiades, s. (constellation), L^j-J 

Plenary, J^l^ kamil. See Full, 

JHfl % .0^ istikldl, A plenipo- 
tentiary (negociator invested with 
full powers), j;Ua/f JJ[^ watil 
mutlak. A plenipotentiary com- 
mission, XJl^ wakdlat. 

Plenitude, h>yt\ imitld. See Full- 
ness, completeness. 

Plenteous, plentiful, >— iU t^^/Sr, 
j^LJ fdyid, j^ iaOr. See 
Copious, exuberant, fnritlbL 




Plenteouslj, plentifhUyi kl^L^ 
hi ifrdtf \j^ koHran. 

Plenty, plenteousness, plentifhlneeSi 
]ff\ji\ ifrdt, IJkS kasaratf iJj 
tpafrat See EmitMness, ex- 
uberance, [ifrdt al ahUdt. 

Plethora, plethory, tlL^)lltl^\ 

Plethoric (full of blood or humors), 
t^yi^ damawi. 

Pleurisy, s. i^^'^j^\iJL^\j %dt ajjanb, 

Pleuritical, pleuritic, d-Jl J^jo^A-i 
c»v.yl flhi marad %dt ajjanb. 

Pliable, pliant (easy to be bent), 

^<x^u« munhani, ^ycJ^\^jL^^ 

mumkin atta^ummj, ^ 4ji!\ Jjl^ 

kdhil al ^wqf. See Limber, 

Pliableness, pliancy, pliantness, 
^^liULLJ kdhUiyat al ^wj. 
Pliant of temper, ^)U middyim, 
v-JaSl^tJu} salim attab^. See 

Plight, V. (faith), J^Jae>\ a^ta' 
^hd, ^IL^^ia-fi a^* kaUtm, 
^\^^Jiis\ a^' 4m&n. See 
Pledge, pawn. [Condition. 

Plight, JU. Ml, 2U. hdlat. See 

Plot, «. (conspiracy), jU5l ittifdJt, 
SjJbU^ mu^hadatf JJbUjf ia^- 
hud (plur. d^^l jJbU; ta^huddt), 
i£\y tnuwdiikaty t^^\e^iahd' 

ktf, (Ji^y taufd/uk; (a scheme, 
plan), (jOjC ffharad, JuJ nipat, 
Ju^ iasd. See Design, contri- 
vance, intrigue. — (stratagem), 
<lL^ hilat, ^ foam. A plot or 
piece of ground), ^^j\lj^ kit^i 
ard, ^^Li sdhahf ^^sf^ iohn. 
The ground-plot of a building, 
1 JiilZ>.L» sdhat adddr. 

Plot, V, (conspire), jUj^ J^^ ^mal 
ittifdk, (ji^yiji ^tnal tawdjuk; 
(to machinate), iLo- J# ^mal 
hilat. See Contriye, plan, scheme. 

Plotter, s. ^^ karin, ^jJij rqftk. 
See Conspirator. — (a contriver of 
mischief), i v r.*^,.>xwUg sdhih 
fitnat. See Contriver. 

Plough, *. f^\ iXi fadddn, [till. 

Plough, v,!^^ AoTM. See Cultivate, 

Ploughman, ploughboy, plougher, «. 
cj\j %dri^, v*^l^ harrds, JU 

falldh. See Bustic, peasant, 

Ploughed, i^j^joe^ makriu. 
Ploughing ox, a. ^\*X3 fadddn. 

Ploughing oxen, ^]*X3fadddn. 
Ploughshare, s. JLd aMat. 

Plumage, {JS*ij risk. See Feather, 

Plumbery (manu£EU»tuie of lead), 




Flome, i. (feather worn as an oma- 

ment) ^^j riBhat. 
Plump, ff^i^**^ jasimf ^jif^^»*» samln. 

See Fat, corpulent. 
Plump, V, (make fiat), ^^^a>^ samtnan. 
Plumpness, 4^La>- jasdmatf ^jAm^ 

iumn. See Corpulence. 
Plunder, \^<w»»j yagkma, « t ^ ; . r 

y^nfma^ (plur. ^\:,s^ ghan&yim), 

i^li yhdrah, c^ ^•{} nahih, c^^ 

Plunder, v. U;^ nahah, Uju J^ 

^amdlyaghmd, SeeBob,depredate. 

Plundered, c^jLm^ masluh, (^^^u^ 

Plunderer, «. c^L» sdltb, ^^ 

nakhdh. See Robber, depredator. 

Plunge, r. (anything into water), 

^jJsLC. yhattas, j^c gharrak; 
(to plunge one's-self into water), 
^jj^ ghatas. See Dive, sink. — 
To plunge into difficulty or danger 
without design, C^\^\Sjj^ 
^Ua^^lj gh&rek fll muhdlik tool 

l^lung^8.^^Jsi£'ghats,^jMj taghflL 

Plungedi ^^U ghdtis. 

Plunger, s. j^U ghdgis, ^\^ 

Plunging^ part. ^^/^ mughmrik. 

Plural, j-^^ jam^' Plurality, 

See Migority. — PluraUy, Iim^ 

Ply, %, Ljj tanyat, ijjL UkwytU. 

See Fold, plait. 
Pneumatical (relative to wind), 

it^yb hawa'l. [t*^ ^ hmcd. 

Pneumatics, pneumatology, \^^ J^ 
Pocket, 8, ^*^^^ j^^' 
Poem, «. 3Jui.fl3 ihwf(^^. See Ode. 

— Poems, JjUdi koidyid. 
Poesy, jU^)1Jl£ ^m al atk^. 

See Poetry. — A poetical motto <m 

a ring, aJU^^^^ nakih kkdtim. 
Poet, 8. j£'\Z 8hd^tr, J0U ndtim. 

Poets, LxJl) 8hu^ard. 
Poetess, 8. ij£^[j^ 8hd^irat, 
Poetic, poetical, c^/^ «Ai^ri. A 

poetical work, ^\y^J t^wdn. 

Poetic licence, -■*- ui J\i^^^ 

darurat al 8h%^. 
Poetise, r. jU^lJ^ ^amo/ lui^dr. 
Poetry, j-j5-» «q;*^, jjaj luum, ^j^ 

Poignancy (sharpness), S Jk>- hiddat. 
See Pungency. — (severity), ir JJi 
Bhiddat, See Asperity. 

Poignant, jU- hud. See Sharp, 
acid, pungent. — (severe), JjjJ> 

Point, s. s»^ had ; (of a sword), 




c-jL^JIa^- had a9iayf'j (period), 
]as^ muhat ; (dot), ^lLaj nuktai ; 
(nicety), isSj nukteh. A point of 
time, <i^i^ daklkat, ^j^SLiJb 
iar/at al ^ayn, liks} lahzat. See 
Moment. — ^A point or head-land, 
J-%^ \ ijM \j ras aljahal. See Pro- 
montory. — ^The point (chief cir- 
cumstance of the subject in hand), 
j^*i\^j*Ju nafi al amr. A material 
point, (»f«/«^ ^^r tnuhim. See 
Importance. — The equinoctial 
point, J tjCLc jJliLiu nuktat al 
x^iddl. A point, aim or mark, 
{jOjS' gharad. An orthographical 
point, aWj) nuktat. From point 
to point, i^ ,fi ; .idlaio nuktah 

Point, V. (sharpen), ^ son. To 
point or point out, ,«Jl— cjj 
dal ^ala\ See Show, indicate. — 
To point with the finger, ^^j 


wama\ To point orthographi- 
cally, laAjL^. hat nukat; (mark 
with vowel points), cl:\^jL.\^^ 
wada ^ al harakdt. To make a full 
point, ia^:^^ <,amal mahat. 

Pointed, jl^ had. See Sharp. 

Pointedly (exactly), iJjJ^ bikol 

Pointless, lajsjjju highayr nukat. 

Poison, ^ Mm, 

Poison, V, i,Ami samtnam. 

Poisoned (killed by poison), ^y^M*^ 


mu9mum, m» 

Poisoner, s, a#«mw« muaamtnim. 

Poisonous, f^^^M^ musimm. 

Poisonously, ^j hisam. Poisonous* 
ness, ^lLjbL« mdhiyat assam. 

Poitrel, 8. (armour for the breast of 
a horse), «^j^ warhand. 

Poise (equilibrium), Jl jclcI t^iddl, 
llj\x^ mu^ddalat, ^yy muwa- 
zanat, ^j^ watn. See Weight. 

Poise, V, (weigh), ^J^ wmm. See 
Weigh. [annar. 

Poker, «. jLiJltl/J^yiK^ muhrdk 

Polar, ^i^ kutht, 

Pole (of the heavens), v— >^Vii kuth. 
The north or arctic pole, c,. ^ViiiH 
^Ulll alkuth ashshamdli. The 
south or antarctic pole, c, ^ViSH 
g)^:^\ alkuth aljunuh}. The two 
poles, fjif^ kuthayn. 

Police, jJJIis^ daht al halad. 

Policy (art of government), Jx 
JUylk^f ^ilm al hukumat. See 
Politics. — (art, stratagem, pru- 
dence), ^^il^w hikmatfj^JJj tadbir. 

Polish, V, (smooth, make bright), 
jLa sakal ; (to make elegant of 
manners), l^j\ a<2(2a6. 




Polish (gloWy brightnefls), Jai^ 
sakl ; (elegance of manners), 49\^ 
tardfiUf c-^j\ adah, ^Ual latdfat. 
Polishable, Jii^ yuMakil, 
Polished, iJ^ fnwjlh J^-A— a* 

Polisher, «. Ju<i0 $akhah A polisher 

of gems, cl/Ul^ hakkdk. 
Polite, c^jI a^&, (^^jtw^U 
9d,hib adah, u^^ sort/, v— i^lal 
^/, (.JlU mtdatlf. See Ele- 

PoHtely, i[ilL! J^ ^«^i^ ^fd/d^. 

Politeness, c^' j\ adahf l3\Jo %ardfat, 
^Ly /afa/a^; uJiaS /u^/l See 

Political (relating to a country), 
JX* mulkl ; (versed in the ad- 
ministration of public affairs), 
J<X« mudahhir, JUjjJt^^ljybt* 
m^Air itaMttlr oddawlaL 

Politically, ^JjJ^ iiib/ ^<M^?r, 


Politician, s, (one yersed in the arts 
of goTemment), ^■»-JJJu,.^fwl^ 
«aA»} tadHrf JiiX^ mudahhir. 

Politics (science of government), 

^,iXJ\ ^pm al hukm; (public 

mamlaiai, JLLLyit^^jJ MoMr 

asiattanat, lljtX^\j(f^m^\ mmMr 

addawlat, (^y^]jy^ um^ al 

Polity (form of goyernment), a^ 

clxLJI nizdm al mtdi, Za\^ 

iS^\^iL^\ hirdsai al muH 
wal miUat, See Grovemment. 

Poll, «. (head), (jm\j rat. See 
Head. A poll-tax, ^b>- jaxifoi. 

Poll, t;. (enter in a register), JuJ 

jiiijjlj hayyad hU daftar. See 

Eegister. — (to lop), '_ ^ U ^^^ 

hattah. See Prune, shear, shaye, 

mow, crop, plunder. 

Polled (lopped), c ^kLt maktM^. 

Pollen. See Flower, bran, powder. 

Pollute, V, ^j**^ najfas, ^j^j J dammu. 
See Defile, corrupt, taint. 

Polluted, ^j»J,x^ mudannas, 

Pollution, poUntednesB, 

jandhat. Nocturnal poUntion, 

/J!k^\ ihtildm. 
Poltroon, s, ^JL^ ioildn, fj -'- ^ 

tanhal. See Coward, BOoundreL 
Polyhedrons (haying nmny flidii), 

ij^^\y>-U Mo fowdmi 


Polygamist, c;^'l/*^^ir^ •"•• 
Unawwij hi amraatln. 




Polygamy, ci^Ls»-«j)\S^l^ kturat 

Polygonal, c^U^-SLj;^ huHr al 

Polypody (plant), w«-JLC(jwLitf\ 
adrd9 al kM, 

Pomatum, b'Uy pomdtd, 

Pomedtron, ^y^ laymikn. See 

Pomegranate, ^^tij rumman. Be- 
longing to the pomegranate, 
(jt«« rumm&ni. 

Pommel, %, (of a sword), <L.«du5 
11 kabdai assay f. 

Pomp, pompousness, <uJa^ ^%amat, 
^Li shdriy Ji^-^*^" jdh wa- 
jaldd, iLloii? tantanat. See Mag- 
nificence, splendor, cavalcade. 

Pompous, ^A Vi ^t—^'v-L^ «dAf& 
^ensamo^, ^glif- ^ozfm. See Mag- 
nificent, splendid, grand. 

Pompously, <uJac J^ ^*^^ ^%amat, 

Pond, «. <^^ ^fr(?, i^ ^ib^, 

j^ J^ ghadlr. 
Ponder, v. J^Lj taammal, ^j-* j\ 

ifiakar. See Consider, think, 

Ponderous, J^ talAl, ^jjj^ wagin, 

^jj ra%fn. See Heavy, weighty, 

momentous. [saH, 

Ponderousness, ponderoniy, Ji-) 

Poniard, $. j^i^ Ukaf^ar. To 
poniard, ^^^isfb^jy^ iarab hU 

Pontiff, ^^..>. hahr. The Boman 
pontiff, bUl a/ |7dpd. The Mu- 
hammadan pontiff, ^^m^\ al 
mufti f A^\;^2i shayhh al asldm. 
The Jewish pontiff, ^Ld^L^I 
^J^^J al hdkham hdshl. [ma^ar. 

Pontoon, s, (for passing riYers),^^^^ 

Pony, s,jJi^^^La»^ hisdn saghlr. 

Pool, s. L.^^ 1^^. See Fen, 
marsh, pond. 

Poor, jM fakir y sl^^n^ sa^uk. 
See Indigent, mean, contemptible; 
barren ; lean ; trifling ; unhappy ; 
spiritless. — A poor man, mendi- 
cant, j^ fakir. See Beggar. — 
The poor, \jAi fukard. A poor 
woman, ij^ faklrat. To be or 
become poor, j^j\^ sdr fakir. 
To make poor,^^^^^ ^amalako 
fakir, »jk3\ afkaraho. 

Poorly, jAsJd Ukolfakr^ jiio hi 
fakr. See Meanly, unfortunately. 

Poorness, jii fair. See Poyerty ; 
meanness; barrenness. 

Pope, s. UUt alpdpd. 

Poplar, 8, (tree), j^ hawr. The 

black poplar, ^^jj}^ kmor 




A • 

Poppy, ^li-'*'^ khashkhash. The 

heads of poppies, j^Ur'^^^^^Uj 
rummdn dl khashkhdsh. 

Populace, /^\yii\ al ^atodm, L^\ji\ 
al ^ammiyat, jjwUl^l^ ^wdm 
annds, j^^Aje] al jamhnr, jjiarl 
alkhalk. See People, commonalty, 
Tulgar, multitude. 

Popular (vulgar), aU ^dm, /♦^ 
^mUm, See Plebeian. — (suitable 
to the people), ^jmIiJJ^^^a^ 
flhi khayr lU nds; (esteemed by 
the people), (^^JlLJIc^a^.^^ 
mahbuh al kalnh. A popular 
disease, bj wahd. See Epidemic. 

Popularity, jJis^liLicI i^ihdr al 

khalk, ^^1iL^%^^ muhahhat al 

Popularly (in a manner to win the 

love of the people), Jhl^^jLo^b 

hi i^tihdr al khalk; (vulgarly), 

^ala* wajh al ^mUm. 
Population, ^j^yc^Mji^ kasrat an- 

nufus. See Populousness. 
Populous, j^^iJL^ ma^nr. [khalk. 
Populousness, J^l^t^^ kasrat al 
Porcelain, ,<^^ stnu See China. 
Porch, 8, J-JjbJ daMlz (plui. jJUj 
• dahdliz). See Portico, port, en- 

Pore, «. (of the body), ^1 
nuudffi. The pores, CL^UL^^ 

Tork, jijiS.^ lahm khawar. 

Porous, d^UL^^ lako nuudmai. 

Porphyry, (S^^j^ hqifar sumw^dk. 

Port, 8. l:w« mind. See Harbour. 
— (a gate), l^[) hdh. Port (air, 
mien, carriage), Asj-^ tcajh^ Jaj 
na%ar,Ja:>^ mantar. 

Portable, J-«^^'Vj yunhamil. 

Portend, v, (foreshow), ^JlcJj 
dal ^ala\ See Prog:no6ticate, 
foretell, omen. [See OmoL 

Portent, 8. (bad omen), ^-'^ naki. 

Portentous, jj**aBr nahs, tj^y^ 

Porter, 8, (to a gate), f^^Jj hawwdh. 
The porter of the inner apart- 
ments, L^..^L.»- hdjib (plur. 
^-;li.^ hujjdh). The office of 
porter, ij\^ huwdhat. A porter 
(carrier of burdens), J^ ^_f^ 
Portico, 8. J\^ llwdn, jljj rawdk 
Portion, «. <Ua>^ hissah (plur. ia^^ 
hasas), i--^--^ nas^h, <U^ himMi. 
The portion of a wife, j^ tnakr, 
j\^ jdhdt. See Dower.— The 
portion of a child, <.li^^^«^\ aImjJI 
iktisdm almlrda. 




Portion, v, (divide into portions), 

taksim. See Divide. [^haiflmt 
Portliness (dignity of mien), <UJb 
Portmanteau, s, *r:j^ khuty. 
Portrait, s. ijly^ taawirah, Sj^ 
surah (plur. j^ suwar), A por- 
trait painter, jjr^^ musawwir. 
See Picture. — To draw portraits, 
jZ^ sawwar. [kuUaho masdmdt. 
Pory (full of pores), CI^ULwu^aK 
Position, «^^Aw« mawda^ (plur. 
^f>^y fnawddiQ, 't-J'^^ matrah. 
See Situation. — (a principle laid 
down, or assertion), l^J da^wd, 

<Uig3 kadiyatf <t««>i^ makadda- 
mat, Jytfl <w/. 

Positive (not negative), ^LtstI 
?;a^f ; (certain), ^js^X/t muta- 
hakkihf ^\j fcddih ; (direct), 
«J?\j A;af»^; (dogmatical), «-l?l]i 
^fi^« ^ . See Obstinate, peremptory. 

Positively (not negatively), l^lafZl 
t/d^an; (certainly), \:»^yakinan, 
^j^A^K^ hilyaklny clX^^ hild 
«AaJ^; (peremptorily), \fia^kat^n, 

Positiveness (actualness), .\ j XlJ 
^cZ^{(?; (certainty), ^U5\ iXrar, 

^. y«^», Jt?^ ^^^^**^' r^j 

iouduh, >■ I ^--^ t J 1 jM %awdl asJuhak, 
^Ji^\/^SC' ^dam ashshahhat. 

Possess, V, (have hold), ul^L« meUh 
^jcj\ ikiana* ; (seize), la^ e^^a^. 

Possessed, Ci^ mumluk, ^;:u^ 
or l:i:iL« muktand. Possessed of 
(in composition), jJ 2d, d^ij 
2d^, (^J 8l, Vi,.,^%>.litf «dAt^, etc. 
(for examples, see Possessing). 

Possession, \^JjM tasarruf, ^Uo^ 
kdbdatf CS^ mtdk. Hereditary 
possession, t^^j^^^ ^\^^/9 mdl 
mawrHs. See Heritage. — Com- 
plete and absolute possession, 
ij\^L9i^j0aj tasarruf mdlkdnah. 
To take possession, la^ dahat, 
uJ^ taaarrafj ^X^iiy^ «- 
tawla* ^la\ v^>^-f- *^ istamlah 

To give possession, u.^.^ mallak. 

Possessions, CS\^\ anddk, iJ:j\3j»aL) 
taaarru/dt, iJLJ^j\As. ^kdrdt. 

Possessing, possessive, possessory, 
adf, aadpart i^j^^ss^ mutasarrtf, 
u^U tndlik; (in composition), 
CL^t J xdt, c,.^pfc-l^ «dAf&, J J 2t2, 
(^Jsi. Possessing understanding, 
U^c».^»-litf «dAi& tamyU, Pos- 
sessing sensation, JL^WjJ sH 


hdsiyat Possessing dignity, j J 

sahib makdm. Possessing excel- 
lence, J^c^^^^-ltf sahib fadL 
Possessing power, t^jcilv^^.'v.lig 




sdhih tktHdr. Possessing many 
estates, CilL^l «.,.;...«»- 1^ iahib 

Possessor, s, u^U tndlik, ^Jfj^ac^ 
tnutoMrrif, c^^^^^Up idhib. See 
Lord, master, owner. 

Possibility, ^^^^ mkdn, JUi>-l 
ihtimdl, ^\iai^\ utita^t. 

Possible, ^ C / tnumh'n, J-«jls^ 
muhtamal. Possible things, 
(Z ii 4:^^^ muhtamaldt. To be 
possible, ^jC^jUp «dr mumJcin, 

Possibly, ^ICtjJUjkA^ hikadar al 

imkdn, Jji! la^la. See Perhaps. 

Post, (letter carrier), ^ia^y pasta, 
c^yjL«31(Ji^l». Admt/ a/ fnaktuh, 
^jfjltJi^U* A<2mi7 a/ tcaraka. 
See Courier, messenger.— (situa- 
^oi^)> ^^-^^ makdn, ^^^^^ 
mawdacj J.^^* mahalL See Seat, 
position. — (a military station), 

jCuJiIt^ mahaU al ^kar. An 
advanced post, j.i i«M.nHA^<lLt 
mukaddamat al ^asJtar, ^*;} V 
tali^. A post (employment), 
<UJ^ khudmatf i^^^^-^a:^ mansab. 
See Office, dignity. — (a piece of 
timber set erect), Jo^ watad (pi. 
j\jj\ awtud). Post, aLmc^ ^KM^a. 
Posterior, A n y ha^d, y^'l:;^ 

mutaakhkkir, ^^T dMiir. See 
After, following. — Posteriority, 
^'b taakkihur. 

Posterity, Sij\ awldd, ^JmJ tutdf 
u-tidL hhalaf. See BeeoendantB. 

Postern, s. (small gate), ^^JLpc^b 

Post-haste, ^da^jjJI^JuB^ ^ojalat d 

posta. See Haste. 
Post-horse, «. dliMi^l^litfi^. kUdm 

al posta. Post-horses, relays <3t 

post-horses, ^daud^lJ^Af^ ikt^ 

al pasta. 
Post-honse, a. ^]a^y pasta. 

Post-master, s. ^JL\j ^s^^^ posttfi 

bdshl, dJ3^^1(..^.o^U sdkih al 
Postmeridian, ^^^\«Xaj ba^al wnir. 

Post-office, ida^d^ pasta. See Post- 

Postpone, V, ^^f akhkhar, c»iJjf 
atvkaf, J>f«f amhal. 

Postscript, «. <CA^r* malhdkat(jfivi. 
Cd\as^ malhakdt), Jjj Myl 
(plur. J^<^ %ayiU), ^USiU- 

Postulate, postulatum, postulation 
(assumption without proof) 

Posture, ^U- Ad/a^, JU^ M. 




The posture of affairB, jy^(J^ 
(^y^^ hdl umur al cumUm, 

Poty 8, ^/^U} tanjara, or hy^iip 
tanjara; (a drinkiDg cup), ^l^ 

Potable, t^^jJL^ mashrUh. Pot- 
ables, lz:\^^jJL^ nuukrUhdt. 
See Drinkable. 

Pot-ash, jL«j ramdd. 

Pot-bellied, ^J^i hho kirsh. 

Pot companion, 8. ;»j jJ nadlm. 

Potency, potentness, iy knwat, 

5;ji kudrat, j\jsj\ iktiddr, j^ 

kahr. See Power, influence. — 

(vigor), ily kUtoat, dU^^jjJS 

kHioai %dtiyah. See Force, 

Potent, ^j^ kawl,jj\j hddir. See 
Powerful, strong, forcible. — A 
potentate, ^ILLj 8ultdn, CJ^ 
fnaiik, etc. See Emperor, king, 

Potential, ^^^murnHn. See Possible. 

Potently, u^j suiwran. See Power- 

Pot-herb, *,..irL khudrat, CL^Li 
fiahdt, ^jf^ huhah, [jBharhat. 

Potion, 8, (medicinal draught), i)jJ^ 

Pottage, Vj^ shorhd. See Broth, 

Potter, «. g^jlAV**^^***^- Potter's 
clay, J li* fakhkhdr. [bag. 

Pouch, i, s^^^^^^jayh. See Pocket, 

Poverty, ^Si fakr. See Necessity, 
meanness, defect. — ^Poverty and 
old age {lit. the two evils), j^^^^ll 
alamrdn. Poverty is my glory 
(a saying of Muhammad), ^Aiif 
\^j^^ alfakr fakhrh To reduce 
to po verty,^^ Af ^malahofMr. 
See Impoverish. 

Poultice, aj^ lahkha. To poultice, 
dicv]i3>- hat lahkha. 

Poultry, jj-t tuyUr. See Fowl. 

Pounce, (.^yj r^ mikhM. See 
Claw, talon. 

Pound, r. JJ dak. See Beat, 
powder, bray. 

Pour, V. \^^^ 8ah. See Stream, 
flow; scatter, difiPuse.-*To pour 
out water, Utc,.^C-» 8akah wUL. 

Poured, v^yL*/* nuukoh. To be 
poured, i,,,^(uj\ insakah. 

Pourer, «. Vi»^L» 4dib'&. Pourisgi 
{part.), Vi^^La 8dkA. 

Powder, uJ^ WV» S-^lr^ ^^iy 
JF^ ghahra. See Dust — Gun- 
powder, <-^j!^«V ^^^* 

Powder, v. (reduce to powder), 
fjsr^ 8ahak. [moihak. 

Powdered (ground small), j^«***^ 




Powder-mill, «. Jj^U^^^^lt tdhun \ 
al hdr&d. 

Power, ijSi kudrat, j\s:i\ iktid&r, 
iljj kuwat. See Strength, ability; 
alio command, anthority, domin- 
ion, help, influence. — (vigMr), 
iy kuwat, ^^^a:^ ^an/awdn. 
See Potency. — The power of 
attraction, lLjj[.^iy3 kuwat 
jdzibat. The repelling power, 
ajubSji knwat ddfi^. The 
power of motion, iSjS^^iy kuwat 
muharrikat. The intellectual 
power, iSjJ^iy kUwat mudrikat. 
The power of imagination or fancy , 
jLs'l^y kuwat al khatful, or 
^JJicUJl al mutkhayyUat. The 
reflecting or thinking power, 
sflb^M^ kuwat al wahm. The 
power of memory, iafik^U^ kUwat 
al hajk, ^lk.\ al hafixah. Na- 
tural or inherent power, <U3\ JJ ) ii^ 
kUwat asBtdttyat. Animal or vital 
powers, Ljl^^\^^jiJt alkiwa^ al 
haywdniyat. The powers orsenses 
of the body, ^^^^^ ^^^' ol 
hadan. Venereal powers, JjJ 
^j'U ( n% kuwat shahwdniyat. 
Possessed of power, ^j Ji ^^'*- ^ 
sdhib kudrat. See Powerful.— 
Without power, ijj5l-i bila 

kudrat. See Powerless. — A 
power (potentate), ^;UaLs wttds. 
See King. — (military foroe),^^d«x 
^MJbr. See Army. — A power of 
-peoj^lefj^^^A^jam^kiuilr. See 

Powerful (strong, able), ^y kawi, 
jj\j kddir, j\jcj\c,.>^'^ltf «dM 
iktiddr. To be or become power- 
ful, ^^J^ idr kawi. A power- 
ful man, SitX,3^,>^'^lig «dM 
X-tM^ra^,j^Jci^jJ su iktiddr, etc. 

Powerfully, j^Jci\jJj-5j^ iM 
kuwat tea iktiddr, i^ hikikwat. 
Powerfulness, ijJj kudrat, iy 
kuwat. See Power. 

Powerless, ij^j^^ min ghayr 
kudrat^ ii^L htld X*utt?a^, .IjcjlL 
hild iktiddr. 

Pox, 4^J^ jadafi. See Small- 
pox. — (venereal), j^X^^^^u^y 
/rani' ahmadi. 

Practicable, ^jC^ mumkin. 

Practical, ^^^ ^malt, ^JUjc-«i 
isti^mdU, Practically, J UjcJIb 
&t7 isti^dl. 

Practice (experience, use), Jtwc-a^ 
isti^ndl, J^ ^amal ; (habit), 
if jU ^ddat ; (custom), aii^ roMi. 

Practise, r. Jn^ carnal, ^^^ajuj^^ 
\ uia^mal. ^ee Perform, execute 




do. — To practise artifice, a1u». ^ 
^mal hilah. To practise physic, 

S-^- hakkam, 

Plractiser, practitioner, J^U ^dmo/. 
See Performer, agent. 

Pragmatical, iJLcj^ kaiir ghalabah. 
See Impertinent, intermeddling. 
— A pragmatical fellow, ^y^ 
fuduli. [ffhalahah. 

Pragmatically, iJ^szLi hikatirat 

Praise, Uj taua^ JJU shukr, j^^mj 
na^, (^^j was/ (plur. i^\^^\ 
awsaf), JkA>- hamd, -.Jc^ madh. 
The praise of God, i^\Jj^ shulr 
allah. Praise be to God, ^^JJi^\ 
ashshuhr illah, ^lisA^\ al hamd 
tUah, JWdd! Ju«kl alhamd illahi 
ta^dla , Z^^^J^A^A^ illahi al 
hamd wal minnat, <lJw! \j^a>»- 
hamdan iUah. 

Praise, v, J^a^ hamad. To praise 

or return thanks to God, i^\^J^ 
shakaraUah, idll^^ sahhah allah. 

Praised, ^j^ mamduh, i^yay 
maw9iiff Jyks:^ mahmUdf Ju^ 
hamtdf ^-dwy>,<\^M ..^ mustahsan, 
jS-»^ maihkur, 

Praiser, 9. Jc^l>> humid, ^oL^mddih, 
Jjc^ madddhj t^jL^^j t9d«i/'. 

mustawfib al hamd. See Laudable. 
Prank, «. 9jSf*^ maskhara. 

Prate, prattie, v. lIA^ ^allak. See 

Chatter. [Chat, talk. 

Prate, prattle, cl^Le &a/^. See 

Prater, prattier, «. l1/1c ^lldk. 
Pray, r. (make petition to heayen), 

Xa saUa\ 9j^ tadarra^ ; (to 
entreat), ^jm^\ iltamcu. See 

Prayer (to heaven), i^ salat, U J 
du^. Prayer (submissive im- 
portunity), U>-j ra/d, ^^ji-4J 
tamannl, ^IcJI iltimds. See 

Entreaty, supplication. 
Preach, r. lacj u^a&as. 

Preacher, 9. (Christian), )as\^ to&^iz; 

(Mussulman), ^'^ * Vt'%> khatlh. 

Praiseworthy, -J^^u-*^^j u^d/iJ 
<i/ madh, SA^^^m^^^jm " 


A preachment. See Sermon. 
Preamble, 4t«JiL« mukaddamat, 

J^LjJ dibdjat, AmVir^ khutbat. 
Precarious, jl^^U mdlaho kardr, 

LL^UdiU mdlaho sahdt, 00 U,^ 

mutasabhif. See Uncertain, de- 
Precariously, c:.^lJ^^j^ minghayr 

sabdtfj\^j^^j^ minghayr kardr ^ 
Uj)b &t/d ^a^ci. 
Precariou8ne8s,j\^lAji£ ^odom a/ 




Precaution, C/i\jJ taddruk, l^Li^-f 

ihtiy&tf ija^ hasirat, dLuJl 

intibdh,jJ^^ hatar. 
Precaution, r. iX^^u^/^jj kaddam 

nasihat See Warn, advise. 
Precede, v. (take rank, go before), 

aJJu takaddam. To precede in 

point of time, JU«> sahak, ^■ci,,,! 

Precedence, precedency, ^ AAjf takad- 

dam, ij\Xfi saddrat, jiXaj tasad- 

dur. See Superiority. 
Precedent, preceding (foregoing), 

aJiL« mukaddam, (J^\^ sdhik 

v«iJU sdlif. See Former, prior. 
Precedent, s. J^lj^J dastUr <U 

carnal, ^Jt^ masal. See Example. 
Precedendy, Ujift^ mukaddaman, 

)L3 kahlan, UjLi sdhikan. 
Precept, «. X^Uo; fUMZAa^, ^f amr, 

<OLtf^ wasiyat, i^ifarldat. 

Preceptor, Ak^ mu^alltmy L^^y 

Precession, ^JJu* mukaddamat. 

Precinct, i^\^\ ihdtah^Joi^ diydr, 

Li* waldyaty <U»>l3 ndhiyat. Sec 


Precious (costly, valuable), ^^^--♦j 

samirif Jjjc- ^asfs, jj«<-i3 fw/*!*, 

^^ ^oAl, ^(j fdkhir. Seo 

TMsr^ valaable. — A precious \>e^T\, 

JLmij^^ Hliyat Mmlnmi, Pre- 
cious effects, (^lAj naf&ffu. 
Preciously, ^^^^ji W KWfkm 
«ai»m, X^mJ J^ &fii(o/ kimat. See 

Preoiousness, <i,4g-J ibfino^. See 

Worth, price, valuableness. 
Precipice, U Bo.^ maskat, i:jJb 

maMak (plur. (J.^1^ moAd/ti). 

Precipitance, precipitancy, pre- 
cipitation (haste), fJ^^^B^ tacfil; 
(rash haste), ^tji:J\^f mmi 
annaddmah. Precipitation, pre- 
cipitating (throwing headlong), 
lo^ Jiabt, or 1?^ Aif^il^. To 
attack with precipitation^^Le^ 
kaham ^la\ 

Precipitate, r. (throw headloi&g), 

la^ hahbat. To precipitate one's- 

self (into danger), <UL>-^— «; 

Ja^^(j rflr»m' hdhho fil khatar; 

(to fall headlong), ^Jb hahat. 

Precipitate, precipitous, precipitant 
(hasty), J^^ c<i[;'fl/ ; (impru- 
dently hasty), j^f^L^ mutahatcwtr. 
See Ra8h.--(violent), ^\^bU 
had al mtsaj. 

Precipitately, precipitantly, ^0^^ 
bild tadbir, dL-Ls^JCj MM 




Preoise (accurate, exact), 'f^ 
tahihf J^l^ kdmil ; (determined, 
definite, limited), JjJ^s^ mahd^, 
^jo(^ mu^yyan; (fonnal, finical), 

ij:^U]LCe^.o^U sdhih tahaUufdt. 
See Punctilious. 
Precisely (exactly), ^jj^ hihol 
dikkaf ; (definitely), t}^Ss^cyj 

mm ghayr tnurdja^h, ^jJLi\Xe' 
^UC al yakln ; (ceremoniously, 
formally), ujLLJLjJC-^ bikol 

Fredseness, precision (exactness), 
is:^ sahhat, Li J dikkat, JL^ 


kamdl; (definiteness), Jh-t*A 

Preclude, v. (V~-^ haram, 
mana^. Precluded, ^^ys^ f^h- 
rUm, ^j^j^ m^rdud, ^ j * / 
mamnU^. [^sdhikah. 

Precognition, ^\^i3jjut ma^ifat 

Preconceive, v. ^^^^^iJlCi; j\jJi--»-j 
sahdk toa adrak ashshy. 

Precontract, «. f^JJ^^J^ tha/rt m«- 
kaddam, ^<\a \^\Ji\^JA shart 
toa tkrdr tmitakaddm. To pre- 
contract, AJJL«L^J.4kC ^amal 
shart mukaddam. 

Precursor, s, Ju-^-^ mubashikir, 


bashir. See For^ninner. 

Predal, predatory, tub yaghmd. 
Predeceased, J^S^iy^ imUawaffl 

Predecessor, 9, u^Ls sdliff ^JoU 

mukaddam f J^^Lm* sdbik. See 

Predestinarian, «. (a believer in 

predestination), ji jJbJ L^ «x&u^ 

mu^takid bU iakdlr. 
Prede6tination,^jJi; takdlr, jjjui\\ 

al mukaddar. L^ kadd, \_-' W* 

na9lby JummS kumat. See Fate, 


Predestine, predestinate, v. sL^ 

kaddar laho, aJLcjS^ kaddar 

Predestinator (an attribute of Om- 
nipotence), jIa^ mukaddir. The 
divine predestinator of death, 
J^)IU JiL« mukaddir al ajaL 

Predestined, jJki^ mukaddar,j^tXL9 
mdkdar, *^y^y maw^d. Pre- 
destined death, J^^! J^^t al 
qfal al maw^ild. 

Predetermination, aJlas^IjI^I al 
murdd al mutakaddim. 

Predetermine, v, a^\ alham, c^*XA 
^AiLjLjbl^l J! hada* Ha' ai 
murdd al mutakaddim. 

Predetermined, j^^ mukarrar. 




^Ll shdn, /•iL* makdm. See 
Condition, state, degree, class. 

Predicant (one that affirms), jjA^ 
mukarrir. To predicate (affirm), 
t!J\ J.^«b£ ^mal iJcrdr, Predicate 
(that which is affirmed of any- 
thing, an adjective noon), (.jL^j 
wasf, dJLo si/ah. The subject and 
the predicate, ^liJtjAJk&^if al 
mtikaddam wal tall. Predication, 
j\J\ ikrar, ^>Si/u ta^if. 

Predict, v. jjjf aitsor, Jxj wa^, 
^IjJ tanabha\ Predicted, J^j^ 

Prediction, ». Jli/d/, j\Ju\ tnzar, 

Predispose, v. j0^>- haddar. See 

Prepare. — Predisposed, j^ — s^ 

muhaddar. See Prepared. 


Predisposition, jj»rl'V tahdlr. See 

Predominance, \n:i^\ isti^d, ' ^L c ^ \ 

iatikif \_ -^ * "* taghallub. See 

Predominant, L---Jli ghdlib, J^i-u*^ 
mustawll. See Superior, preva- 

Pre-eminence, ^aJLj iakaddum, 

\\^^^z^\ itntitfdz, hc>^\ isti^d, 

'Lo^t istlla. See Precedence, 

Pre-eminent, J^\ afdal^ j\jiA^ 
mumtdz, aJlail^ mu i§ k md d iw^ 

Pre-establish, r. ui^^tj^^^lf 
^yyan kahl al wait. 

Pre-established, c:^^! 

Pre-establishraent, ^Oki. 

^a^yln mukaddam. 
Pre-exist, J^«Xs>-yf inwajad kail, 

Pre-existence, aJiL«43^j in^W 

Preface, 9, iUj^A.^ mMiUii!dMMi(, 

ip-LjJ dihdjaty J^y^ ^ 


To pre&ce, L%Ssl^^}j^^ ^amoi 
mukaddamaif 4^LjJ^J^4x cMm/ 
dlhdjat, A prefacer, J.— ^Lc 
<L«aL«J1 cdutt/ ai mukaddamat. 
Prefect, «. ^^l^- hakim j JL trd/[, 
isU ndztr. See Governor, com- 
mander. — A prefecture, ^Jl». 

hukumaL — See Government, com- 
Prefer, v. (give a preference), J-ii 

^^faddal ^la\ ^j rajjak. 

Preferable, ^^-u*r^\ aA«an, t^^^y---^ 
^jJLJI mmtawjih al takdddum, 
^jiSji) Idyik al t^trflh. Pre- 
ferableness, ^f^Ji tarjlh. 

Preference, /%J^ takaddam, *JJi3 
takdlm, »^^j^ tofjlh, J-*i&5 




Preferment, ^Ji tarakki, LLJ;1 
irtika. See Promotion. — (a place 
of honor or profit), c,.^>flv^ man- 
sahf ^j^ martabat See Office, 

Preferred (considered more highly), 

_Lc tnu/addal ^M. 
Prefix, 9. \__ -^'' nasah. 
Prefix, «. (a particle prefixed to 

words), <-Jp- A«r/, ^(-J^ 

Prefixed, ^^^..^a:^ tnansiih, 

Prefixion, prefixing, ^*^ takdUm, 
/^JAJ tahaddum. 

Pregnancy, J-»^ ^Ja/. 

Pregnant, ^X^ hubla\ To make 
pregnant, (J^ habhal, See Im- 
pregnate.— To become pregnant, 
l::J^>» hiblat. 

Prejudge, prejudicate, r. (decide 
without information or examina- 
tion), ^jAS^\^jfX^^S^»^ hakam 
min ghayr ina yafhas. 

Prejudice, prejudication (judgment 
formed without examination), 

Pr^'udice(for or against), i^^* n^ 'i 
ta^aub; (in favor of), J-^ 
tnayl; (against), jjlal^^ «aM>aE2^». 
Prejudice (detriment), ^^ durar. 

iF^Luc^ i(Aa«dra. See Hischicf, 
hurt, injury, damage. 

Prejudice, v. (injure),^ dar. See 
Impair, hurt. — ^To prejudice (for 
or against), Ju.>gj\^^lv,,. wi- ir.,3 
ta^sab Ua* aw did ; (in favour 
of), J' JU «ifi/ *»'. Prejudiced 
(for), ^^^^^...i^ t -.^ mu^^OMii^ 
fTa' ; (against), ^j^.«^i-::L^ mn^ 
nafr min; (in favor of), JjU 
mdy/, c-^l^ raghib. 

Prejudicial, j>a^ mudirff >Am* a . ^ 
mufiid. See Injurious, detri- 
mental, hurtful ; contrary, oppo- 

Prelection. See Beading, lecture. 

Preliminary, «. it« aL« mukaddamat 

Preliminary (a(^'.), /^JJL^ynukaddam. 

Prelude, s, preludium, ^.^^Jjuy 

Premature, i^::^j^\J^ kabl alicakt. 
Prematurely, u:^^! JJ kohl al 
tvakt Prematureness, ^JLss^ \ ij^ 
kaaarat ai ^'alat. 

Premeditate, v. J-i*^^Jhf-* scJfah 
wa taammal, JuaiiJ takas8ad, jA^\ 

Premeditated, Juar...B ^ muktasad, 
^.As^jyCJL^ mu^amad ^layhi. 

Premeditation, Z^ niyat, J^*l3 

taammul, Xai ka%d, fSi^s^j 





ca^-jU! rdy kdU al wakt. See 
Dedgn. — ^Withont premeditatioo, 

With premeditationi Ju4jcj hita' 
^ammud, \xaika8d(mm To speak 
with premeditation, JJ«*lsj_C»- 
kaka^ hitaaimmul. [miniater. 

Premier. See First, chief; prime 

Premioy ^^y prenm. 

Premises (propositioiiB), iZj\^JJL9 
mukaddam&t, CL^UixAj takaddu- 
mdt. Unquestionable premises, 

4..4Juuub^CL^t«JL^««« mukaddamat 

mu^Mamah, Premises (houses 

and lands), J^ ^akdr (plur. 

(JL^\j\a£. ^kdrdt). 

Premium, s\jj^L..;^^\iA>^ klmai 

asstkurtdh. See Compensation, 

Premonition, i^\faj natHhaU 

^ naskl. 

Preparation, ul/^fj^J taddruk, 
jldi^Uil f9tihddr, j\jk ,n *. 
istt^d, J^iAi3 iakmU. See Pro- 
vision, apparatus, composition. 

Preparative, preparatory, (^Latf^Mjl 

Preparatively, jljms^b biisfi^d, 

Prepu«, v.j^a^ haddar. 

Prepared, Uf« muhaifyd, jas^ 
muhaddar, Jjt^ mu^od, ^W 

Premonitory, ^ 

Beady. {mmrMik. 

Preparer, i.josf^ wnAwddmr^ S*"^ 
Prepense. See Premeditated. 
Preponderance, prepottderatian, 

Preponderate, v, ^j rajjah. 

Preposition, «. (.J^ ^of/. 
Prepossess, r. (impress with pieja- 
dice8)(J^la««ar/l. See Prejudice. 

Prepossession. See Prejudice, pre- 

Preposterous (topsy-turvey),c^ JlL« 
maklilh, ijmSjl^ nuukHs, ^j^Sj^ 
mankus. See Absurd, ' foolish, 

Preposterously, ^^t* — SoJU M^akt, 
<^^LL«]b hUmaUnh. 

Preposterousness, ^jiSs> ^h. 

Prepuce, cjLli ghalaf, iAj: gkdf^. 

Presage, presagement, JU^ hihmtii 
(plur. ^\L^\ ahkam), Jli fil. 
See Omen, prognostic. — ^To pre- 
sage, JUc;^ darah fdl. See 
Prognostic. [tAayiiH. 

Presbyter, «. ^l^ ^oAm, ,i^ 

Prescience, l.^-^! aIc ^Um^lgkagh, 

Jaju ta^khd. See Foreai^ 
^iQ«n\^t^ ^ceaoious, u-^IJL^ 




^Im al ghayh. . To be prescient, 

Prescribe, v. (order, direct), ^joJ 
_Lc farad ^ala\ J^ hakam, 
j^\ amar, »^j rasam. See Com- 
mand. — To prescribe as a physi- 
cian, i^jL^^ tDMof. To prescribe 
bounds, 4^«xk.! tjLc ^yan al 
hududy fc)jiX-k.lj«l»» haddad al 

Prescribed, prescript, ^ 

tnahkUm hihi, ^jjL^ ma/rnd, 
(^y^y marsUm. At the term 
prescribed, JjJls^\j^1j htlhad 
al mahdnd. 

Prescription, prescript, (precept, 
model), ^tXcU kd^idah, m^j rasm 
(plur. /^y^jfusum), ^\jrdhitah 
(plur. iaj 1 ji rawahit) , See Order. 
— (ancient custom), <<.-ft^r>irjU 
^dat ^atihah, A medicinal pre- 
scription, >i;(j^ MLc^ was/at al 

Presence (state of being present), 
J^j umjadf jyo^ hudur, iya>- 
hadrat (plur. ^jlAj^o^ hadrdt) ; 
(air, demeanor), jla3 nazar, ^^ 
wajh. See Mien, port. — ^The 
presence of Grod, dU^Jy*-^ untfud 
allah. The presence of a king, 
^J^^LJiSjtOLSf* mahdar auuUdn. 

The presence chamber, |%US1 u^jL^ 

dlwdn al ^m. 

Present (not absent), ^U- hddir, 

*^}^y maiofud. To be present, 

y\^^\^ k&n hddir. Present 

(not past, not future), J Ik.! aJhdlj 

j>o^\\j:^^\ al tvakt al hddir; 

(at hand, ready), ^U- hddirt 

\1^ muhayyd, Jm^ mu^. See 

Prepared. — The present, time 

present, ui^Jll JJb hazd al wakt. 

The present tense,^lk.l al hddir. 
At present, J^\ aldn. See Now. 
— The present day, ^^\ al 

yatPtn, /*«Jtljjb hazd al yawm. 
To the present day, j^\ljJb^i 
•7a' hazd aldn. Present or ready 
money, i^*^ nakdl. 
Present, «. ^JLJlt^, hakhshUh, <0 JJb 
hadiyat. A present to bribe a 
judge, iyj rashwat See Bribe. 

Present (make a present), ^Ji^Arc^, 
hakhshashf c-^^j toahah, ^^^\ 
^JJb a^' hadiyat. See OfGsr, 
give.— To present one's-self (be- 
fore another), j"^^ heder. See 
Appear. — ^To present a complaint, 
^ULl aJj kaddam thakdyat. 

Presentation, ^^ ^rd, *JJ^ 




Presented, ^JIm^ mu^ta\ i^>^^ 
muhdc^f aJiL« mukdddam. 

Presenter, s. ^}ok^ mu^l, S^^>^ 
mmhib. See Giyer. 

Presently(immediately), l\^hdllan, 

See Present. 
Preservation, )qa^ haft, 4Jailsir« 

tnuhdfmat, ^\^ iiydnat, ^U^^ 

him&yat, AmiU»^ hirdiat. 
Preserve, v. !aA»- Ao/os, ^c^^^^- ^mtf'» 

j^Ltf «dii. To preserve fruits, 

etc., tjlj^iji i^fnal murahha*. 

See Confect.— (pickle), Ji«^ J* 
^ama/ mukhallaL 

Preserve, s, (fruits preserved with 
honey, sugar, etcj^^j^ murahba', 
i^y^^ fna^nn. See Confect. 

Preserved, b^As*^ mah/uz, {j**^jSi^ 
mahrUs. See Defended. — Pre- 
served (as fruits), \^.j^i/*yt^ 
makbUi murahha\ 

Preserver, s, laiW hafi%, laiUir* 
muhdfiz. See Guardian. — A pre- 
server of fruits, etc., ,<Jy« J^^ 
^dmalmurahha\ See Confectioner. 
Preside, r. jJuallj Juti ka-^ Imadr, 
Presidency, presidentship, jJ^ sadr. 
President, «. ^/**t»{; rayyis, ^j**^j 

^j»Xsi^\ ray y is al majlis. 
Press, V. (compress), ji^ (^ayyaJt; 
(squeeze), ^^ ^cws. To -^^t^^ 

upon in battle, a^ Aq^. See 
Assault, attack. — (to blockade), 
j0a>^ hasar, y^lfr- AdMr. See 

Press, s. (for olives, grapes, etc), 
ijiox^ majorat. 

Pressed (squeezed), j^.dA« mm^tift 
j,afc^ mun^Mir. See Ofm- 
pressed. — The pressed juice of 
firuit, iXne. ^draL Prened 
(closely besieged), .^^.A^c^ maJu^. 
A pressor, jloc ^Mdr. 

Pressure, j^a^- hasr; (oppression, 
grievance), u^J^ ta^addl, j^ 
jawr, JA9 zulm, j^ kdhr; (im- 
pression), 4t«lc ^Idmtit, w^ 
rasm,J)\ asar (plur. jUl iMdr). 

Presume, v, (suppose), aJ^j3 tawak- 

kanif ftCj ta^am. See Imagine, 

Presumer, s. (supposer), a^U td^m, 

PreBumption(Bupposi tion), ^Cj %a^ 

^ y» r^ takhmin, ^ zann, jJJi 

tasawwir, jUxcf i^ikdd, oUifl 

i^irndd. See Conjecture, beliefl 

— Presumption,presumptuousiies8 

(arrogance),^^-Xj takahhur, 5^L-p- 

jasdratf XSz>^\ istikbdr. 

Presumptive (supposed), ij-^ *- -* 

mutaaawwir. Presumptive, pre- 

^\i\s£^l>\<^u!&^ presuming, 





mutakabhir. See Arrogant, in- 

Presumptuously, jjjk) highurHr, 
See Impudently, arrogantly. 

Presuppose, r. jjUJl J-5,^/o^/ara(? 
kdbl asssamdn. See Preconceive. 

Presupposed, J^J^\,^^^jJl^ 
tnafrOd kabl easzamdn. 

Pretence, iL». hilat, j^ ^t«r, 
*-!^ ^Uatf JU; ta^allul See 
Excuse. — A weak pretence, jLo 
J-ic ia^M ^lih Pretence 

(claim), ciJ^J dat,wa\ See 

Pretend, v, (allege falsely, act hypo- 
critically), JJjJ ta^Ual See 
Feign. — To pretend or lay claim 
to, ^^f^i^^i^iji' ^mal da^a* 

Pretender (claimer),^-^ j^ waeWa^f ; 

(a boaster), ^x^ munda^l. 
Pretension (claim), »^J da^ah 

(plur. (JL^\^^} da^wdt), ]^J 

da^d, or u^^J da^a\ Ujl 

Preterite (tense), ^Ull Jjii/^/ al 
mddi, ^^\^\ almddl. 

Preternatural, ^ju— *_l:y--^ yA<»yr 
^aM^I, yjLcUIluJL;. khOdf al 
hd^idah. See Irregular. — Pre- 
ternaturally, ^.jt^-Jallju^ didd 


In. }n\\i^ls^^\U\>^ hdlat 
ashshay hikhUdf attahl^t. 

Pretext, J^\)jSs^ ^utr hdtU. See 

Prettily, ujiLI J^ hikol lutf, J^ 

L3\Jh hikol tardfat. 
Prettiness, ^j***^ hum, J\ a.^* 

jamdlj Jjiy latdfat, ii]]^ %ardfaL 
Pretty, (J^^t^ Jamil, caJal latJf, 

See Beautiful, elegant. — ^Pretty 

(in some measure), Uy naw^n. 

See Somewhat, tolerably. 
Prevail, v. (to be in force or fashion), 

iSsfi\,^j\p^j\^ sdrjdri al ^ddat. 

To prevail or prevail over, u^^Jlc 

ghalab, y^le tafar. To prevail 

upon (induce), wiS kana^. See 

Prevailing, prevalent (victorious), 
K,^\£. ghdUhf ^j2am^ mmtawU, 
See Superior ; powerful ; forcible, 
—(current), ^j\pr j&r% ^y^ 
^mUml, See Fashionable, com- 
mon, general. 

Prevalence, l^ Xnl taghalluh, 1^1 
tsttld. See Superiority. — (cur- 
rency), -.\^j ratcdj. 

Prevalently, ij*^JCj hikol kudrat 
See Powerfully. (currently. 




See Pashionably. 
Preyaricate, v. ^Jo hagha\ J«p daUf 

i<^^ ^(tMl, Jj^ hdtoal, 
Preyaricatioiiy ^.* .^om^ ma^ffat, 

Prevaricatori «. i^Jucj« tntUa^addlf 

^jl^ hhayin, 

Preventy v. ^Jw« mana^, ijOj\jC 

ta^rad. See Obstract, antici- 

Prevented, c ^:M«b^ mamnu^y «i>^ Juu.^ 
masdudy Jum:w« munaad. See Ob- 
structed. — A preventer, ^-jL^ 
indm'^y ^j\jL^ mu^rid. 

Prevention, ^^ man^, <Ujl^ mu- 
mdna^t, \joyu ta^rrud. See 
Hindrance, obstruction, anticipa- 
tion. — ^Preventional, preventing, 
preventive, ^^ mdni^f u^j^^^ 
mu^rid. See Preventer. 

Previous, JJi hdblf ^\^ »ah%k. 
Previous to this, fJJbJ^ Jcahl 
hazd. Previously, Li kablan, 
JJ^j^ min kahl, ^jU|Jlj--5 
hibl aszatndn. 

Prey (hunted or seized to be de- 
voured), *W *ayJ ; (plunder), 
Uju yaghmdy *U*.v.r ^Aanlma^. 
See Booty, spoil, ravage, rapine. 
Prej, r. ^^^h/^1 f/Wcw. See ^^j^ 

devour. — To prey upon dob, 
spoil), U«f J«4bC ^amml foghma. 
See Plunder. 

Price, Ia^ MmaL .,«4J gnwiwi. jui 
««^r (plur. jUm»\ M^Ar). Set 
Rate, value, estimation, eqmvt- 
lent, reward. — ^The price of blood 
(compensation for murder), liji 
diyat. See Mulct — Price paid 
by a captive for liberty, 1 Ji fid 
or fadd. See Ransom. — ^Hi^ 
price, ^If ^jAj taman ^dZi. See 
Valuable, precious. — Acoording 
to the current or market price, 

mnjtb aast^ al jdri. Without 
price, ^j^^ hild taman. 

Prick, V. (pierce with a small punc- 
ture), ^jM.air nakhas. See Pierce, 
sting, goad, s^ur. [tnre. 

Prick, 9. ijaiT nakhzat. See Punc- 

Pricked, J^-Jcu mankhHsL See 

Pricker, 8, (sharp instrument), js^ 

mankhaz. See Piercer, bodkin, 

Prickle, s. il^ sunMat (plur. 

JjL«» sanubil), iSy^ ahawkoL 

See Thorn. 
Pride,^;!^ takahbur, \ijJ^ kihriyd, 




See Vanity, insolence, loftiness, 
elevation, ostentation, decoration, 

Priest, «. ^l^ hdhm, ^^gi<uj hauls. 

Priesthood (office of priest), iij-ij^J 
huHsfyaiy CJy^ kakniii. 

Primacy, ^Jju* muJtaddanuU, 

Primarily, ^^t atawalan, iAdJ^\(S 
f\l biddffai. 

Primariness, JL^I asL [original. 

Primary, ^^\ asll. See First, 

Primate, «. (chief ecclesiastic), j4W 
^jJ! tadr addin. 

Prime (chief, most excellent), ^X^\ 
cahj (.J^l (uhraf, J^l afdal. 
See Best, principal, excellent, 
original^ first ; early, blooming. 

Prime, «. •-Li^ Bohdh, See Dawn. 
— The prime ar best part, ^^^ 
^oyn. The prime of life, \^^^^^ 

Prime cost, <Uk*LJ1J^t cu/ oZ 

Primeval, primevous, primitive (an- 
cient), *i JJ kadim, (j.fps> ^tlL 
See Original. — Primitive. See 
Formal, precise, solemn, grave. 

Primitively (originally, at first), 
L««XA-^ tnuJsaddaman, ij\ mo- 

Primitiveness, v«>aJ1JU- bal ai 

kadim. 6ee Fonnaliiy, preoiBe- 
ness, gravity, Rimplioiiy. 

Primogenial (first-bom), JCj iitr. 
See Primary, original, elementaL 
Primogeniture, ^j[^ huki^ai. 

Primordial, Jjt awwal. See Ori«> 

Prince, 9. (sovereign), ^^UsaLi mUAn, 
ui3u« malik, j^\ amir. See 
Emperor, king. — (the eon of a 
king), ul5^4.H^;j\ fbn al malii. 

Princedom, L$^L^ huHmai. See 

Princess, «. (& woman having sove- 
reign conmiand), ^^1^ maUkat^ 
iJiWi \ ut 8ultanat\ (a king's 
daughter), cl5^>»Hu:^ ^tn^ a{ 

Principal, ^Ju^t m/I, jdia^ mtUlak. 
See Chief, capital, essential. 

Principal, «. (a chief), \j^j rayyii. 
See Chief, leader, president, 
governor. — ^A principal or prin- 
cipal sum, JU!^(jiM]; r&s almdh 

Principality, 8. Sj\^\ amdrat See 
Sovereignty, kingdom, province ; 

Principally, \^ya^ khuafUan. 

Principle (element), ^^«aif ^tmmr 
(plnr. j^\ix- ^andiir; (original 
cause), v!^\ ud^ j^-fl^ tw»d«ir 




See Origin. — (motive), 

tahai, y^^ rl— J hd^i$; (tenet), 

^■.■■^^J^ wutakih. See Opudon. 

Print, r. j^ Uhm^. See Maik, 

Print, 9. ^ iaha^. See Mark, 

impression. — ^The print of a foot, 
j)\ Mor. 
Prior, «. (of a monastery), ^j»^j 

^^^<^J\ rmf9 arrukbdn. See Abbot. 

Prior, Ajit aidam, j^jJc^ muU- 
kaddim^ ^\^ tdhH, ^J^ps- t^atli. 
See Previons. 

Priority, a aZJ iakaddmm. See An« 
tiqoity, precedence. — ^Priory. See 
Abbey. \m41na9Klr), 

Prismyjt^*.,;^ 9iaiM^iir(plar. r^^L^ 

hahi, ivT?* ^'^^ 
Atf^. See Im- 

prison, «. 

Prison, r. 

Prisoner, «. 

prisoner of war, ^ 
Juirh. See Captive. 

Pristine^ tJ^^ ^'^y iJ^^ ^^y 
^^yj iadim. See Ancient, fonner, 

Privacy (retiremoit), i^L^ kJLilwmi; 
(state of being secret), Us>-f Mfa ; 

U place of letirfmeiiV)) ^^>^ 

kkMlw€t, See Secaroey, prinfy 

Private (alone), 
4>^Ai^ Mn^crrtf ; (aecrat), ^J^^ 
MiciA/t, jyjuy^ fln««l«r ; (notpob- 
lic, particnlar), uo\-s^ ii^ 
^yAsf* wtMkkHH, -Private eflfoctii 
A^U^J^^t tfjmrcl/ ikSmL A 
private apartment, ijifw Ufc o/ iw rf . 
See Privacy. 

Privately (secretly), 1 

Privately and publicly, t 


>-• ttmm tra 

(«Am, |. 


Privation, (*«3l^ 
f&i2uM, w^L.i foK. See Depri- 
vation, deposition, degradation. 

Privative, v^L^ sdM, j^Jjl^ 
mu^im. A privative portids^ 

Privilege, «. cl-'T^ hmmst, >UU« 
jNir^d/cli, t^M.:.^ auiMiAfir. See 
Immnnity, patent 
Privilege, r. uJU^^Ltx ^auUak 
■Med/. [empted. 

Privil^ed, i«iU^ ww^af. See Ex- 
Privity (oonscionsneas),^^*:^ kJMmr, 

Privy (conacions), ^;^^tA« wtm^ 

,i^wux« jNif^^a/i^ ^tfXs*. Privy 




A privy couDciIlor,y J^ mudahhir, 
jlj^ wazlr. Privy-purse, ^}^y\ 

A^l^M amwdl al khdssah. 
Privy, 8. ^[^L^j\ adab hhdna. 

A public privy, lJ^ hanlf, A 

cleanser of privies, L^Si\^^yu^ 

^U>. mu^caaU al adab hh&nah. 
Prize, B. (^^& ^icad. See Reward, 

premium. — (booty), lA>^\,h ghanl- 

mat. See Plunder. 
Prize. V. jLcx!^ J.4X ^nud laho 

i^ihdr. See Esteem, rate, value. 

— Prized (esteemed), . .>■•; ,ir .^ 

mu^tabar, fj^ mukarram. 
Prize-fighter, s. ^^^ haJdaw&n. 
Probability, JUi>^l thttmdl, j^lC«\ 

imJcdn, See Possibility. 
Probable, J^^c*^^ muhtamal. 
Probably, JUi:^! J^ hikolihtimdl, 

J-4iaO yuhtamah 
Probation, JJ J dalily i^}^ji burhdn, 

(JL:\Ji\ ishdt, ^\^^\ imtihdn. 

See Proof, trial, examination; 


Probatum est, v..^^fj wdjib. 

Probity, ^U! amdnai, uJL«a}l 

Problem, s. JC^ mashkal. Pro- 
blematical, ^Ujl^ mushtabah, 

^^yr muhakkak. See 

Uncertain^ doubtful, disputable. 

— ^Problematically, ^^-^ajIj Ms 

ya^n. [Snout, nose. 

Proboscis, f^^/^- khartnm. See 
Procedure, <lL«L«..^ mtf^dma/lti^, 

C^l«»i 9tdnk, See Management, 

progress, proceeding. 

Proceed, v. lJ^/*j^^ ddwam ^ala\ 
^liijAS^^J isiamar ^la\ See Oo, 

pass, advance. — (to act, transact), 
f^AS^ ^omaL To proceed against 
one at law, ^\j rdfa^, ^Jic^ jJ 1 
tnda^ ^la\ 

Proceed, proceeds, J^L^ hdsH, 
Net proceeds, cjUc sd/i. See 

Proceeding, ^Hir^. J jli0 sddir, J^f^^ 
munbaaik ; (transaction), Ji«4^-^ 
^amal. See Procedure, process. 

Process, J^f ^aano/, ^^^"^^ maslahat* 
See Proceeding, progress. — A pro- 
cess at law, <lLiW« mu^malat, 
iLoS ^a%a<, ^^J Altera' or 
I^J da^d. Process (method, 
management), c,'^..* O tarhb, 
i^UaJ nisdiyi. 

Procession, «. Sj^J dawra. To make 
a procession, ^jJ^J^k-.^ ^ama/ 
dawra, [^cuhhar. 

Proclaim, v. v^^^ 1^Uldo! ^ j^lJk 




Proclaimed, Jj^^jIii^ murUlda* hthi. 
Proclaimer, s. h/<^l^^ munddi. 
Proclamation, j\^\ ishhdr, fjix^\ 

i^n, s\j\u^ mandddh. [kunad. 
Proconsul, JmuJ^aJI^^U ndt/ih al 
Procrastinate, v,ji>-\ akhkhar, jjt 

^totoakf j^\j^ ^amal tdkhlr. 

See Defer, delay, put off. 
Procrastination, ,^^\j t&khlr. See 

Delay, dilatoriness. 
Procrastinator, j>^^y..^ mu-akhir, 

Jjlla-^ mutawwil, J>f4^ mu- 


Procrastinated,^^^ mH-aklMr. 
Procreate, v ^yS katpwan, Juij 

weUd, See Beget. 
Procreated, ^yL:iw« mutakkawan, 

J^^ matfflud. To be procreated, 

jj^ tawallad, [tandstd. 

Procreation, July tawlidf J^L:J 

Procreative, procreant, *^l^ mu- 
toallid. Prooreativeness, iy^ 
jJjiJl kuw(U attawlld. 

Procreator, », jjfj wdlid, jJ^ mu- 
waUid, See Father. 

Proctor, #. J-j^ u^crj^?. See Pro- 
curator. — ^A proctor at law, J-,^ 
1^ jJI fToiH/ adda^d. 

Proctorship, JQl^ wakdlat 

Procurable, J^^^^a^ yutahassai, Pro- 
caracj. See Management. 

Procurator, «, JJi^ tMiM, ^V* 
snif^«il«r, jy*^ ma-m&r* See 
Manager. — ^A pzoonrator-genml, 
j;lk« J^^ tAM^I muiUt. 

Procure, v. J*.tf>- kaa§al, JU ««/. 
See Obtain, gain, acquire, mani^, 
contrive; persuade. 

Procured, J<.ade^ imcAotM/. See 
Gained, obtained. 

Procurement, procuration, ^Jjirmr 
^oto/, J^«A>- Aiaa/. See Ae- 

Prodigal, uJ^^Mb^ muir%f,ji>m^ mth 
hauir, imJ^z^ muilif. 

Prodigality, uJl^f i*rdf, 

ProdigaUy, i^\jJXi ^^M urdf. 

Prodigious, c-.^^^ ^<'if^9 '— 'z^ 
^qflb. See Wonderful, amaring, 
monstrous. — Prodigiously, ^9^ 

Prodigy, s. l-.^ ^ih, k.^ 
^^^s^\ ^qfah al ^ajdyib, L^ 
^'ihat. Prodigies, v.,- ^^ r^ 
^'dytbf d^UlU ^a^md^. 

Produce, v. (bring to view or notioe), 
i*Jj kaddam, jJ^\ asdar. To 
produce prooi^ ci^lJ! aJJ huUkm 
ishdifjji] dbrat. See ProTe. 

Produce (whatever anything yields, 
as fhiits, grain, etc.), J^L^ 
h&8%l^ ^^yaas^ moAtfi/; (onoln- 




iUiii^ tnanfa^t. See Qam, pro- 
fit, amount ; fruit. 

Produced (offered to view), *^jfry 
fnaiofnd, J^j*^ mabrat ; (gene- 
rated), *^^y inawl^. 

Ptoductiony ^Jl^ tai0inf *^^^ 
y'ad,j\j^\ Mar,j\j)\ ibrdn; (a 
literary composition), ^nj'urr 3 
tatnlf, \mj\ inshd. 

Productive, jJ^ muwtdUd. See 
Creatiye, efficient, fruitM. 

P^xiem^ ». ^Ujti) dlhdjat, d^dLt 
mukaddamat. See Pre&ce. 

Profanation, ^jm^^O tanjUf ^ju^ JJ 

Pro&ne, \^y^^ dunyawl. See Ir- 
reverent, polluted, wicked. 

Profane, v. \j**-^ naj^'as, ^j*JJ 
dannoi. See Pollute. 

Pro&nely, /*Ki>-l]ij ^tTa ihHrdm, 
Profanmess, A^yx^-HUj^ ^aikrm 
a/ ihUrdm, See Irreverence, 

Proibw, v.j^\ aahop, ^*ij\ in- 
da^\ See Acknowledge, confess, 
own, declare. — To profess Mend- 
ship, Jufi^l^l mJiar (d mth 

Professedly, ^|y^U^ zdMran. 

Profession, t. (calling), jL^ feir, 

ai^ hirfgif ijCma nan^. See 
Art, occupation, vocation.—- (de- 
claration), c^^ ^^^> (j^>; 

i^irdf. A profiBssion of fedtli mr 
belief, if jlfii lAaAdite^. 
Professor, 9. (public teacher), 

To give public lectures as a pro- 
fessor, ijMj^ darraa. 

Proffer, r. /* JJI kaddam. See Offer, 
propose. — ^A proffer, aJ«xS7 ^- 
(Am. See Offer, proposal. 

Proffered, ^^Jl-a.^ mukaddam. A 
profferer, aJiL« tnulcaddim. 

Proficiency (improvement in leamr 
ing, etc.), \Aij\ irUkd, clcJl 
intifd^ See Progress.-— A pro- 
ficient, ^V/^ mutarakkl. 

Profile, ^jl^ui«d3 funT a/ fr<{f%; 
(a likeness in), i„jLa:Jhpjjyai 
d^^i tasu^rah hi nasf al wqfh. 

Profit, i^\i fdifidat, ^ na/^, 

See Gain, advantage, ndvaiuw^ 
ment, improvement. 
Profit, r. (gain advantage), gieJl 
ink/a^; (to gure advanta^^), 
^ naffa^. See Benefit 

Profitable, Jui^ nmfid. 




Profitableness, ifjjli f&yidat, iti\i\ 

ifadat. See Profit. 
Profitably, iJ^Uj^ liM f&yidat, 

Jui^^c yj hinaw^n mufld. 
Profitless, ifjjU^ hUafdyidat. 
Profligate, Jh-»^ fdiik^ ^\3 fdjir, 

Jusli fdaxd, jijL aharrir, iJ^ 

8haki. See Sbameless, wicked. 
Profligate, «. j>^^ fij^Tt j^y* »»w- 

zawwir. See Scoundrel, villain. 
Profligateness, profligacy, oLuyJ 

fasddyjJii 8har. See Wickedness, 

Profound, ^j;^^' ^mlk. See Deep. 

— (most learned), *Jl-&1 a^m, 

J^^l afdal. 
Profoundly (deeply), Jh^ J^ ^ikol 

ta^mak. See Deeply. 
Profoundness, profundity (depth), 

fj.^ camuk, %y£. ghawr; (great 

knowledge), JjJIS^ kasarat al 

Profuse (prodigal), I ju^ mubcaair, 
. uJ^Mu^ musrif; (abounding),^^ 
^fr. See Plentiful, abundant. 
Profuseness, profusion (prodigality), 
uJl^l isrdf, Proftision (abun- 
dance), ij^ kaaaraL 
Progenitor. SeeFore£Bither,ance8tor. 
Progeny, Ju«J tuul, iSi^\ awldd, 
J nasah, Jui^l asl, ijjS 

mirriyat. See OfBipring, 
tion, race« 

Prognosticate, v. . ^,^J ^mmiUo', 
JJIaJ tafaunoal. See Foretel, 
predict. — ^To prognosticate from 
the stars), ^^ nqjjam. 

Prognostication, prognostic, ^JUy^, 
tXc^ maw^. See Predicti(m, 
omen. — The prc^ostications of 
astrologers, ^UL-d-f aUsdm. 
Skilful in the prognostics of the 
stars, ^U|»^U mufuylfim mdhir, 

Prognosticator, «. fjs^ munqjffm, 
JU^liJ fatidh fdl. See As- 

Progress, progression, ^.v. ..< 

tstidrdj, -gCj*^ <«(^|;*, JLJl 
tX'^d/. See Passage. — (advance- 
ment in knowledge, ^«J-J 
tarakkl, ^^Amj tadlm, t^^^olj 
^c2(^{^. A remarkable progress 
(in anything), JL5\ ikhdl^ jy^ 
%akur, A progress (circuit, pro- 
cession, journey), (,1^1 «ii ni/«l, 
Jjjs? tarik,j^ sayr,jL^ ufmr. 
Progressive, progressional, 
j^IjJcLnoI istidrdji. 

Progressively, gCj*^V MU^dry) 

^\jtXLjj hi istidrdj\ 
Progressiveness, -.l^Jcu^^ uUdri^. 

See Progress. 




Plwhibit, V. ^1^ mana^, ^^ naha\ 
/i>j»^ harram, ^j^air J# ^mal 
tahrim. See Forbidi debar, 
hinder, check. 

Prohibited, c j:>a^ mamnH^ (cf^ 
^Lx mttitAa' ^no, (*jS!^ muhar' 
ram. AnythiDg prohibited, /*]^ 
hardm, c y«^i^ tnamnH^ ^»t»a,^ 
mumtana^ Things prohibited, 
Jb|y nawahly c:jt«^3r^ mtiAor- 
ramdtf LlAc-y^j^^ mamnucat. 

Prohibitory f-3t« mdni^, 15^^ ndAf, 
(^jS^ tnuharrm. 

Prohibition, ^-^^^ m^n^, cL^jl^I 


imtinci^, (^^/^ ^aArfm, ^fi waAi. 

Prohibitory, ,<*i^ manci, ^^^jSsT 
tahrtmi. See Prohibitor. 

Project, V. (contrive) 9 j^Lri-l t'M^o- 
ra^, ^*ysj\ ibtada^ See Porm, 
plan, scheme. — To project (jut 
out), jJLtc-i;-ll aahraf ^la* ; 
(cast forward), — ^ ^areiA. 

Project, 8. j^d3 tadhir, c1jl:lj1 

tM(?a^, ^1/^1 fJ&A^tVa^, Li^l jj^l 

«A<2^. See Contrivance, scheme, 
plan, invention. 

Projectile (impelled forward) 
(.JjjLsr^ mahduf. A projectile 
(anything thrown forward), t<^ 

Projecting (scheming), s. j^*^ 

tadblr. See Project.— (jutting 
out), i*«XAJ takadium. 

Projection (shooting forwards), ^Jo 
tarh. See Projecture. — (delinea- 
tion), ^j rasm, k>- hhaU,jJt2Mtj 
tastlr. See Plan, project. 

Projector, «. ^Ju^ mubdi^, ^j^i^ 

Projecture (a jutting out), j^jJLj 
takaddum. See Projection. — (A 
projecture before a house (as a 
balcony, pent-house, etc.), jljj 
rawdk. See£alcony,porch,portico. 

Proleptical. See Antecedent, pre- 

Prolific, _Lwi)Uj* iandsull, r ° '-} 
J*.}l:jJJ yanfa^ lil tandml. See 
Productive, fruitful, pregnant. 

Prolix, JjjL tatpil, Jjllx« mtitou^- 

t(7a/, fJ^asL^ mufasBaL See Long, 
tedious, diffusive. 

Prolixity, prolixness, J^ ial, 
l«K!1 J;Mdi3 tafiUalkaldm, JjjiaJ 

Prolixly, J^M^b hittafi 
mu/aesalan. Prolixly and com- 
pendiously, JUs>>lHj J yiii rJlj 
hittafsU tool ijfndh 

Prolegomena, ^b^li fdtthah. See 

^•. •» 




** I M ** 

Vtologae, «. ^ wO dihdjatf 4««xS/9 
ntuJtaddanufi, iar\i fdtthat. 

Prolongs V. ^}p9 taunaal. To pro- 
long the timei ^W^^ Jj^ tawwdl 

Prolongation, jl Jo^f imtiddd, J^jlaJ 
Mwil, DU9\ Hdlat, Jjl? ml. 
See Delay. 

Prolonged, Jjllx« muiawwal. 
Prominence, 9^^^^ fr^y^^. See 

Prominent, ^i^ mwrto/l^, Jj\j 

Promiscuous, S^^Lcr^ maJMiLt. See 
Mixed, confused, undistinguished. 

Promiscuously, L^^Ji-^^a^^ W- 
wajhin makMnt 

Promise, «. Jlcj ti^ff^^, Jy jtutt?^, 


jU^ mi&d^. According to pro- 
mise, J>xjHc»^Mi'%. Aiua3 a/ tra^(?. 

The performance of a promise, 

To perform a promise, Jj 
«X£j!f tfa^ n/ ttw^i^. To break 
a prondse, «XejJ)^U&. khdn al 

Promise, v. Jucj wa^ttd, ^JtX^jiJ 
ia^hhad Idho. To promise too 

wa^d. TopEomiaatooaeiiiollMr, 

Promised, (^^ mmup^A^. 
Promise, «. 4Xc|^ tod^. 

Promising, promissory (making a 

promise), J^tj trd^uil 
Promissorily, ^J^j frtf^<ltiii. 
Promontory, «. (jwtj rd<. 

Promote, r. (prefer), ^j ralU, 
ajJ knddam, ^j rafa^. See 
Elevate, exalt — To promote to 
dignity or office, ^UT^^ J^ ^omi/ 
/0AO martabat, c,,^«a;..^^J^ ^imm? 
/aAo mansah. 

Promoted, ,V/^ mti^aiUf, ^i^ 
mur^a/S^. See Propagated. 

Promoter, «. iJ/« mwrfliWl, cJJtf^ 
mu^miL See Encoorager. 

Promotion, ^Jj taraikf, LA.Jtl 

fir^fia, i*Jii3 <aia<{<^tM». See 
Preferment, encouragement^ ex- 
Prompt (active), ^j^ mH ^, i»ll 

shatir ; (ready), y^U- iKdifcr, 
Jjcuav* musta^ud. See Beady, 
acute. — Prompt payment, i^oij 
nakdl. See Beady money. 
Prompter (maniix>r), «. la&lj wd^fk, 

Promptitude, promptness, 




8ur^. See Readiness, expedi- 
tion^ quiokness. 
Promptly, i\^hdUaHf UiyMiMiri^«fi, 

See Readily, quickly, expedi- 

Promulgate, promulge, v. j, 4 Al 
a8hhar,j^\ nzAar. See Publiah, 

Promulgation, j\^\ iakhdr, j\^\ 
iihdr. See Publication. 

Promulgated, ^S^ th&yi^ J}^^ 
nuuhhur, j(:JL^ musktahar. See 

Promulgator, promulger, ■ |,.mi^ 
mitshhir, ^^^^ mushayyi^. 

Prone (bending, not erect), ^\^ 
mdyil. See Prostrate. — (having 
a propensity), J^L^ mdyii, 
V— ^\; rdyhib, 

Proneness, J-^ tnayl, Lsj ruyhhat, 
Jl^ shawk. See Propensity, 

Pronoun, «. (perBonal),^^;M«wi damir. 
A demonstrative pronoun, AiM)\ 
iJJU'i] km al Mdrat A rela- 
tive pronoun, ^^xjUa^JH «/ igm 
al mubham. An interrogative 
pronoun, ^I^ajl^mSIuJ^ birf mI 

Pronounce, r. (articulate), )aii lafn. 
See Speak. — To pronounce sen- 

tenee, Jlk.|^0^\ (udar al Man. 
To pronounce sentence of death, 
J:iJb Jl>. hakam hHkatl. Pro- 
nounced, l^^iL^ malfta, 

Pronouncer, «. ksH IdfiM. 

Pronunciation, lail 2fl[/k 

Proof, Cd\^\ uhdt, J^J AiftJ 
(plur. J^iJfc> daldyit), j^Lfc^i 
^Adu (plur. ^;:^^)/; iarSAin). 
— (evidence), ifjlf^ shahdiUUm 
See Evidence, testimony. »- A 
convincing or positive proof, 
<iU J JJj daiil burhdni. Proof 
(test, trial, experiment), ^l^^f 

IMrat. Without proof, CjUllb 
^7a Mdi, JJjL ^Od (bft^, 
^U^^ ^f^ hurhdn. Legdk 

A proof-mark upon weights, mea- 
sures, gold, silver, etc., jLc ^dr. 
The assayer of the mint, who 
puts the proof-mark on gold or 

Prop, 8. J^ ^oMikd, JCuuA^ Ma0iit<i, 
Lsr* ma^'S. See Sajqaort. 

Prop, V. su^ smuuL Bee Bappovt, 

Propped, J^wuM/t nuunfi^. 

Propagate, v. ^^ noihar, ^J^ 
shayya^ See Ex.tATL4^ ^\m»&^^ 




difhse, promulgate, publish. — 
(to increase), jh %dd; (to gene- 

rate), jJ^ tawaUad. To propa- 
gate religion, ^jJIjIm^jIju^ 
kasad intish&r addln. 

Propagated (diffused), ^t2i »hdyi^ 
See Promulgated, published. — 
(increased), j1 J)w« mwtddd ; 

(generated), jJ^ muwaHad. 

Propagation (diffusing), jI«m ,". j1 
intishdr. See Promulgation, 
publication. — (increase), iol^J 

tayddatf ob J|\ ndiyad ; (gene- 
ration), if J^j walddat. 
Propagator, «. (generator), jJlj wdlid, 


jiy mutcaUid; (a spreader), 
wA/« mushayyi^. 

Propensity, propension, propend- 
ency, J^ may/, j^ shawlCf 
i^j rughbat, ^l^ khatir, \yb 
hated. See Inclination, tendency. 

Proper (fit), JjJ Idyik, l«..cs-^ 
wdjih, (Ji\y muwdfik, 
mund9%b ; (peculiar), ^1^ Hd«, 
^yAs^ maJthaUs ; (accurate, 
just), ^ji^ moibiU. See True, 
exact. — (natural, original) 
tahl^ ; (real), ^Ju>l ash, 


Aa^itf . See Necessary. 

Properly (fitty), i-JUj^ ^^to/ 


Propemess, <-A-i^^ Mmffd/UM, 
i^\:>^ mundsabai, ^Ul liydbd. 
See Fitness, suitablenewy taHneiw. 

Property (peculiar quality), LAsi^ 
khdiat, L^lfL hkduiyat^ izAi 
%dt, i^JiS kayfiyat, ^Jbt« mdhiyai. 
See Essence, quality, nature, dis- 
position. — (possession), t' ^ \ ^ 
mull; (goods), JU md/ (plur. 
^y^y\ amwdl). 

Prophecy, i^ nabuwaL See Pre- 
diction, divination. — ^The gift of 
prophecy, i^ nabuwat. 

Prophesy, v. ^2:3 tanabba\ See 

Prophet, prophesier, b. ^ naii, 
J^-j^i rasuL 

Prophetess, 8. ^ s-^'^ nMyak it 

Prophetic, i^yj nabawi. A pro- 
phetic saying, v/^d-J J^ haiU 

Propinquity, c-y kurb. See Near- 
ness, proximity, neighborhood. 
— (relationship), ij\ji kardbat, 
^■■.'^ " ■ J nasab, <U«mJ^]^ kardbai 
fuuabiyat See Kindred. 

Propitiation, ^Uj^lJlJ\uJIL«s«i) 
isti^tdf allah ta^la\ See Pto- 
pitiousness, atonement. 

Piomtious, *^k>. , rahim, t— qJH htlt 




jjLm^ mus^. See Fa^orablei 
kind, benign, benevolent* — To 
make propitioas, to propitiate, 
^(ikjCL^l ista^a/aho. To be or 
become propitious, v— olai lataf. 

Propitiousness, ^.pItI lutf, (Jt^y* 
tawfik. See Conciliation^ benig- 
nity, kindness. 

Propitiously, ^J-j^j^Juuaa_j hita^ 
din toa tawfik. 

Proportion, t^,^^^\:J tandsuh, <UmJ 
nasahat, ^L^jli/* mundaahat. See 
Analogy, symmetry; form, size. 

Proportion, v. proportionate, (jJ3 
J^ kd8 ^la, J^jl^^LJ— ^,f. 
^malaho muwafik. See Por- 
tion, divide, distribute. 

Proportionable, proportional, pro- 
portionate,proportioned, c,^,.i\ **•;>< 
mutandsib. Proportionality, pro- 
portionateness, l.^^v«»1:J tandmh. 
See Proportion. — Proportionally, 
Proportionately, »^jJ^<U-jU-iSlj 
hil mundsabat Ha^ ghayrthi, 
Sj^ls.^itAJL}\} hil kiyds ^aia* 

Proposal, 8. proposition, ^jC^ ^ard, 
(jmUcJI iltimas, IcJcLmo^ Uitd^, 
v_ -^^-f matlab (plur. i^^llx« 
maidlib), ^Loi kadiyat (plur. 

UL^ ibifdyd):, (a design), 
ibM^, fy niyaty C^j^ murdd, fjo^ 
yharad. See Intention, scheme, 
plan. — The proposition of a syllo- 
gism, LtiiA/* mukaddamai. The 
major proposition of a syllogismi 
ij;jJl\i^3AA^\ ci mukaddamat al 
kubra.* The minor proposition, 
,^jSu^\i^*^AA^\ al mukaddamat 


al 9uyhra\ 

Propose, V. propound (make a pro- 
posal), ^fjOjA ^ad laho. To 
propose to one's-self, ^1a/^j& 
^amm io,la\ JuoS ktuad. See 
Intend, design, scheme, plan. 

Proposer, «. propounder, i»A£— >• 
mukaddim, (jOj^ ^rid. 

Proposed, ^^^jt^ ma^nd, /bJJL4 
mukaddam, etc. See Offered. — 
(intended), OyoLt maksud. See 

Propound, v, /^j3 kaddam. See 
Propose, offer, exhibit. 

Proprietary (belonging to a certain 
owner), C^L^ mulk, XJlfL khdtsat. 

Proprietor, proprietary, «. ul^U 
mdlik, i^^^ft-U 9dhib. See Pos- 

Propriety (fitness), ^U laydkai, 
L^\:>^ mundiabat. See Exact- 




« « 

ta^, ji^\^ idkhir, Jj^ 
tatteUlf J\j4&^ iitmrdr. See 
Probngation, contixmanoe.^-To 
'prorogue, jtiA al^hhar. 

Prorogued, ^^'Is.^ tmiUakhkhar, 
i^yy mawhBf, 

Ptosoribe, v. ^»>^ mana^ ^Ju nafa\ 
J:;AJli^»C>. hakam hil kail. 

Proscribed, J -:*^.5J b ^lJl^ f^^"^^ 
mdhkum ^aloffhi hil kail, ,«a2^ 
fnanfa\ A proBcriber, i^a^h^ 
mM»/t. Proscription, ^J3 im»/^, 

f4X>-f JiAJ Jl^f al hukm hikatl 

Prose, jij fkur, ^si*^A^ kaldm 

Prosaic, i^Sj nasri. 

Prosecute, v. (continue endeavours 
after any thing), jAS^\ Uiamar, 
^Jlc^jI J ddtoam ^la\ See Per- 
severe, continue. — ^To prosecute a 
design, isJi ^Xe. f\^^ ddwam ^W 
nisfMihi, x*X,ai^}syA3>J\ tstamar 
^la* hasdthi. To prosecute at 
law, iu^lwL4l!^uU9 talabaho lil 
mushdra^, dL5U Ja^UxJ^ ^amal 
^layhi shari^h. 

Ph)secution (pursuit), ijj\ Vr ^ 

mutdradat, jjb tard; (persevering 

to carry on), j\jA:iJ\ wtimrdr, 

i^^\s^ mud&wamaL See Pteiss- 
verance. — A legal piooeflutiiiu, 
4^^J da^wt^, or |^J it§^. 
See Process. 

Prosecutor, «. ^*iy muddm^. Set 

Accuser, persecutor. 

Proselyte, J-^c^J <2iti£Af/, ^,/*j;-i 
(fhars. See Convert. 

Prosody, ^^j|yj\ Ac ^Im al ^urld, 
J^^js. ^urud. 

Prospect (sight, view),^Pta*/« JiwuiMr, 

Jaj nazar; (distant view), SmJoj 

nazar ha^d; (a place which 

affords an extensive view), i^^ 

manzar (plur.^l:^^ wuMozir). 

Prosper, v. (make happy), Juj^^rfdUx. 
^malaho Ba^d, «Xju»1 iu^ad. See 
Favour. — (to be i>r beoome happj 

or successful), JuA^stL* wSf 
sa^d. May God prosper (him, her, 
etc.), iOJUjkx^l QB^adaho aUah. 
Prosperity, prosperousness, JLil 
ikhdly ic\x^^ sa^dai, vj* -r^ 
hakht. See Happiness, succesB, 
good fortune. 

Prosperous, iJ^S^ mukhtl, jjtm^ 

mus^ad, ^^ muJUh. See P<u> 
tunate, successful. 

Prosperously, JlfSl J^ ^ijb/ tlUd/, 




najah. See Fortunately, sucoesB- 

Prostitute^ v. ^Jjj rmuaL 
Prostitute, prostituted, Jj[J j rtnlL 
Prostitute, s. iUL».\j fdhUhat^ ^us^ 

kahhat. See Strumpet, whore.— 

To play the prostitute, ^^jl^jC 

Ua^ l^ U- ^aradai hdhhd lilkhaUi, 
Prostitution, <l:.^^ kahbanaU See 

Prostrate, ! J^Lt sajidan. To &11 

prostrate, \j^\^j:>^khar9djidan. 
Prostrate, v* Jls*** M/ae^. [mj^d. 
Prostration, Sjujb^ sajdat, Oyer' 
Protect, V. ,^5**'^ hama\ ^^l^ <dn, 

^^^ hdma^ ^n, SeeBefend. 
Protection, ^Ia>- hmdyat^ ZjU^ 

siydnatf i^aiX^-^ muhdfazat. 
Protector, ^^ Mml^ kiU. Ao/Es, 

^^^W* muhdml ^an. See 

Preserver, defender. 
Protected, ^^^^^^^ muhma\ kr^iir^ 

maA/tis. See Defended. 
Protest, v. j:u«Jj|yJ^ ^amalprotsUo. 
Protest, protestation, j^^^j{ pro- 

Protester, «. jjL% mukarrir, J-#U 

^LuJ^j^\ ^mil alproteato. 
Protract, v, j-^^ aihkhar, Jjl-t 

tawwal, fjjjbilf ^maUho tmelL 

See Delay, lengthen. 

Protracted, ^L:;^ mutaahkkharf 
J^J^ib^ mamd^. A protraoter, 
Jjllx« mutaunoil. 

Protraction, ol J&«\ mm^mM^^^^I; 
taakhlr, Jj^ Mu^i^ J|^ 
tuufdnl. See Delay. 

Protraotiye, protracter, ^lf«t m- 
hdU. See Dilatory. 

Protuberance^ /tj^ waram. See 
Tumor, swelling, pimple. 

Protuberant, ^^L^j frarMdn, . 
l*«xSs^ muiakaddim. See Promi- 

Protuberate, i?. |*;j trorHiiy aJ^aJ 

takaddam. See Swell, project- 
Proud, jyC r.^ oiu^oib^&ir. Sea 
Splendidi grand, magnificent, 
pompous, vain, ostentatious ; 
daring, presumptuous. 

Proudly, ^ji^jjf^-JCj hikdjabrin 
wa kubriyd. To behaye proudly, 
JS3 idkabhar. 

Ph)ye, V. (by testimony or argu- 
ment), c:^! M^a^, ^^j^b^ harkan \ 
(to try, l»ing to the test), S-^/r* 
jarrah^ ^^^-.^CU) imtaJum. See 
Examine. — (to happen), J^.^^ 
Amo/; (to become), jL^ 9dr ; (to 
find by experience), jfS^\ tM- 

Pioyea\Afi, cj^\^\-i \akSL fix 




Mdtf ^l^L«)1 JjU kdhil al m- 

tihdn, i)ja^\^jLk^ mfimkin al 

Proyed (by evidence or argument), 

CJaaI^ moBhut ; (brought to the 

test), '^j^ mujarrah, J^*ii^ 

Proyender, CLJ^ kat, ^^US? ta^m, 

ij^\ at^mat. See Provisions, 

Proverb, «. ^Jl^ moBal (plur. Jll^^ 

amal), CJ^-Jl^ masalat. To 

speak proverbs, JLl-^l<-«y^ 

darah amsdl, Jll^Sl^ Jl>- haka* 

hil amsdl. 
Proverbial, ,J.2^ masali, S-^/^15^ 

Ji^ild^ <Ay yudrah hihial mdsal. 
Proverbially, Jl^^y^ ^' naw^ 


Provide, v. provide for (prepare, get 
ready), j0a>- haddar. To provide 
necessaries, aJ^jULi^>. haddar al 
lawdtim. See Prepare, purvey, 
procure, furnish. — To provide or 
stipulate, Ir^ J^ ^amdl ahurnt, 
ijJb\jL^fJi ^mal mu^hadat To 
provide industriously for a &mily, 
Aji\j^j3 kaddam otestm. 

Provided, jmei rr^ muhaddar, etc. 
See Prepared. — Provided that, 
^J^)ffjwJ U short on.' 

Providence (of God), in^ W^LJl 
al ^ndyat al Hahiyai; (fim- 
sight^ prudence), ^^^JJ toMr, 
ij^ haHrai, Jac ^M, kUs^.! 

Provident, ^a^ mudaWr, JjLf 
^S^t/. A provident man, ^-^^-* 
^^««d^ «d^ haslrat. See Prudeot 

Providential (effected by provi- 
dence), ^U34^U^f;L.Jju^i^C4 
mutammam hi ^ndyat al hW 
ta^dla\ Providentially, JbUJb 

See Providence. 
Providently, ij^^JCj hikol hoHn^ 
j^Jsj h* tadbir, ^ILLclc^I {kti- 

Provider, «. ^^^:<f^ mtiAayyi. 

Province, «. |»JlJ1 al;/fift, JLIUI 
aydlatf ^l; J ^ydr. See B^oo, 
tract. — ^Any man's province, duty, 
or office, i^d^ khidmat. 

Provincial (relating to a province), 
>Jli^i-,>y^M,;^ mansuh lHakdllm. 

Provision, provisions (food), j^\^ 
ta^m, \SC' ghaddf i*^\^\ sa«npd- 
dat. Provisions served out to 
ambassadors, etc. from the puhlie 
treasury, ^^j jiO ta^yln. tto- 




if JJbU^ mu^dhadat. Provisional 
(conditional), ^j^ shartl. Pro- 
visionally, ^^j^ ^t shurHt. 

Proviso, t^ short. See Stipu- 
lation, condition, provision. 

Provocation, CS^j^a^ takrik, 
^^ jss^ tahrid (plur. (JLj\*dija^ 
tahriddt)* See Irritation; also 

Provocative, «. i^^\cS^'^ ww- 
harrak Mhshahwat, 

Provoke, v, (enrage), i— »^ *n r\ 

aghdah. See Irritate, offend. — 

(to excite, give an edge), cJ;»- 

harrah. See Stimulate, incite, 

Provoker, «. (causing anger), 
c.^*H t^ mughdib ; (a causer, 
promoter), ci^^*^ muharrik. 

Provoked, lL^** muharrak. 

Provoking (giving provocation), 
i^>yJin^ mughdxh. 

Provost (chief of a college or other 
society), JLiJ^l^j^j rayyes al 
madrasat. See Magistrate. 

Prow (fore part of a ship), f^dJL% 
^^^jA^\ mukdum al markab. 

Prowess, lAjs*^ thajd^t, i'Uflj- 
jaraat. See Courage, valor. 

Proximate, c-^ Ji karih. Proximity, 
L^ji kurbf JWI iUitdl, 

Prude, s. JiU ^dkU, ^U^Jl^Ic 
JJLc ^mUhdlaho ^kil. [tadblr. 

Prudence, i,* «n t hasirai, j^Jj 

Prudent, prudential, ^^;MiBiL-^%> 
«di(f& loilratf JjU ^d^}7. Pru- 
dent people, ij^^i^\sf^\ ashdh 
ha€irat,j^d>j^^[)j\ arhdh iadbir. 

Prudently, prudentially, ^(Jac J^ 
iji^y hikol ^klin wa hoHrat, 
j^SjjCj hikol tadbir. 

Prune, 9. (plum) ^l^j-l q^'ds, ^y^- 
khawkhf ^^ji harkak. 

Psalm, s. jyj^ nuamHr. The 

psalms of David, Jjl«^^.;w«U^ 

mazdmlr ddUd. Psalmody, ^^^.^ 

tazmlri A psalter (hook of 

psalms),j^j^ \ L^\::^ kitdh afsstahar. 

Psaltery, «. (species of harp) j^y IS 

Pshaw ! 2flj iodh. See Foh ! pish ! 

Puherty, 4 ^ htdUyh, ^^ IndU' 
yhiyai. A. hoy arrived at the age 
of puherty, ^b hdligh. A girl 
arrived at the age of puherty, 
^Ul::^ hint halighat. To ar- 
rive at the age of puberty, j\^ 
^\i Bar Idligh. 

Puhlican, %, (the keeper of a house of 
general entertainment), jsf\si\^ 
mlkhdnji, x^J^^ khammdr. 

Publicalioii, ^Jsj^.Ii^ \%K\wlt> ^^j^!«^ 




mhOr, The pablioation of a book. 

Public (commoD, general), ^y^ 

tarak; (generally known), ^^fuL^ 
mathhur, uJjyt^ tna^f. Pub- 
lic business (national affairs), 
ii^*ii\jy\ umUr addawlat. The 
public treasury, i^js^\ oi mfrf. 
Public burdens, JLj^fiu^lXj 
takdlif f^fyftA. See Tax.— 
Public prayers, leJ <^^d. See 
Prayer.— A public standard of 
weights or measures, jLc ^f^dr. 

Public, «. (general body of a nation) 
c^^^jt^i oMha^, See Nation, 

Publicly, 'LJis, ^al&niyatany \ji^ 

tdhiran. Publicly and privately, 

^Ifj \j^ 9%rranwa^aldniy(Uan, 

Publicness,j^ svAar, ij^ shuhrat. 

Public-spirited, fj^j^^^^^"^^^ muhtb 
al icatan. Public-spiritedness, 
^^1v»*.^>- hth altoatan. 

Publish, V. j^\ ashhar. To pub- 
lish a book, c^Lii^juiJ nashar 

Publisher, b.jJ^\j n&9hir. The pub- 
lisher of a book, I 
naahir al kUdh. 

Pmdding, s. ^ Jy pvdiimg 


Pudendum (membrom fiiile), HR 
J-^LsIi ^M Manana,^6 a«br 
(plur. ji^i snihir). Pndcndiim 
(mulieris), ^y fofy (plur. ^jy 

Puerile, ^Ja\9 tijn. See ChildisiL 
— Puerilty, XJ^ iN>i2%a/. See 

Puff, 9. (blast) is:^ nafhai (plnr. 

CUU*^ nafh&t) ; (a ftmgus), U 

^ama. See Mushroom. 
Puffer, «. (blower) ^U nd/CiM. 
^g» ijy*^ tnaymun. See Ape. 
Pugh ! iflj wdh. See Fob ! 

Puissance, See Power, potency.— 
Puissant. See Powerful, — ^Puis- 
santly. See Powerfully. 

Pull, 17. ^-'^s^ sahah, <^>.Af»- jaui. 
See Draw, drag. — To pull up 
(eradicate), ^ii kala^. See Ex- 
tirpate, tear, rend. — ^To pull hairs 
from the face, t^Ji) naiaf. 

PuU or pulling, *. i^J^ jmk, 
j>- Jar. A puller, c-Jiilsj- jastH. 

Pulled, immJjijsT* mc^uh, im^^af*^ 
mashnb. See Drawn. — Pulled 
up, (^^s:***^ mashuh. 

Pullet, ijJf^iS^j3 farkha sa^khrak 
^^J farmj. 




Pulmonic (belongmg to the longs), 
^ JJ^^^amIm* maniUb lil rijfoh. 

Palp (of fruits), ^s:^ »hahm, v^ 

Pulpit, «. jt^:^ manhar (plur. jj\:^ 
mandhir). [annaht 

Pulsation, s. ^ja^\l^j»^ haralai, 

Pulse, 9. ^/LJ nahU One stroke of 
the pulse, ^idJ nahtaU 

Pulse (leguminous plants), ^y*^ 
hubah, LZj[)^^s>^ hubnhat. See 
Pea, bean. 

Pulverable, J^f^\jL%>^ mumkin 
assahk. Pulverization, pulveriz- 
ing (reducing to powder), ^J^!^ 
sahk. To pulverize, JLs:*^ aahak. 

Pumice-stone, 8, {J**^)j^ hqfar al 
hash, (JJ^lL]^ hajar al hdkak. 

Pumpkin, pompion, «. ^^ kar^ 

Pump, 8, (for raising water), ^Js 

Pun, 8. jy^'^ kaldmbur, ^ ,„iL^)si 
latlfah. See Wit, humor. — ^To 
pun,j^^K (J4^ ^mal kaldmbUr. 

Puncheon, «. ij^ji barmlL See 

Punctilio, ^A(j iakllf. 

Punctilious, Ui a ^Kjw, ■>> l^ idhib 
taklif. See Precise, ceremonious. 

Punctual, ^Ju;.^»-U 8&hibdMai. 
Sec £xact, accurate. — Punctually, 

iJjJCj bikol dikkai, cl^jILj 

bilwakt. See Pointedly. — ^Punc- 

tualneesy ^lJj Hhkai. See 

Puncture, iys^ nakhuUm 

Pungency, 2^J^>- hiddat. [sharp. 

Pungent, jU- h&d. See Piercing, 

Punish, c^«X^ ^assa3, (..^U ^<U»^. 

Punishable, ^jo\ .r fl llJjbL:;^MMi 
mustdhU al kisds. 

Punished, {^^\x^ mu^kab, c^«x«^ 
mu^ataab. To be punished, 
(..^UJ ta^kab, [muntakitn, 

Punisher, «. c^U^ mu^kib, ^^as:^ 

Punishment, i.^ juu ^^sl^, ^^i^ 

Pupil (apple of the eye), fj^f^^yiyi 
bubbn al ^n, ^j^\^*X»- hado" 
kat al ^n, ^j^\^\m*j\ imdn 
al ^ayn. See Eye. — (a scholar), 
«3u^ talmU. 

Pupillage (state of being a scholar), 
iuJcJt^U- hdlat attalmU. 

Puppet, «. <LjiS lu^at. 

Purchaseable, lJ/^ yushtara^. 

Purchase, v. i^J^^ uhtara\ J^mJ 
tasawtoaL See Buy. 

Purchase or purchasing, s. \ji2»\ 

Purchaser, «. i^jJL^ nuuhiari. 

Pure Ccilfiax, Yooi^^iii^i jaS^ Vel^w; 




(unmixed), |^l>- khdlis; (in-* 
nooent, chaste), ^\k tdhir, _sj 
nakl. See Holy, yirtaoiui, modest. 
— (sincere of heart), J jl^ idd^. 
Parer, purest, ^f!?! athar. 

Purely (without mixture, with 
limpidness), uJ^ tarf, ]aSjfakaL 
See Pure. — (merely, simply), 
laAJ fakat. 

Pureness, purity (clearness, limpid- 
ness), f^l^ tahdraty i^U) nakdwat. 
Purity or elegance of manner, 
JLai^lc^j^ tah%lb d khisdl 
See Elegance. 

Purgatiye,^^lx« mutahhir. A pur- 
gative, ijjJ^ sharhe. See Purge. 

Purgatory, ^^^k^il al mathar. 

Purge, 8. J^fwuu« masahhil. 

Purge, V. (cleanse), 4.J«a3 naddaf. 

Purger, purifier, s.J^l^ mutahhir. 

Purification (rendering pure),^;*^* 

Purificative, purificatory, purifying, 

j^^ mutahhir. 
Purified, ^^L^ mutahhar. 

Purify, V. (make pure), .^ tahhar. 

Purple, aij\ kJ}^^ kirmiil. Purple, 

«. i^^J^ arjawdn. The purple 

shell-fish, -J^ harfir. 

Purport (tendency o£ a "wntiii^ w 

Purpose, So[;t irddat^ Juaj imif 

maksud (plur. Ju0lL« m m idni ), 
^jOjZ gharad (pi. (^^js\ mghrdi). 
See Intention, desiga. — (conse- 
quence, effect). See Instance, 
example. — On purpose^pniposdy, 
Ju^Jjlj hilkoidf \jul3 ktudtm, 
tJux ^amdan. 

Purpose, V. Ju^ koiod. See Intend, 
design, resolve. 

Purse, s. \j»t^ kit. 

Purse, V. (put in a purse) «^^ 
^jmJQ\j wada^ hU ku. 

Pursiness, pursiveness (shortness of 

breath), ^^^MbA:ildA^ dlkatannafu, 

Purslain, < L L.a-j haklat, ^^j-t^^^ 

Pursuable (capable of being prose- 
cuted), j\^-«JL-:3< J^U Hha d 

Pursuance (prosecution of any ob- 
ject), j\j4S^\ istimrdry i^^\X9 
muddwamat. In pursuance of, 
pursuant to, v»^^am»- Jl& cak^ 
hasah, \_ — '-^ hi hasab, t_ -■'^ 
hasah. In pursuance of the in- 
structions which I have received 
\ ^QTCEL ^<(^ Cx^x^nment of Her 




Majesty the Queen, it is my duty 
to state to your Excellency that, 
etc., ^^lc^UiieJt^^.or^ 

^'c^Vf^^'^-J. See According 
to. — In pursuance of orders, 
'^'* . "^ '■■ ^ hihasab al amr, 
i— ^1 i.--^*ud- hasab al huhn. 


Pursuant to the signal, 
ijK^Vi hasab al uhdrat. Pur- 
suant to promise, A^Jt ^_ ^^ ^^ 
hasab al toa^d. 
Pursue, V, (follow, chase) J^ Uhek; 
(to prosecute with perseverance), 
^■^, : >,^1 istamar ; (to prosecute 
legally), ^^JJc^ talab la 
sharl^aL See Persevere, en- 
deavor, proceed. 
Pursued, jys^ malhuk. 
Pursuer, s. (follower), j^.^ Idhik ; 
(hunter), jll^ sayydd; (prose- 
cutor), J ,IL tdrid. 

Pursuit (following), jUj| Hithak; 
(endeavor), J^Jahd, ^ m^i, 
<Ua Amwa^. See Prosecution. 
Pursy (short breathed and fet), 

Purvey, r. (provide with victuals 
or convoniencee) -;L^ jjl^jul 

•JL1\ kaddam anahhdyir al 

Purveyance (procurement of provi- 
sions), ^UljJ I ^^ji; takdlm ana- 
Purveyor, s. ^^IJ^^ wakll al 

hhafj\ See Procurer, pimp. 
Purulence, pus, ^} hayh. 
Purulent (full of pus, as a wound), 

.^iiU mukayyih. 
Push, V. (drive, shove, thrust, force), 
{J^O da/ash, ^J dafa^. To 
push back or away, Jj rad. 
Push, pushing, $. ^j da/^. See 
Impulse.— (an attack), m^ 
hujamy ILi^ hamlat; (an effort), 
,^5«-» 8a^, 4X.^^ jahd, ^UjUbl 
thtimdm. See Endeavor, — (emer- 
gence, existence), Lajjl iktidd. 
To make a push (to assault), J**^ 
Cy^ t?^'^^ %tiw ; (to make an 

effort), ^^^^ M^i, See Endeavor. 


Pushed, ^yx« madfa^ 
Pusillanimous, ^l^jabdn, i^U. 

khdyif, Jj^ towio/, SeeCJowaidly, 


Pusillanimouaness, pusillanimity, 
^l^ jahanat. See Timidity, 
meanness. — Pusillanimously, JCj 
4JL>- hikol jabanat. 

Pustule, «. ila. )io]bW.. 




Put, 9. Oay) ^^j wadac, ~j^ 
tarah, h-f>- hat; (to spront), 
u:^.J fuiSa^; (to exert), J-t^f 

jadddho ; (to propose), ^jS> ^ad. 
To pnt hi (insert), J^;- J^ adkhdl. 
To put in praotice, f^A£. ^nud. 
To pat in a dainii ^ «3^^ mia^\ 
To put ojff (divest, lay aside), 
t^^\j>'^Aj'.CSjJ tarak ^ala* 
ianah; (to procrastinate), j^\ 
akhkhar. See Delay. — (to dis- 
card), ^hc ^atal. To put out (ex- 
tin^ish), ^J!b Utfn^. To put out 
(publish), ^^! aahhar. To put 
to death, Jsj kaial. See "Kill, 
murder. — ^To put together, ^^^ 
j'ama^. To put upon (impose), 
^Jl£<lL^ J,4be ^amal hilat ^ala\ 
See Deceive, cheat. 
Putredinous, putrescent, putrid, 
putrified, ^jUl^ mu^ffin. 

Putrefaction, putrescence, putrid- 
ness, &jAc ^filfuU. 

Putrefy, V. (rot), ^^ ^fan. 
Puzzle, V. jl^ hayyar. See Per- 
plex, embarrass, confbnnd. 
Puzzle, 9. if,^^>^ Mr at. 

Puzzled, ^jf^ hayrSn, 
muiazajfA. See Perplexed. 

Piuzlfir, 9,j0Sf^ wmkmf^. 
Pyramid, •. ^^ %mim (plur. f^ji\ 
ahrdm). \mM al hm r im . 

Pyramidal, pjrramidioal, a^Ji« 

Pyrites (fire-ftcme), jU\^ ht^ 

Pyx, s. j;>. A«ib. See Box. 


The Arabic characters wluch hive 
any affinity with Q are ^ and vl/. 

Quadrangle, s. L^V^I^j^JC^ 
shakl murahha^ aaawdyd. See 
Court, square. 

Quadrangular, ^^jj^^^j^ murs^ 
ha^ asaawdyd. To make quad- 
rangular, ^j^i^A^ ^awuhh 
murahha^ ^^Jd J«4kC ^tmd 
shakl murabba^. To sit in t 
quadrangular fbrm, ^Jf UtrMa^* 
To be quadrangular, ^Jp tarahha^, 
^j^j^ 9dr murahha^. 

Quadrant, «• f-^ ; ruh^. See Quarter. 
The quarter of a circle, ?^f jJl^i 
ruh^ adddyrat. An astronomical 
quadrant, Sj^\j^\ ^— {^ nii^ 
adddyrat. Quadrate. See Quad- 
rangle, quadrangular. [Suit 

Quadrate, v. v^^wU wUti. 9m 





Qaadiennial (oompriaiiig w lasting 

OMWiIn; (eveiy four yean), J^ 
^j^^^j] kol arha^ Wftin. 

Qaadrilateral. lU,^ tnttrabhac, 
Quadriliteral (as a word consisting 

of four letters), ^Vj ^^t*« 
Quadruped, ^\^J^j\^3^\^,,^^ 
hayw&n sa arha^kawdyim, ^LJ«t« 
md«AfyaA(plur. ^^^^^ mat&d«Af). 


Quadruple uJ\fL^\^j\ arha^t 
ad^f. To quadruplicate, i^jiflip 
j\j^^^J^ dd^af arha^at amrdr. 

Quail, s, <OUu«i aummdnat (plur. 
d^UJLj iummandt), 1*L» sahffd, 

Quaintly (accurately), UjJiCj hikol 
dikhat See Nicely. 

Quaintness. See Niceness, neatness, 
prettinese, exactness, affectedness, 
oddness, strangeness. 

Quake, r. cap-j ^o/a/y *yjuj\ *rta^, 
(jMJt-Jjl irta^h. See Shake, 

Quake, quaking, «. iJLs,j ra^siat, 
iscj ra^t, JljJj tahal, Zjlj 
Mohalat, ^l/Tj ra^<&*. 

Qualification, uJLJt mitdf, \mJL^ 
wasf (plur. uJU^l aMidf)^ 
tawtitft ik^ iifai. See 

Quality, aooompliahmeut ; ak$ 
abatement^ diminutioD. 

Qualified (made fit), (J^^y muwdfik, 
L,,^^^^\i^ mundsth, fj^ Idyik, 

Qualify, V, (make fit for anything), 
fji\yi\Ax. ^amalaho muwdjlk; 
(to modify, regulate), Ja3 noMom. 
See Arrange. 

Quality (property, accidcnti LJ^ 
khdssat, JL.0l>. khd88iffat, iLa 
Bifat, ^m-Juf^i kayfiyai, <Ljb\^ 
fndhiyat\ (disposition, temper of 
mind), <---^/um« nuuhrab, ^\y* 
nuadj ; (rank), ^jO darqfat, 
il^ nunuudatf ^y tnartabat, 
u,.>^.dW nMtuah, See Dignity, 
nobility. — The quality (people of 
rank), uJ]y-^\ ashrdf. See 
Nobles. — Goods of the first quality, 
JU JU mdl ^l. 

Quandary. See Doubt, dilemma. 

Quantity, jlj^ miukddr,jdi kadar, 
l^ kammiyat, %-Lw« maliagh. 

Quantum (amount), IIa^ jttmlat, 
wibSf- jam^. See Quantity.--" 
Quantum sufficit, ^U^ ksfdyeU. 
See Sufficiency. 

Quarrel, $, c\jj mnd^, 
mundta^aL See Dispute. — A 
fomenter of quarrels, CJ\jM!^ 


QUA 824 

Quarrel|t^. i^jL^ J^kc ^amalmund- 
za^t, i«^«a£i^ J* carnal khtuH- 

' mat, flj^J*? lamal nazd^. See 
Debate, dispute, fight. 

Quarreller, s, quarrelsome, 9)^ 
mundzi^. [ma^dan al hajar. 

Quarry, «. (stone-mine),ys^ljj*X*^ 

Quart (measure), j^j^^ kudrter. 
See Quarter. [murahhac^a. 

Quartan (ague), ^Uj^^^^^^ humtna" 

Quarter (fourth part), ^j ruh^, 
A quarter (region of the world or 
country), t^Jo taraf, c-^l^ 
jdnih. See Side, district, region. 
— ^The four quarters of the world, 
iXwwk^lftljjliujl arba-^at arbd^ 
al maskunat The quarter of a 
city, As:*^ muhallah, 2(^l>- hdrah. 
From every quarter, c-^ \s>- J^ ^ 
min kol jdnih, *— i^ J>i,j-^ ^nin 
kol taraf. Soldiers' quarters, 
^Cw^tr.U^lLt makdn al ^askar. 
Winter quarters, iLwuJillLjuuA^ 
mashtd al ^kar. Quarter (mercy 

. shown by a conqueror), ^J^\ 
amdn. Quarter! quarter! ^\^\ 
^\^\ amdn amdn. To give quar- 
ter, j^^' Jai' fi^a,^ amdn. 

Quarter, v. (divide into four parts), 


Quarterly (in four parts), ^jrui^; 

(every three months), iJjijJi 

j^\ kol saldiat aahhur. 
Quartermaster, s. JLmm^ mu^asiar. 
Quash, V. (annul), Jla^ hattal,j!iiii\ 


abtal, ^**^ nasakh. See Crush. 

Quatrain, ». (stanza), ^^j ruhd^, 
«.j^ murabba^. 

Queen, «. iiS^ malakat. The queen 
mother, ^W M.l^ifjJ^j wdlHai 
asatdtdn. The queen, at chess, 
J J Jl al wazir. 

Queer (whimsical), JJLacX^ mtf^a- 
khayyil) (odd, strange),^ jUwdJir, 
v_ - -^ (,ajtb ; (fancifulness), 
JJdsT takhayyal. 

Quench, v. (fire), jUil^^^^iS? ^fl/a* 
annar. To quench thirst, ^j:^ . 
^*^»M raM^ff* al catash. See Ex- 
tinguish ; still; cool. — Quench- 
able, ^aL^j yuntafi. A quencher, 
-ik^ mutfl. 

Querimonious, querulous, ^^— ^Li 
«AaJ&l. Querimoniously, queru- 
lously, ^\Ll^\> bil shakdyat. 
Querimoniousness, qucrulousness, 
^l^ shakdyat. 

Querist, «. JjL) sdyil. See Inquirer. 

Query, s. See Question. 

Query, v. See Question, inquire. 


hmam arhd^. 8ecl>W\dfi \ Q.>i(»\.. '^j«fe ^«»2n3c^, v&sv>^< 




Qaestion, 8» (interrogatory), J^^ 
tudlf A^sc.^\ istifhdm, jLaM^^A 
Utifsdr, See Inquiry, disquisi- 
tion, search. — (doubt), cl,\ A 
9hak, <^dJ» shuhhaL Any question 
put for amusement or trial of 
genius, ^ « .^1 ahjiyat (plur. 
>-l».l ahdji). Question (dis- 
pute, controversy), ^••n "i kadiyat, 

mujddalatf <i^i^L/t muhdhasat. 

Question, v, (interrogate), ^ii^^Mjl 
ista/ham, j»Mki^)\ Utafsar. See 
Examine. — (to doubt), ''_^ - 
»hak. Questioned (doubted, dis- 
puted), isi^SjL^ mashkuk hihi; 
(interrogated), J^^*^ rnasuL 

Questionable, rf^ ..:. <*■ ^ muahtahah, 
^jCSSm^ mashkuk hihi, ^ " -^-n^ 
^^^a1! inhinsh^hnk Soc Proble- 
matical, disputable. [Inquirer. 
Questioner, «. (JjL> «dyi7. See 
Questionless, <i>^^)b hid shuhhah, 
LJj yakJnan, ^j*^^ <lx ^a/n* a/ 
yaX'In, clX^S Idshak. See Cer- 
tainly, doubtless. 

Quibble, s. <d-^ Af/aA. To quibble. 

Quick (living, not dead), ^^ Any ; 
(nimble, prompt, speedy), 

sari^, ^— ggjjw khafi/. Swift, 
active, sprightly, ready. 

Quicken, v. (make alive), l<^^ 
ahya* ; (to hasten), J—s;!*^^^ 
istacjal; (to cause to make haste), 
J^ ^a^'fl/. [mwAyf. 

Quickener, «. (making alive), i<^^ 

Quicklime, ^jJ^ i&t79. 

Quickly, Jur^ J^ hikol sar^t. 

Quickness, i^^^j^^ mr^t. See 
Sprightliness, activity, briskness. 

Quicksilver, (J^J zayhak. 

Quiet, quiescent (at rest, undis- 
turbed), i^jU hddl ; (peaceable, 
silent), u:^L) adkit, ^v3j u^oift^; 
(mild, gentle), ^»-*i»- Aa^m. 

Quiet, quiescence (rest, repose, free- 
dom from disturbance), <(-.». 1j 
rdhat, ^JUb A^fl. Eest, repose, 
tranquility, quietness. 

Quiet, r. ^^^ hadda\ See Calm, 
still, pacify. 

Quieter, », c^J^ muhaddl. 

Quieted, ^^jU Ad(f7. 

Quietly, djf JJ^J^ ^lAo/ hcddwat. 
See Calmly, peaceably. 

Quietness, quietude (a state of tran- 
quility), l:>'\j rdhat. See Quiet. 
— (calmness of mind), JUl«iL»^l^ 




ness. — (silence), iZJ^ suHi, 

Quince, ilp^^yua MofarjahU. A 

quince tree, ^^s^jSuaijSf^ shqfarat 

Quinquangular, [A^j^^Mu/kr^ ^ laho 

ihamioi %awdy&. See Pentan- 

gular. iJU. khunndi. 

Quinsy (inflammation of the throat), 
Quintessence, iJi:>^ khaldsat, 4JbL« 

See Essence. [^^4/* 

Quintuple, uJIm^^am^*^ khamsat 
Quire, i, (of paper), j^^^^ J dasiai 

warak, y}jy^^ W ^^^' 
Quit, r. (leave), jSi^ hajar, cl5^ 

tarak; (to set free), ^^n I, < 
khalloi, j;1^1 a^/oib ; (to discharge 
or pay), tl^ tro/a'. See Pay, 
repay, requite. — (to exculpate 
one's-self from any imputation), 
aSW.^ harrar hdlaho. 
Quite, aUcJIj biltamdm, UL^ 
tamdman, <LLkg J l— j ^i7 jumlaty 

kolliyatf U]Jx« mutlakan. Quite 
well, \j^*Jafi ^Mfm jiddan. 
Quittance, «. (discharge frt)m a debt, 
etc.), \ji} ihrd. See Acquittance. 
— To quittance. See Repay, 

Quiver, $. (case fbr aRows), Lmp^ 
ja^at A maker of quiToi, 

Quiver, v. i^Jljp^j r^f* See 
Shudder, tremble, quake, quaver. 
— Quiver. See Nimble^ active. 

Quota, ^l.A>. hmaky A^mJ humai. 
See Share, portion. 

Quotation, «. (from an author]^ 

(jmLJI iktfbdi. 
Quote, V. ^ju^\ iJttahM. 
Quoted, yjMtSA^ muktabat, 
Quoter, s, ^y**^jU mmkUhii. 
Quotidian, _-^^ yawmi. 

Daily. — ^A quotidian ague, ^i>. 

iUjI J ^mma' ddyimeh. 

Quotient (in arithmetic), (J.tfL>> 
Adn7, ^L^ mahlayh. 


R has one uniform sound in Ea- 
glish; as * rose,' 'more,' 'for.' 
In Arabic it is expressed by i. 

Rabbi, rabbin, s. (Jewish doctor), 
^U^U. hdkhdm. 


Rabbit, «. (animal), v-^1 arnai. 
Rabble, s. ^\^^\ awbdth. See 

Mob, crowd, vulgar. 
V'^jMfe (XwB\V^, lineage), JJ\ «( 




Jim, ^jJ turriyat (plur. d^UjJ 
turriydt), isAJio tdytfat. See 
Generation, offspring, progeny, 
anoestry. — Of an illofitrioos race, 
J^Sf^^ karim ul asL Of a 
mean race, i^^«u;nj^|iy^ tnafhul 
tmnasah, Ci,^M.'»dlU mdlaho tuutb, 


A race (contest in running), 
iLAjL*^ mtMdfto^. See Course. 

Bacer, 9. ^J^\ji*^ muidhiL See 

Back (torture), <^1tX£ ^zdh. A 
rack for hay or straw, 

Back, r. (put to the torture), 
^asaah. See Punish, torment, 
harass ; stretch, extend. — To rack 
off (wine, etc.), ^jl^ saffa\ 

Backed, i^^ijt^^ m«&assa^. See 

Tormented, ^Backed off (as 

wine), . « .n >^ muiaffa\ See 

Badiance, radiancy, radiation, ^\mJL 
sha^a^f j^ niZr, ^;U^ lama^Cm, 
Lj (^lya. See Light, splendor, 

Badiant, «^) lUmi^ j^ mimfr. 
See Bright, splendid, shining. 

Badiate, v, ^^ /!aMa^. See Shine. 

Badical, Ju^^ omIi, J^\ oM^ J\ J 

scZ^f . See Original, primitiye. 
Badically, ^^\^ min al asl. 

Sadicahiess, <uUll1XJlLl al hiM 

al oMyah, 
Badish, *. Jj^ fyl. 

Badius (of a circle), JaSil\i^^jL4^ 
narf al katr; (arm-hone), X«lac 
J^:i\j^ji\ ^f,«nat amnd al 
a^Ja'. See Bay. [See Tatter. 

Bag, s, ixij ruk^t, dJ^ kkurkat. 

Bage, i^^» ar yhadah, kai ghay%. 
See Anger, yehemenoe. 

Bage^ V. ^'^tAr ghaddab, 

Baging, rageful, ^fydr yhadikk, 
c,.'^*n^^ tnughaddib. See Furi- 
ous, angry, violent. 

Bagged, ^.J^^^t mwahka^ See 
Tattered, rugged. 

Baging. See BageM. — ^Bagingly, 
c,>^,gT,rJCj Hkol ghadah. See 

Bagman, «. j^ ^Ijj layyd^kkurak. 

Bail, «. (palisade), (j^];<^ <^d3- 
sfin, ^jjli J e^dton. Baih^ay, 
Jj A.\ Jh^^ ^orii^ al hadld. 

Bailer, s, (one who ahuses with 

insulting language), a7U> $hdtm. 

Baillery (satirical merriment), -h^ 




Kaiment, U^M ^*^^'f ^^ iiy&h. 
See Apparel, garment. 

Rain, JLa^ matar (pi. Jia^\ amtdr)* 
Rainbow, a, ^jJ^/wy kaw» hatah. 
Rain, v, Ja^^Le «dr matar. To 

canse to rain, Jo^l amtar. 
Rainy, ^L« mdtir. 

Raise, v, (lift, heave), u^«a3 no^a^, 
wij ra/b^. To raise an insur- 
rection, jJuiy^ kawwam alhalad. 
To raise an army, jL^s. 
jama^ ^kar. 

Raised, 9^j^ marfu^ 

mwrtafi'^ See Exalted, preferred. 
Raiser, «. Cj^^-^U naw^, j-iU rr7/?^. 
Raisin, i^-^^J su^^I^. 
Rally, r. (dispersed troops), j-^*^ 

mahur; (to play off raillery), 
w«-.J^ maiahnacj Jx^ir***^' 
tamasJchar ^ala\ 
Ram, «. (jl^ ^a3M ; (the celestial 
sign), jj*4.5w1-- J itir; «/ hamal, 
A battering ram, j; ..j .'.rcu 

1^ »i 

manjanlk (plur. Ll^*LiL 
Ram, r. (beat violently as with a 
battering ram), j;^ y ^lj<^,yg 
i^oro^ M manfanlk, [stray. 

Ramble, s. ^^\^v> ifoKwrdii. Set 
Range. (^WandeRr. 

Rambler, s. j\^0 datowdr. See 
Ramification, ^^^nJHU^ Uuh^h. 
Rampart, «. rampire, ^uliJUau»^ 

hayt al kal^at,jy^ 9ilr, 
Rancid, ^J zanikh, ^^JiJc^ mu^ajm. 
Rancidness, rancidity, ^^A£ ^fOnsL 
Rancorous, J^&>. haJt&d, Ranoa- 
rously, Jj^Jd hikol hakd. Ran- 
cor, Sa»^ hakd* See Malevo- 

Random (chance), yj^\ titifii, 
^jlx ^drid. Random (acci- 
dental), ,<S^^ ittifaka, t^j^ 
^rdl. At random (by chance), 
jLXJSL^ hi ittifoLh, ^UUjI 
ittifakan; (inconsiderately), ^ 
J^'\jj^ min ghayr taammul. 

Range, v. (place in order), uJ«p 
8af, Ji) nazam. See Order. — 
(to be placed, or stand in order), 
i^jia^\ tstaf, J^f tniazam. 

Range, /•Uaj nizdm, ci-^ »«/'(plar. 
ujy*<? sufuf). See Row, series, 
rank, order. — (the step of a 
ladder), <L«>-jJ darajah (plur. 
CjIp-jJ darajdt). 

Ranged (in order), Jkwt mmi^aitfi, 
(^yio^^ tnanzHm, c^^*^ mumiUi, 
'yBaxik, t. ^^slc saf; (a series, row), 




«a/, /•Usj ni%dm. See 

Range, order. — (degree), Ljj^ 

martabat, <^wJ^ ruthat, LL^ 

tahakat, ^jJ darajat, ^^Ll shdn, 

SeeDignity. — (precedency),^Ju3Jf 

tasaddur, aJUj takaddum. 

Rank, r. (place abreast), '^^-go-r 

Ransack, r. (plunder), ^JutjliyAar 
^ala\ \^Jas. ^amal t/aghmd, 
c»^£) nahah; (to search nar- 
rowly), ^^*M gg^ tq^'a$8(u. See 
Ransacked, c^ Jum^ masluh, Oa^x^ 

manAii^. See Plundered. 
Ransom (of a captive), IjJ /(fe, 
^«X3 Jidu/at; (ransom or com- 
pensation for bloodshed), <L^J 
ifiya^. See Mulct. 
Ransom, v. i^J^ /ada', ^^^Jltv 
khaUas, Ransomed, tC>Aa .;— ^ 
munfadif ^SxL^ muftadi. Ran- 
someless, \jjij hilafida. 
Rap, «. ^^;-^ darhat, <uLJ laimai. 

See Blow. 
Rap, 17. Ja! ^^am, kja shahat 
Rapacious, uJtU. khdtif^ ^j\p^ 
jarihy c,j^w?U ghdsib. See Fierce. 
Rapaciously, \j^ hakran, 
Rapaciousness, rapacity, \^ - ^ !* 
gha$hf ^fcUs> khatf, \ 

Rape, 8, iJSJ\^\ akhzulbakarai. 
Rapid, ^^j^ sari^. See Swift, 
quick. [See Swiftness. 

Rapidity, rapidness, ic^ iur^. 

Rapidly, Zc^JCj htkol iur^at, 
\ss^ sur^atan. 

Rapine, i.^^ nahh, L^ nahlhat, 
2f^U ghdra, \aJo yaghma. See 
Plunder, violence, force. 

Rapture, J:>-j wt^d. See Trans- 
port, delight. 

Rare (uncommon, valuable), jjU 

See Precious ; excellent. — (thin), 
fj^j raklk. 

Rarely (not often), \jj\j nddiran. 
See Seldom. — Happening rarely, 
p^y^ljjU nddir al toukik^. See 
Finely, nicely, accurately. 

Rareness, rarity, i^jli nddirat, A 
rarity, ijj\j nddirat (plur. jJIJ 
nawddir), i i nT ^uA/o^. See 
Scarcity; also thinness, subtlety. 

Rascal, rascallion, i. jjjj^ sharfr, 
fjJ^ifdtik See Scoundrel, vil- 
lain. [Villany. 

Rascality, IJUL^. hakdrat. See 

Rascally, ^jUs^ hailr. See Mean, 

Rase, V. ^^L>2U/» JUb hadam hi otdi^ 




^ee Erase, demolish, destroy, 
Rash, ^JJ^L^ mdlaho UdbJr, 
nyf^ mutahmmoir. See Hastj, 
preoipitate, vicdent, imprudent, 
careless. — Rash aatin, ^^.l Igrl 
atiaa. The lash (an efflorescent 

emption on the body), ^j"**^ 

Rashly, ^jJb hUd taiblr. See 
Precipitately, carelessly^ violently. 

Rashness, ji^ tahaunour. 

Rasnre, dJ^ hak. The rasore 
of writings, cl^ hak. 

Rat, *. jj^'^rT j^rdnn. 

Ratable, u_^«i«9l:Mt mundM, J^^J^ 
muwdfii. Ratably, dL«iL^JCj 
hikol muHdiahat, See Proportion- 

Rate (pn)portion), L^\^ mund^ 
sdbai; (price), Ia,^ J^mat, Bee 
Price, value. — (tax, assessment, 
census), ^^'^^-^ khar&j, ^-^j^* 
jtuiyaL The rate cr current 
price rd provisions, ^UJSt\^LS 
kdfmat dl cM^Ar. Rate of en- 
change, M«h/«U3f^^ nr^ alkombio, 

^te, V. (value at a certain rate), 
^j^ iammmn; (to chide), a J 
%a/n, M^^ wabhakh, [aJahsan. 

Bather, ^l ^ i fMan^ ...mtJi\ 

Ratificartion, jyAjf MUd, JuJU 

tofylJ, J^JfT^ i9^ SeeOoB- 
firmation. [wmhMd. 

Ratified, JjL9 nmka nrar, x A y m 
Ratifier, s. ^jjL^o^ mwAU 

Ratify, V. ^ JJU idildb ^. 
Ratio (proportion), ^i— >Vv,^ Misii- 

iohat See Rate. 
Rational (endowed with retsoa), 

A rational creature, ^JhI^U^^j^ 

hayw&n n&ttk. A rational mia, 

Jac^^^U idiU} ^oi^. Ba&oil 

men, cy\jsi\i^\jBf^\ OikOh iiriL 

See Reasonable, wise, judicious.— 

Rationality (rationalneas), Ji^ 

^kl. See Reason. 

Rationally, Ja&JCj hiM ^M 
See Reasonably. 

Ratsbane, jUJl^ iom mlfSr, imJ^J 
LL<JlfJ\ iardh ai ^koUk. See 

Ravage, v. (lay waste), c-i4^J( 
^omtfZ iUbrd^. See Sa^, nombk, 
plunder, spoil. — ^The army of the 
enemy ravaged ihe whole eountiy, 

a/ ,^dn kharahQ ui Mad MU<. 




Rarage, c^yac^ iaihribj Js^^ 
tA^U, AJUb hadn^ See Ruin, 
spoil, waste. 

Raraged, 4^1^..^ kharM. See 
Desolate. — A rayager, <■ p y^. jf^ 

Rave, «. ^^^J^ ^nui'. 

RaTel, 9, k^ ^/, A^ haram. t*i;^ 

I^ard^^, See £ntangle, perplex, 

Rayen, s. i\j t&gh, c-j^ phirdb, 

jl5 itdjfc. See Crow. 

Ravenoas, Ju^f a^i&l/. A ravenons 
animal, ^.jU-^^|^-;»»:w A/iyirAii 
jfirtA. See RapacionB. 
Ravenously, 5^ J^ htkol sharah, 
Rayenoa8ness,2r^ «AaraA, Ik^ lahfat. 

Raving, adf, ^y^ mafnan. See 
Frantic ; also delirions. 

Ravish, v. (a woman), ^ fadah; 
(to seize by violence), u,fl1rnv 
khatqf; (to transport, delight), 
^.\ abhqf. 

Ravisher, «• ^\i f&dih. 

Raw (not concocted), f\:>^ hham\ 
(unripe), ^ fyj. See Immature. 
— (unakilfdl), ^iJUs ghad&m. 
Half-raw (meat), 4^ nay. 

Raw silk, jJ ka%, 

Ray, «. ^U.ii «Aa^d^. The rays of 

the sun, ^^^m^IcU^ Aa^^ 

aahshami. [o^ftn. 

Ray, i. (fish), ^ji\i^S(^ wmik 

Ray, V. Bee Array ; streak. 

Raze, I'. |%JJb htdam* See Rase, 

Razor, i. ^^^^ miU hMktu 

Reach, «, (tonoh with the hand), 
^jMbJ toiMM; (to arrive at, attain), 
J^^ i90m/, ^ balagh, ^J^a$^ 
hasial; (to fetch from a distaiice 
and give), S-'W* /^^* ^ veaoh 
(penetrate to), Jtl^O dMd, ^ 
nafad; (to be adequate to), jjl^ 
wd/ai; (to extend), J^ iiuh^ 
ia^MU kmi^; (to be extended), jcl^I 
im^. Ab far as the eye can 
reach, y.^\j^o3 ibMhir «mA^ 
al batar. To reach or VQinit, 
&ytt««l iitafragh. 

Reach, (extent), Jljcir«t iMMM; 
(intelleotaal capacity), iy^t 
iSjX%i\ al HuhU al muifik^, 
^ ^U, CJ\jS\ idrOk; (a 
fetch, oontrivanoe), iLi^ Uhh. 
Bee 8tratagem.-->(power), ijdi 
ktidrah. A reach pr reaching 
(to v(»nit), ^|/ft««1 utifrSgh* 

Be-act f'. (return the impulse), »i J 

*^^t» t^-^ ^\9 ^j ^fM. See 




Be-action,'^J daf^. See Eepul- 

Bead, v. \y hard. [don. 

Beading, $. AiJlix^ muUlli^t, i*\^ 

lirdiU. See Study, lecture. — ^To 

teaoh by reading or lecture, (juu^J 

Beader, **i^j^ f^ri. See Student. 

— ^A public reader (in a uniyerdty, 

^^')f Lj^j*^ mudarru, 
Beadily, V^^^hdllant \sxj^twr^atan\ 

(willingly, eagerly), ij^J^ hiiol 

Beadiness (state of being ready), 

h&dir ; (promptitude), d.j&^.^ 
iur^. Beadiness (willingness, 
eagerness), ij^ ghlrat, 

Be-admission, JujJ^f^-^^^-^J^J 
dukhul minjadid. 

minjadid. [tdnl marrah. 

Be-admitted, ay«Jl;J^1j dakha 

Beady (at hand), ^p^L.>^ hddir, 

j»A'^M*f$ mustahdir, Juit-% «**^ 

mu8taM, See Present, prepared. 

— (prompt, quick), ^ i-* sari^ ; 

(acute of understanding), ^ 

fahim. Beady money, ^^•XAJ 

9ia£ift. See Honey.— Beady to 

receive, J|^*Ai]juCM<^ musta^ 

HI JhsM. A ready answer, 

j^\^i^\jp^ jawdh kddir. Body 
at an answer, c^l^jsr^V^ JidJr 
liljawdh. To make ready^yd^- 
haddar. See Frepaie.^-To be 
ready, jajbC takmUmt^ Jjc-fi 

Beal (genuine, not fictitioiis),^ 
AiiibiJbf, ^.^^ mAiA» 
hakhinl, Beal knowledge^ 

fna^nawiyaU A real estate, ^Up 

^hdr^ ^j\ mrd. See Estate. 
Beality, iJu^ hdklJuU. 
Bealize, v, (Ja^ hakkak. 
Beally, l:i-£;»A>> hai^kaian, l«Jb 

yakinan, ^Likb ^7 haklkai, 
Bealm, «. l!_^ ^ -r mtUk, ^LiLluf 

fnamlakaif <lJjJ dawlai. See 

Be-animate, v. «\1«3^^J^,«^»^^ ^A)^ 

minjadid. See Bevive, inspirit 
Be-annez, r. Jj«>^..r«v^li^ iW 

mm jadld. . [obtain. 

Beap, t>. Xar%. hasad. See Gatber, 
Beaped, tiynsr^ mahsHd. 
Beaper, a, jli^»^ hasidd, Xa\>- 

hdsid. A reaping-hook, J*?^ 

manjal. See Hook.^-Beaping- 

time, jL^l^^U) saifklfi aiki$dd. 

See Harvest. 
Bear, «. rearguard, rearward, ijL 




^M^ii\ mawkhar al ^kar. 

Be-ascend, v. JjJi^-^^iL tels^ 
mtn jadld. See Ascend. 

Season (reasoning faculty), Jic 
^akl, ^ fuhm, cJfjjl idrdk, 
i^jty^\ijJLl\ al kuwat al 
mudrikat; (a ground, principle, 
cause, motive, argument), c-^^f^ 
iobab, s,^^^^y mHjih, ak^}!^ 
icdsitah, kJ^.^\j hd^, JJ J dalll. 
See Cause. — (moderation, mode- 
rate demand), J\jcl£\ i^tiddl. 
See Bight, justice. — ^For this 
reason, <J-^fc>J^^(j-« fnin ajl 
talih See Account ; for, because. 
— Endowed with reason, JacjJ 
2a ^kl (plur. J^vJTjv^ %awl 
^nl). See Rational. — Consis- 
tent with reason, ^}y*^ ma^nL 
See Reasonable. — With clear 
reasons, Zs^ij ilo\i hi adiUatin 
wddihah. Words or things con- 
sistent with reason, ^JlSi^jL^ 

Reason, r. (argue rationally), cl^^ac^ 
bahai, A *, ■»^L^w^J>— ^ ^amo/ 
muhdhasah, ijyl^^fj^ ^mal 
nuuhwarat. See Discourse, de- 
bate, discuss, argue, dispute, 
deliberate, talk, examine. 

Reasonable (endowed with reason), 
JiU ^dkil. See Rational— 
(just, proper, agreeable to reason), 

Jj\yt muwdfiky ^} ldi/ik,jj\pr 

Reasonableness (fitness, propriety), 

JLjU laydkatf Li^sjut ma^Uyat, 

(moderation), J\jCLal i^iiddl. 
Reasonably (agreeable to reason), 

J—A— aJJ Jjifj^^c ^ binatD^n 

muwdfik lil^akl, J^A«^^db>-^ 

hiwajhin ma^kul. 
Reasoner, », ci^r^L^ mubdhis, 

>U mundzir. 
Reasoning, s. it^\^ mubdhoiah, 

gj^\:^ mundzarah ; (logical), 

fj!^2Uy mantik. See Reason, 

logic, argument. 
Reasonless, jll^U^ ghoffr ndtik. 

See Unreasonableness. 
Re-assemble, v. jjSp^^j^^4a^ 

jama^ tnin jadld. 
Re-assert, r. (assort again), jji 

jjj^^ karrar min jadld; 

(claim again), Jj>Xs>-^j^v,,.>dk 

talab min Jadld. See Assert. 

Rebel, i, ^^^ ^i> 

Rebel, v, ^^^as^ ^mI, ^X^f^^ kdm 

^ala\ [^^j^ *^^ i^' S^ 




Bebdlion, ij\.ac uuStett, i^U^c 
^uiydn, J^ JUnat, See Mutinj, 
insiimctioii. [«&o mnimoas. 

BebeUious, ^\e> ^dn. See Rebel ; 

Beboiind, v. ]aj nai, ^ji}t ^amal 
rannah. See Beverberate, lecoiL 

Beboimd, ^^£' ^oib, ^^Uju^ 

m^tkds. [Bnildy to repair. 

Sebuildy v. ^y%j ramram. See 
Hehuke, V. f^^ wabhakh. See Chide, 

reprimand. — Bebnked, T^y-^ 

Rebuke, «. /^^ latpm, aL* tnaldm, 

^y tatohlkh* 

Recal, V, Jj Jl^-^v^^^JJ? talab min 
jadid. To recal to life, ,<-^^ 
ahifa\ See Revive. — To recal to 
memory. See Recollect. 

Recant, v, ^uL^I aniar ^alayhi. 
See Retract. — ^Recantation, JSjS 
tnkdr. A recanter,^^^!;^ munkir. 

Recapitulate, r. ^JjtJf jU ^dd al 

IfUlclla . 

Recapitulation, aKIK^o tikrdr al 
ialdmy f^iilM^XijiA^] i^ddat 
nMjai al kaidm. 

Recede, v. uJ^I imaraf, Cy^vry^ 
^^Mitoi. See Retire, recoil, 

Beceipt, «• (discharge), Jy^^ ic^twiz/. 

Receipt (reoeiviogX «>la^ «^ 

ifcAds, J^^ mmZ. [tttiUtfi. 

ReoeivaUe, jU^f j;>^ A^ W 

Receive, 9. (take), Jl«3 fonffiMii 
iS^\ Mm; (aoeepi), JJ liM; 
(get, obtain), J^^^ hmwh See 
Accept, take, obtain, ooataia.— 
(to entertain as a gaest), i^U 

Received, J^U mdJtkikM, ^jojS^ 
moi&ai. Well reeeivad, Jjgi^ 

Receiver, «. «x>-T oaiUii, A^Afli 
Recency, recentness, i^\Ji9 Urdwd. 

See Newness, freshneoa. 
Recent, JjJc^- jadid. See FreA, 

new. — (not antique), 

Recently, JJSs>'^J^ mm ja 

Receptibility, jui^HI^UU^ imidm d 

Reception, J^l aik^ 3\asr\ itiikkdi. 
Favorable reception, JkJ JhiM, 
iU-1 ijdhat, U| ndd; (ente^ 
tainment), yU^lijLj 1%4/U 

al mtudfir. See Hospitalitj, 
Recess, recession (retirement), \&>\ 
ikhtOd ; (departure), JLaT;! 
irtihdl. See Secession, retratt 

— A recess (place of re tir em c pt), 
i^ kkahoaU 




Recipei <. (medical pmoription), 
M^S^\iiu^ wasfai al hakim. 

Becipient. See EeceiTing, receiyer. 

Reciprocal, ^j^Jai\^ min 000- 
rafin, ^^^ Lb) 1 ^ mtfi aijdnibln. 
i^JjJL^ muslUarak. Reciprocally, 
^jijM^ mtuhUtrtkan, j^iaijJiaj 
nazir htnazirf [MSjti^aju ha^du' 
ham ha^an. Reciprocalness, re- 
ciprocation, iSj\j^ mushdrahat. 

Recital, ^jA7 tahrlr^ fd^^ hihdyaty 
^^ riwdyat. See Repetition, 
rehearsal, enumeration. 

Recite, v, i«^ haka\ ^ -ftJ J*4X 
^mal tahrir, Sj stakar. See 
Repeat, rehearse, teU. 

Recited, jj^ mukarrar, ^^.L:^ 

Reciter, «. JiU naJb'/, ^J^ hdkl, 
jjBut mukarrtr, ^yj rdtol. 

Reckon, v, Jf ^add^ (^Km^^^^as. 
^mal htsdh. See Number, calcu- 
late, count, enumerate. — (to es- 
teem), j^\^)aX' ^amal i^ibar^ 
/%|^^1 Ji4^ ^mal ihtirAm ; (to 
intend), JuoS katad. See Pur- 
pose, design. — (to depend upon, 
trust to), Af A4&f^ t^tmad ^M, 
Jlc JCI itUhd ^aia\ 

Reckoned (numbered), Jjdjut ma^- 
dud, f^yM^s^ mahsHh. 

Reckoner, $. ^^^^^[s^ miuhd$ib. 
Reckoning (computation), 
hisdh, ^L«»ls^ muhdiahai. 

Reclaim, v. (reform) ^^ saUah. 

See Correct, tame, re-demand, re- 

Recline, v. \ij\ ittakd, JComjI imoRad. 

See Repose^ rest, lean. 

Recluse, a. ij^\i^^Kr^ muhib al 

khaltcat, {jt^^^ff^ hahU. 
Recognisance, Jl5^ ma^fat. 

Recognise, v.J^iJ ia»akkar, JJLp 
^Jlc sddak ^la\ See Recollect 

Recoil, V. (&11 or run back) ^^j 
\j^ raji^ laward. See Recede, 
rebound; fail, shrink. 

Recollect, v, ^iu tasakkar, S^^ 
tafahkar. See Remember. — ^To 
recollect one's-self (recover reason 
or resolution), ^lj». t^^ jama^ 
hawdsaho; (to collect again, to 
gather together what is scattered), 
«.^i^ jamma^. [muiaaakkar. 

Recdlected (remembered), ^^»^ 

Recollection, j^«xi i m uM swr^ ^ J 
siir. 8eeRememhranoe,meanory. 

Beoommenoe, v. JuJus^^j^tjLijl 
f^^ia minjoM, ReconmwBoed. 





Recommend^ v. (prai^) -. J^ maiak, 
u^^ wagaf; (introduce to fiiTor), 
«J^>^iuS,<^^ tpossd' fl ahhai. See 


Recommendable, 4,;>.#<>jal 1 J h- '^ w^ 

mwtahik al tawiiyat, (^j^*'^^ 

muhtaram, xjL^ mukarram. See 

Recommendation, J,g.4f>^^y^J siib^ 

See Praise, commendation. — (in- 
troduction to faTor or serrice), 
i^y tawsiyat, A letter of re- 
commendation, i^^^^yJim^fS^^ 
maktuh tawstyat. 

Recommended, f-j<^ mamduh. See 
Praised. — (introduced to favor or 
service), ^^^y muwassa* hihi, 

Recommender, -.jt« mddih. See 
Commcnder. — (to favor), ^y 

Recompense, ^' ^^ <yV*, 1>- yaza, 
ililC* mukdfdhy ^^J^^^ mujdzdt. 
See Reward. 

Recompense, r. (reward) lUj-^ix 
iULs^ ^ama/ feAo mujdtdh, J-4X 
llilC«<J ^ama/ i^^<» mukd/dh ; (to 
make up by something equiva- 
lent), J Jj jflkcf a^dh hadal. See 
Repay, requite, compensate. 

Recompensed, ^c;l«jsr^ tnujdza\ 

h&nl ^ala' al muka/dh, 

Recompose (form anew), 
«3jJ^ ^amalminjadld. 

Reconcile, v, J\^ »dlah, ^Lx« J^ 
^mal musdJahah ; (to make any« 
thing consistent), J^ salUh, Af 
c».^*^ ^amalaho mtmiUAf Aa£' 
^1^ ^amalaho muwdfik. 

Reconcileable (capable of reconcilia- 
tion), ^1 JjU kdhil al nM, 
<L.k.Lax4JJjucuM^ musta^ Ul 
musdlahat; (consistent), (J^^y 
muwdfikf c^M^'L^ mundBib, ^Jjt 
Idyik. Reconcileableness, ^^l^' 
<L-k.L3^1 imkdn al mtudhihat. 
See Consistency. 

Reconciler, <. ^Lo^ fntMd/tA,jL*.4»i 

$amsdr. See Mediator. 
Reconciliation, reconcilement, 

ik^La^ musdlahat, ,^^ »ulh. 

Recondite, fj\jt^ mughlak, JiLi^ 
tnushkil. See Obscure, occult. 

Reconquer, r. ^J^^^r^L^CX ^-y 
tamallak minjadld cala\ 

Reconvene, r. Jj 


tninjadid. See Reassemble. 
Record, r. ^jJbjui kayyad hil 
dafiar, ^J mkar, ^X^ maiak. 
See Celebrate. 


837 REC 

Kecord, <. j;iJ daftar (plur. jliJ 

dafdtar). See Eegister. 

Eecorded, tXJU mukayyad^ ^Sz^ 

Becover, v. (as anything lost) J«^ 

hassal. To recover (a sick person), 

i^>^;b tayyah. To recover health. 

Recoverable (possible to be regained), 
J.^3-cu yutahassal, J-mo^I JjIS 
j^^t7 attasil ; (possible to be re- 
covered from sickness), U^l JjU 
kdhil ashsha/d. 

Recovered (found), J^^tisr^ muhassal. 
Recovered (as a sick person), 
^jAJi\^j^jt^Lj kdyim tnin dl 

Recovery (from sickness), iLl aha/d, 
i^^L-^ aahhat. 

Recount, r. 15-^^ haka\ 
^l^ ^a^tf' hikdyatyj^ khahbar. 

See Relate. (count again), 

JuJ^^^v—^M."^. ^a«a5 minjadld. 

Recourse, <U^1-^ murdja^at. See 
Return, —(application for help or 
protection), lacUl I'Z^y'a, jlis^\ 
Mfidd, See Refuge. 

Recreate, r. J»j3 nazzah. See De- 
light, gratify, revive. — To re- 
create one's-self, ^jJu tafarrqf, 

Myrdn. See Refresh, take diver- 

Recreation, xyJ tanatzuh^ ^js^ 
sayrdn, ^ laho, A pleasant 
place for recreation, 2jlii^J.dr^ 
mahal muntazah. See Refresh- 
ment, pleasure, amusement, diver- 
sion, [mushnh. 

Recreative, recreating, ^ya*,^^ 

Recrement, recremental. SeeDrosSi 

Recriminate, r. ^ taham. 

Recrimination, <Uff tukmai, A 
recriminator, ^\j tdhim. 

Recruit, v, r^j^^^ akhaz rawh, 
^u,, k«js^^\ akhaz nafas,' See 
Strengthen, augment, repair. — 
To recruit an army, jjJ^j>^^yCuf.J 
lam ^karjadld. See Levy. 

Recruit, 8. (supply), jl^^Ojl izdiydd^ 
Sjbj ziyddaL See Augmenta- 
tion, addition. — A recruit for the 
army, isis^J\^t2 lammat 
caadkir jadidah. 

Rectangular, <L-jjUJUj ■&,.:» «u ^ 
muatakim azzdwiyah, 

Rectifiable, ^iUilJjU kdhU al 
isldh, ,^;v^:*^l^^^-C^«^ mumkin 

Rectification, JLa\ isldh, 
taahlhy \^j^9^ ta^d\\« 

RED 838 

Rcotify, p. J^ latlah, JIc coddaJ, 

<m ^ 

v«^ Bahhah, 

Bectified, ^-^ musaUah, .^^ 

Rectilinear^ ^■■,»-L-r>M« ^^lagLj j sa 



khattin mustaktm, 
Bectitude (nprigbtness)^ JLa Mldh, 

c-^t^ sawdh, Lt\S2y^\ istikdmat, 
Bector. See Baler, governor. 
Becnmbencj, \i3\ ittikd. See Be- 

pose. — ^Becumbent, ^^sf^^ mud- 
dqfi^. See Lying, reclining. 
Becur, v. (have reconrse to), 

%la\ See Betom, take refuge. 

— To recur to the mind, iSJad^ 

<db khatarfi haUhi. See Occur. 
Bed^A>-l ahmar (fern. Ka^ hamrd, 

'pl.jA,^^ humr). 
Bedden, v, (make red),j^4>. ham^ 

mar; (to grow red),^^-«id-\ ihmar. 
Beddish, jU^sr J^L« mdffil lU 



Bedeem, r. ^^jj fada\ ^jA^ 

khaUat, See Bansom, deliver. — 

To redeem a pledge, ^J^J\C^ 

fak arrahn. To redeem one's- 

self, iJ*Ju i^Jsi fada* nafsaho. 

Bedeemable, \jJi^\Jj\j]tdhilalJidd. 

Bedeemableness, f jiJIXJjli kdhiH' 
yat aifiid. 

muftaii. See Free. 

Bedeemer, «. «3ix^ wmmkm^ i,^ 
fdd\, ^jiLsf myMmOm. Our 
Bedeemer (the Mesnah), Ujjli 
,^M*jii\ fadind ai mcMf A. 

Be-deliver, v. ^^^^j^A^ tdlm 
minjadid. See Bestore, repay. 

Be-demand, v. JjJ^,^v..^JJ9Mil 
mm jadld. 

Bedemption, \sijidd, ^^/JU^ iUdL 

Bed-hot, jUIJl^^^^^ljjJ^ UU 
ahmar mM anndr. 

Bedlead, (^y^ 9ald]titn. See Leai 

Bedness, ij^t,^ humrat,j\A,^ hmnir. 

Bedouble, r. (to double twiee), 
(«^U dd^f. See Double. 

Bedoubled, u-o^ UaL« miud&^f. See 
Doubled. — (often repeated), jX« 
mukarmr. [FortifieatiA. 

Bedoubt, «. ^ »n rv. Mf». See 

Bedonbtable, redoubted, i«Jair^ 
fiiMitAfi/, <--->lf« muAd^. See For- 

Bedress (amendment), JLt] i$ldk, 
'*^ i^^iA. See Befbrmatioo. 

— (relief, remedy), -JU ^iidj\ 
^U^ mu^lafai. Where is tlie 
redress? Xj\j^\(^^iJi hugf al- 
\'Sj^dx^«&, «. (amend), J^ mM§k ; (to 




remedy, relieve), 2f^l^ Jixke ^amal 

Bedressed, ^^^f* musaUah, 
Bedresser, s, ^^^^^ muiallih, 
Beduce, v, (bring back), ^rj ^W^t) 
(to Bubdne), l-^JLc ghalah, ]suti 
dahat, j^ hahar ; (to make less, 

diminish), JJi haUal, ^j^ naJtas. 
To redace to nothing, a Jxl a^m. 
See Annihilate. — To reduee to 
order, J^ fMnam. To redace to 
poverty, jSij\ afkar^ j^^L^x. 

^amalaho fakir. See Impoverish, 
make poor. 
Bednced (brought back to a former 
state), ^l^U^^fi^-^ murtylja^ 
kamd kdn; (subdued), ^^>^J^>♦ 

magMuh; (diminished), JILJL^ 

muiaHal ; (degraded), J«Ljt« 

ma^uL Eeduced to poverty, 
JsJut muftakir, [yajhln. 

Beducible, ^i^^^tJ^ti ^^ an 

Beduction (bringing back), ij\c\ 

i^dat, ^^Jf ^\\ (subjuga- 


tion), \l£iA} UunaUuk, ^ fath ; 
(dimination), ^ aj b nT tahhflff 
^jA^ tankUj jJuaj tasghlr; 
(degradation), J^Jc ^mL Beduc- 
tion to slavery, JjU^^ itiiriak^ 
See Captivity. 
Redundance, redundancy, i*^^j 

uyddai, Ll^l ifirdi. See SnpeN 

fluity, ezubenmce. 
Bedundant, sAj idyd^ J\^ todfir, 

j^kaAr. See Exuberant, super- 
fluous. [koAnm. 
Bedundantly, ljj|j tdydan, \j^ 
Beduplication, uJImI ad^f, Be- 

duplicate, reduplicative, ujblid^ 

madd^f. See Double. 
Be-echo, «. _i\j J.4bC ^«f9ui/ ytf^M. 
Beed, $. L^ katahat A "writing 

reed, Ji j^oiam. 
Beek. See Smoke, steam, vapour. 
Beel, 9. (for yam), jUL tayydr^ 

JCi^ kafiyatj u.;^X« muito^, ^Jm 

maglvud, [kamtfaf, 

Beel, r. (yam), ^^ ^teo/, wi]S' 
Be-election, Jjj^^^jlioJUWt^ 

^d5 minjadid. 
Be-enjoy, v. Jj j^^^^UuJ^-flJ 

iMarraf hil 9hy minjadid. 
Be-enter, v. «X[tXs»-^ Jf^ J dakM 

minjadid. See Enter. 
Be-examine, v. J^,\.^^^jas? 

fahoB minjadid. 
Befer, v. (to have relation), t,y^»r*'>^ 
1\ itUa$ah %la\ To refer (for 

information, decision, etc.),^«> 

•^' ^^b^l -*-r *.'. To 
refer to arbitration, ^^]j^^ijo^ 

faiwwad ol amir iJUk* . 




Referee, referendary, «. J«^j tcaklL 
See Arbiter, mediator. — A report 
of state affairs presented to the 
king by referendaries, ^ • ^^ 

Reference (relation, analogy), <^iU 

^aldkat, <UmJ nishat, <»^L**« i 3l 
intisdh ; (to another for anything), 
^^y>J tafwld. 
Refine, v. (purify), ^Jua 8affa\ jj^ 
karrar. See Rack off. — (to make 
elegant), u,p jjff^ ^amalaho 
tariff t^p jVil <dj' ^amalaho latlf. 
See Polish. — (to become elegant), 

Refined (purified), ,^^5-0^ mmaffa^ ; 
(elegant, nice), ^^J^^Jo zarififem. 
ijoja tarl/at), c-ijVi! /a/!/ (fern. 
L^Ja! /ff/{/aO; (subtile), wJ^ 

Refinement (&om dross, etc.), «Ua^ 
tatfiyah ; (elegance), ^Gl^ zardfat, 
Ziiy ^^d/a^- (subtilty), i^Uj 

Refiner, «. (from dross, lees, etc.), 

^&.i£^ musaffl; (a subtile rea- 

soner), j;iJ^ mudakkik. 
Refit, r. |^-*j ramraMf ^jrammam. 

See Repair. 
Reflect, p. (throw back), Jj rod, 

^yiJju] incakoi. To xeftecl (.ww- 

sider attentively), J^'Vs faow mi /, 
JIaJ tafakkar. See Consider, inedi- 
tate. — (to throw reproach), iJ 

fom. See Censure, reprotdi, 
Reflected (thrown back), 

mun^akii. Reflected on (con- 

sidered), jS b ..i^ muta/aikir, 
J^'l:^^ mtf^aammi/; (censured), 

Reflection (throwing or bending 
back), ^LJocJI %n^kd$. Re- 
flection of light, jyi\^jM^ ^ab 
annUr, The reflection firom t 
mirror, (jM«L^f tn^ikdi. Re- 
flection (meditation), Jw«*Lj 

taammul, i-^^-^ tafakkur, %y^ 
tasawiour. See Thought. Re- 
flection (censure), ^1^ ma/!2Ms(, 
A J 20mm. See Blame. 
Reflective, reflecting, reflector, 
^j/Sjc^ muntakis ; (considering), 
Ju^*ls^ mutaammilf ^>sz>^ muts- 
fahkir, \ma^k%*. 

Reflex (directed backwards), ^jmSji^ 
Reflexibility, j^^Jl«J\^UU^ \mU% 

al ^aks, (jmUoOSILLU kdhiUjfti 
al in^ikds. 
Reflexible, ^^^1 J-jU kohtl d 





Befloorish, v, *^*^^j^j^j Mhhar 
minjadid. See Flourish. 

Beflow, V. (flow back), \j^ -Jljlc 
^d ila* ward. 

Beflox (of the sea), j^}^*}^ Jf^^f" 

al hahr. The flux and reflaz of 

the tide, flsr1«X4J1 al mad wal 

j'azr. ^ [correct, improve. 

Beform, 9. J^ sallah. See Amend, 

Beform, reformation, JL^\ uldh, 
,9^d^ taslih, 

Beformed, ^^^"^^ musallah, 

Beformer, s. ^'^^^ musallih. 

Befract, v. (break the natural 
course of rays), j^I^^aXc ^kas 
annur. Refraction, ^j**^ ^ks, 
(jmI.JLa-J\ m^kds. Refracted, 
(m^Ljc-^ ma^kus. Refractive, 
^jtJji^M^ huwat al ^aks. 

Refractoriness, jL^ ^ndd, ^jJU^ 
mu^dnadat, JjAj tamarrud. See 

Befractory, -V-f "- -r mutamarrid, 
JuU^ mu^nid. See Obstinate. 
— To be refractory, JjaJj ia- 
marrad, [annakd. 

Refragable, ^^^aiuJl^^Ct^ mumkin 

Refrain, v, ^^jjl^I untana^ ^oif, 

^\ ijtanah mtPi, 

I ^ n « 

\ ihtaraz mm. 

Befrangibility, 6UaJt.L*d inkiidr 
ash iha^^. Refrangible, JjLS 
uJl/srit kdhil al inhirdf. See 
Refraction, etc. 

Refresh, v. (after pain or labor), 
-.1^^^ utardh. See Recreate. — 
(to refrigerate), J^ harrad. See 
Cool.— (to repair), ^^^ rommiMf. 
See Retouch. 

Refreshed, ,^jiau^ mmiarih. See 
Recreated.— r(cooled), J^ mu- 
harrad. ^ [muharrad. 

Refresher, $, fCj^ murayyth, J^ 

Refreshment, i^>-\j rdha; (food), 
>»L«^ ia^m. See Recreation, 
food, rest. 

Refreshing, refrigerent (cooling), 


Oj^ muharrid. 


Refrigerate, v. J^ harrad. See Cool. 

Refuge {or place of refuge), \ar^ 
maljdy JL^ maldz. The refuge 
of the world, JUIlLsr^ malfa al 
^lam. The refuge of the poor, 
j ^ ^fl—i-JljLt maldz al fukard. 
[Easiem titles]. To take refuge, 

^J^,^^^ »%y »^'. To give 
refuge, Lc^^ixcl a^to' ma^'d. 

. See Shelter. 

Refugee, <. ^^^^ multajl. 

Befulgenoe, L^ <fft^d, ^ daw. See 

. Spleiidot.-T-^^\5^'Q^V>> yi^ 




naimoir. See Bright, glittering, 

See Eepay, restore. 
Befdsal, j\ij\ inkdr, ^^\ mi- 

ttna^. See Bejeotion, denial, 

Befase, v, ^j(\ aha\ ^c^\ imiana^. 

See Deny, reject, repnlBe. — ^To 

refiise to accept, J^^^^^vj;^! 

Beftue, •• (worst part of anything, 
leavings), i 1 .ri t fadlat, i^Vsu 
nafBti€at See Dregs, sediment. 

Befttsed, fJ^JL^j^ gha^r makbiU, 
Jj J^ mardnd. See Bepulsed. 

Befuser, «. JjU^ ffhof^ hdhil. 

Beftitation, JU^l ibM, ^jcso nakd. 

Befhte, v. ^^*^j rad^alayhi, J^\ 
ily ahtal kawlaho, 4i^o ndJtO' 

Befdted, {jo^iL^ mankftd. 

Begain, v, l-^>ma.^jLc ^d haeh. 
See Get, obtain, gain. 

Begal, ^^ mulnH. 

Begalement. See Befireshment, en- 

Begality . See Boyalty, soyeireignty. 

B^ard, v. (Talae, esteem) jf r^l 

i^UhoT) (to observe, mttend to, 

remaxk)^ JU no/Mr ^ Wi l&?Mn. 


See Look. — (to have • iielaliflt 

to), Jl w.^t «Miw» Ai*. To 
regard one's promise, jfj^x^ J^ 

toafd' wa^daho. 

Begard (respeoti reTerence, wS&^ 
tion), ^^^ idbr%w^j\sA i^tHit, 
^\j "i '^\ ikUrdm; (attentuiOt 
^hrfc^li^ nuddhoMat; (referanec^ 
relation), i 0»»A\^ mumdMtUi; 
(look),^ nMar,j^ ha$&r, 

Begardable, ^^1*11^7..^^^ w^ 
al muldhanat See ObeenraUe. 

Begarded (esteemed)^^;Cji^ wm^Ukr, 
See Observed, noticed, remarked. 

Begardfal, la»-lU muldhiM. See 
Attentive, reepectfoL -^ Begaid- 
fully, jUi^^J6 WW %\tiUr. 
See Attentively, respectfolly. 

Begardless, JiU ghdfil. See Care- 
less, inattentive. 

Begency (government, authority), 
L^^L»^ huHmai, ^^ Aalsi. 
See Gt>vernment, authority.— Go- 
vernment by a viceroy, oLi 
(il^UJI nitfdhat al malik. 

Begenerate, «. JJ^ jaidad. See 
Beproduce. — Begenerate, JJlc^ 

Begent (governing), ujC\J<<,,^i} 
ndyih al maUk. See Tieeioy, 




mdlik. Regicide, uiUlJ-i^ 

hatt dl mdUk, 
Iftegixnen (medical prescription for 

diet), U:^>-t ihimiL 
iRegiment; «.^^Lu£^^^l al&y ^aaiar. 
Region, ^^S ak^m, jL halad, 

JL htldd. See Goontry, land, 

district, tract 
Register, i.jiiJ dafiar (plor.ylij 

dafatir). To register,^ jJbjJo 

hayyai hU daftar. See Record. 
Reliant, s. JjJ^^«^^u« manah 

tntn jadld. 
Regret, uJ^'LJ taassaf, S j ^om^ 

kurat, ^ yham* See Sorrow, 

anguish, grief, vexation, lamenta- 
tion, repentance. 
Regret, v. ^J^ uJ^^'li taanaf ^tda\ 
Regretted, dJx^i,jLi'li^ muiaassaf 

Regular, 2FJieliJlj;ilj^ muwdfik 

al kd^tdah, ciy ^ kdnunl. 
Regularity, aUsiJI tntwdm, c^>^7y5 

tarHh. Without regularity, 

i^^jh hUd tarM. 
Regularly, ^yLiJlj^i^^^ 

hinaw^n nrnwdfik al tdn^n. 

Regulate, v, Joj nauam, ^^j 

rattab. See Adjust, arrange, 
order, direct. 

murattak, a^;^ 


Regulation, w^jT^ ^ar/f&. See 

Arrangement, method. 
Regulator, ^^^j^ muraUib, ^\j 

Rehidanalfjijij takrir,it2\c\ Hddat. 

See Repetitilon, recital. 
Rehearse, ^* jj^ horror ^ jlx ^d. 

See Repeat, relate. 
Rehearsed, jj^ vmkarror. 
Reject, 9. 3; rodlc^, ^^a) iu|/2i'. See 

Refuse. [ J^*^ momtl^. 

Rejected, (}yA/*jt^ ghayr makbal^ 
Rejection, Jj rod. 
Reign, ^. (exercise soTcreign autho- 
rity), ^(— g». hatam, u.x \ 4> T 

tamaUok, [/»^^ A«ibf». 

Reign (sovereignty), JLLLi ioUtmat, 
Reimburse, v. dJi^o dafo^ Ukho. 

See Pay, repay. [reparation. 

Reimbursement. See Repayment, 
Re-impr^nate, v, «Xj J^^J4>- 

hahbol mm jadld. 
Rein (of a bridle), /%Lr ^'dm (pi. 

^ %m). See Bridle, halter. 
Rein, «. ^ kffam. See Bridle. 
Rein&rce, 9. (|;ive additional 

strength), ^JaSIjIj t&d al Hwat. 

To reinforce an army, jLnji\fAj 

wad ol ^a%dkw. 




Beinforcementy «. i^\ij\ij tiyddat 
al hnvoat^ J^\J^^sij\ itdiyad al 

Rejoice, r. (be glad), ^y forth, 
yMj\ insar, n*M^i\ inhasat, )aa^\ 

inhaz. See Exult. — (to make 
. glad), - Ji farrah. See Exhila- 
rate, gladden. — ^To rejoice at 
■ another's misfortune, (^ls.^^4^ 

tX>^l shemetfl ahhad. 
Rejoiced, j^y**^ masriir. See Glad. 
Rejoicing, $, WLmJI inhisdt, djsAi 

Rejoin, v, (to meet again), ^^^^5)1 

Jj Jcj- Idka' minjadld; (to reply), 
. (^\y^^Jj radd jawdh. See 

Reiterate, v. J^ karrar. 

Repeat. — Reiteration, j\ 

Re-judge, v» JjJ^^ Jl^ hakam 

min jadid. See Re-examine, 

review. [min jadid. 

Re-kindle, t;. JjJcf-^j^Jjt^^Aa^a/ 
Relate, v. (recite), .5^ haka\ See 

Related (told), ^Isr^ muhka' ; 

(connected by blood), c,.>^.*«mj 
. nasib. See Relative. 
Relator, ^^ hdkl. See Narrator. 
Belation (oarratLye), ^^ kimK, 


2bl^ hikdyak^j^ ibkihr (pfair. 
j\s>\ akhhdr). Aooording to the 
foregoing relation,^^^^^,, ^mnT 
j^Sa>J\ hi hatah oMbrfr d 
mazknr. Relation (reliarence, re- 
gard, respect), < lJ1 c ^Mhtik, 
(^^L«:J\ intisdh. Relation, n- 

• ' 

lationship (kindred), i}\^ iardht, 
i_ " ■'* nasah, A relation, ida- 
tive (kinsman), \^^ i^ hmflk\ 
(kinswoman), ^^ hatihai* Be- 
lation of two women marrjiog 
two brothers, 4iLi Mfat (plor. 
cjUL. «7/d<). 

Relative, c^^^u*!^ man^a^, \__ -■•— 
muntasah, A relative pronooa, 
^^^^^tmmu^Aam. Relatively, 
<UaaJ nishatan, <Um*:J1j ^»7 iiMa(. 
Relativeness, ^U^jL^* mwndiiM, 
j^:v.j rakha\ See Relation. 

Relax, v. (slacken, make less tense), 
f^ic\ atlak. See Loose, open. 

Relaxation (slackness, looseness), 
^L^l itldk\ (cessation tnm 
labor), d^\j rdhat. See Rest, 
recess. — Relaxation of mind, 
JU\Z>.1« rdhat al hdl. See 
Recreation. — Relaxation of care 
or attention, JLiL^^ycl 
inkitd^,al a%hghdl^ JUjbt. tHii^. 


Belaxed (loosened), \J^f^ **^' 
iakkl* Belaxed in constitation, 
^^>^j^au^ tnuttarkhl, J)\i fittir. 
See Languid. — ^Relaxed in moral 
or religions principles, m ,.J 
v_ -t^iV^ll todsi^ al nuuhab. 

Belay (of horses), 
khatfl al poita, 

Belease, v. (from confinement), 
jlivl aOak. See Free. 

Belease (from confinement), ^jclUw 

khaldSf ^jdyyL^^^f^J Iff ^fi^ 

min al habi. A release firom 

debt, \j)\ ibrd. See Discharge, 

Belent, v, (grow tender or com- 
passionate), M>-jraham, _1xJ;a^ 
thafak ^ala\ 

Relentless, J[aL2» aS t« tndlaho ihafakat, 

mat. See Merciless. 
Reliance, ^Jx jUocl i^Utndd ^M, 

JxJliJI i«aiUl/ ^oAi'. See 
Trust, confidence. 
Relief (assistance), JJ^ madad, 
<UjU^ mtf^dtc^ofMi^. See Help, 
succour, release.— -(comfort), 
^UelLJuJ ta%liyat al hk&tir. 
See Consolation. — (remedy), ^JU 

Relieve, v. (assist), ^^U ^diMw, 

845 RBL 

«XfiLi td^oi. See Help, rapport, 
succour, release. — (to comfbrt)i 

Relievable (assistable), Jx\m. ,r^ » 
ffuiaad^y iftXeLuwJtJjli kdhUal 
mutd^adat; (consolable), ^J-ilS 
^LLmsII ibd&iZ al tadiyat. 

Relieved (assisted), JxUmi^ mmd^\ 
(comforted), ^jLmS^ nmta%dOl. 

Relieyer, «. (assistant), Jl-aLmu^ 
mmd^\ (a comforter), ^Ju^ 

Relight, 9. (light anew), ^;^ Ja^ 
Jj Jc>- $ha^ min jadld. 

The Christian religion, ^pJ[i>I^< 
^^^W^^ ^'^M A^ ifMMfAl. The 
Mahommedan religion, aImuII^J 
itit alisldm. The religion of the 
Magi, j^^i*^\^43 din al mq^'m. 
Observance of religion, ^li«> 
daydnat. Observant of religion, 
^Jw^^f»-l^ iiikib iln. See Re- 
ligious. — Of no religion, ^^^t« 
mdlaho Alt. Religions, ^^t j| 

Religions, o^f. ^^^ dint, Jl^ 9dlik. 

See Pious. — ^A. religious man, 

^4>w,y^fvU idkib din. 
Religiously, x^j^JCj ^iol iaboa\ 

See Koiuii^) T«^«raQii^ 




aoUy, strieily), LjjJCj hiiol 

Beligioasness, £\jJ day&nat. See 

Religion, piety. 
ReUnqmBh, v. k^Sp tarak, jS^ 

hajar. See Leaye, desert, quit, 
abandon, forbear, release. 

Belinqnishment, Cjp tark. 

Belinqnished, CS^j^j:,^^ tnairuk, 

Relish (agreeable taste or flaTor), 
J^J tawh^ m^ l%uat\ (a slight 
tasting of yiotnals, etc.)> l^^ 
ta^mai. See Sip, taste; oho 
liking, delight, cast, manner. — 
Having a fine relish, Jjjj laziz. 

Having no relish, 2i^^t« m&lako 

Relish, V, (give a pleasing taste to 

anything), jJ h». 
Relished (liked), J^t^U malb^) 

(agreeable to the palate), «3j«jJ 

Reluctance, <Lj!lsr^ mukhalafat, 

istihrdh, A 


>«l/»Jk£ ^adam 

ikhtiy&r. See Aversion, unwil- 
lingness. — ^To shew a reluctance. 

Reluctant, ^x^^U mdlaho rtt^hbai, 

^U^idU tndlaho khdtH-. See 
Averse, unwilling. 

Rely, V. (put trust in), ^JiftJkA&ct 
i^tamad ^ala\ ^X^J$y fimtAM 
yala\ _Ljccimi1 utanad ^aU. 
See Confide, trust 

Remain, «• (continue, tany), yGmd\ 
ittakar, ^jLt $akan ; (to be left 
as a remainder), ^Ji heh ; (to 
endure, last), aIj ddm. See 
Ckmtinue. — To remain behind 
(especially from fatigue), ^^^b 
iadkkar. To remain firm, 
(.s^U heki idhit. To n 
alone, 2fjL>.jw tarn wahdiiho. 

Remainder, remains, Jb hdB 

(plur. [Ah haMya\ &^ fadiai 

(plnr. ijJLa^ fadlat), See Rest, 

Remaining, ^JU JdJti. [jVm^. 

Remake, ^.•^^Js^ ^mal mm 

Remand, v. (send back), ^^j 

Remark, ila^-Lt mtddhazai. See 
Observation. — A remark or anno- 
tation, j ^^^^ij tafsir, ^jJL gharh. 

Remark, v. (notice), JSla^-l^J^ 
^amal mtUdhazat, !a»^l! Idhaz, 

Remarkable, <ilto^.>^ll»— ,^c>>lj tcdjib 
al muldha%at, c^ j— c gharih, 
1^;..-^ ^jih, jj\j nddir, j^^ 
tnashhur. See Rare, uncommon. 

Remarkably, ^^^A^^cyj hinaw^i^ 




mashhUr; (exceedingly), i-jlb 

Bemarker, «. ]a>X^ wnddhtJi, Jff\j 
nOiOr. See Observer. — Re- 
marked, )aysr^ malhilM. See 

Remediable, -.JUIIJjIj kdhil al 

Remediless, 2f^l>.AlU mdlaho ehdra, 
^icdlt* mdlaho ^tldj\ See Help- 
less, irremediable. — Remediless- 
ness, -JU!1|«Jx ^adam al ^pdj. 

Remedy, Jix, ^Idj, \jj dawd^ 
^U^ mu^lajat See Cure, 
medicine, antidote, reparation. 

Remedy, v. ^[c ^dlqf, ^^\dddtDa\ 

Remember, t;. (bear in mind), i^JJ 

tazakkar. See Commit to me- 

Remembered,^ jcL/9 fnutaaakkar. 

Remembrance, ^J ztkr. See Me- 
mory, memorial. 

Remembrancer, 8,^s^ mwtakkir. 

Remind, v,jij fakkary^J nakkar. 
Remiss, JiU ghdJU, j^\i kdsir. 

See Careless. 
Remissness, Zslghaflatyjyaikuiikry 

JUjbl ihmdl. See Carelessness. 
Remission, ^ic \<tf^9 iyJut magh' 

faratf ^\jJu£. ghufrdn. See 

Pardon. — (abatement), 

takhflf; (cessation), 

Remit, v. (pardon), jk& ghafar; 

(to remit money, etc.), J«^\ 

Mib\j*} anal dardhm. See Send. 
Remittance, «. (of money, etc.), 

M^Jb\jJ^[^^j\ irtdl dardhm, 

^L^ kamhldle. 
Remnant, *• ^J^ hdkl, LJj hakiyat. 

See Remainder. — Remnant {adjX 
Jib hdkU 
Remonstrance, <• ^XuJ taihakku 
Eemonstratc, .. ^^ taOakka' 


Bjemoine,j^iAmA\jair nakht addamlr, 
uJli'U taasMf, I«JJlj;!i kalak 
aaimmat. See Horror, anguisb, 
repentance, pity. 

Remorseless, X^ljuL hUd naddmat, 
iAi^jh hild rahmai. See Merci- 
less, cruel. 

Remote, Juiu ha^d. See Distant. 
— ^More remote, JljujI ab^. 
Most remote, ^^^\^*ijui\ alah^ 
ma gakun, [min ba^ld. 

Remotely, iJuiu ha^ldan, Juiu^ 
Remoteness, Juu &M^i. See Distance. 
Removeable, Ja, v . i yvnkal. See 

Removal, remove (changing one's 




ing from a place), jj/i^ tftirdk, 
jL» Bofar. See Departure. — 
Beznoval from office, ^^ ^mU. 

Eemove, v. (go from one place to 
another), J&Jl intaial; (depart 
from a place), ^Li idfitr. See 
Depart — (to move any thing 
from its place or to a distance), 
Ji) nakal. See Mo^e. 

Removed, JJjlv.^ mimtahil. Re- 
moved from office, (jjj/^ ma^tnJ, 

Remover, $, (of anj thing), JiU 
ndkil; (a remover of himself), 
Jin:^ tnuntakH, 

Remount, v, (on horseback) c^^ 

Remunerate, r. t^jU" ya«l. See 

musddamat ; (an accidental meet- 
ing), JOjU^ mukdhalat, ^^\y§ 
muwdjahat. See Encounter. 

Rencounter, r. (clash) 

tasddamU ; (to meet unexpect- 
edly), fyjL^aJ^ tasddafu. See 
Encounter, skirmish. 

Rend, r. ^j>^ khazak, ^JJ^ $hak. 
See Tear, lacerate. [Tearer. 

R4*zi(]cr, 5. A^c^ muhhoKzak. See 
Mender, v, Jj rod, t^-^ ***ii*l: 
See Keturn, restore, te^txy. — 


(to translate)/ *s^ to^^owi. See 
Interpret.— (to yield, give up), 

Ju«> M//<im. See Surrender. — 
(to make), J^^ ^Mfurf. To ren- 
der necessary, MjiAA^ ^amdUho 
Idtim, m^AaS' ^fnalah0 mMm, 
i^jj^iJLf ^amalaho durltri; 
(to give), ^Jafi\ a^\ 

Rendezvous, «. i^Mie^ ^^^^ iS^ 
mahaU iftimd^ aifam^yat^ t*^J^ 
*^y^ mawda^ ma^itd. See 
Assembly, meeting. The ren- 
dezvous of an army, oUc^lJ^^^ 
iLjJI mahal tfttmd^ al ^tuakir. 
The place of rendezvous, ^^isr* 

Rendezvous, v. djL^^Js\j^\ixyt]ajj 
(J^^fJi^iS rahat ma^ an yal- 
takl tna^ho f\ faldn mahaL 

Renegade, Juj^-^ murtad. See 
Apostate, deserter. 

Renew, r. (renovate) J*Xcj- jaddai. 
To renew friendship, JjJ^J^^x 
Jus^l camo/ tajdld al muhahhat. 
To renew (repeat), jU ^d^?. 

Renewable, ^J^^^ yatqfaddad, Jjli 
Jj Jl^lII iE;a3t7 attaj'dld. 

Renewal, J^. J^ fa;<ft</. See Repa- 
ration, repetition. 




Rennet (for curdling milk), 

ffuwr. [new, etc. 

Renovate, renovation, v. See Re- 
Renounce, v.^ nakar, ^joij rafad, 
\^Ji tarak. See Disown. — ^To 
renounce all right to anything, 
^jJ,>- ^^^^a-Jj rafad hnkulaho. 
Renounced, jy^Mt mankur,C^ji^ 
matruk, {joy^j^ mar/ud. 

Renown, f^^s^ Ht,j\fJ^\ MiikOr. 
See Glory. 

Renowned, j^fuL<« mashhur, Ci,^fwLg 
^jVir^nrfl tdhtb ism ^oslm. See 
Glorious, illustrious. 

Rent, «. (fissure, break) J^l thiik. 
See Gap, chasm, laceration. — 
Rent (income, revenue), J^ Jl^ 
madkhul, ^Jyoas^ mahml. An- 
nual rent, ,jr^ J^Jl^ mad- 
khul sanawi. Rent paid for any- 
thing held of another, \^ kira, 
j\>'\ of dr. 

Rent, V, (let to a tenant)^^^ afar; 

(to hold by paying rent), j>'\s^\ 

Rentable, i^J^ yunkari. 

Rental, rent-roll, cJ)Ul]^(3 dafiar 

al amldk, \mildk. 

Renter, s. cJl^lk.«^>-L0 sdhib 
Rent-free, ^iMi^^LlcLttljX* mudk 

ma calayhi ratm. 

Renunciation, ^ja^j rafd, jUol 
inkdr ; (of the world), U S^\cJji 
tark addumfd. [mtnjadld. 

Repaid, jLj«X5»-^wijJl indafa^ 

Repair, v, M^Jif^A^- ^mal tarmlm^ 
^yj ramram. See Mend, amend. 

Repair, reparation (supplying the 

loss, mending), ^Ji tarmUm, 

y .>-4u,»,J ta^fr. Reparation 

(amends), ^^ ^awad, ^j^^a^aj 

tadmlf^ 2flJlL« mukdfdh, \j^ 

jaayd. See Retribution, compen- 

Repaired, (^fy muramram. 

Repairer, t. (of houses, etc.) ,<^/«^ 

Reparable^^^lJu^ 1 Jj IS kdMatiasllh, 

f^00^\^JL%^ mumkin attarmim. 
Reparation. See Repair. 
Repartee, t. ^L» (^\j^ jawdh 

hddir, i— Jalcy^l^ jawdh laHf. 
Repass, v. JjJkf^-^c^li fdt min 

jadld, t^^^^rj ^^*t tf^^*' 

Repast, «. /♦U^ ^a^dffi. 

Repay, «. JuJc»^^^J ({a/»c miit 
yait^^. See Pay, recompense, 
reward. [See Payment 

Repayment, (JLJ wJj daf^ tdni. 

Repeal, v, Jlaj battal. 

Repeal, «. JUa^^ ibidl. Repealed, 




Bepeat, v. (speak again) Jl^^^j 
refe^ takdUam ; (do again or 
several times), J^«^^ ^d ^mal, 
^}^%^j refe^ ^mal. Repeated 
(done or said often), jjL^ mu- 

Repeatedly, jt^lXJui^ jumiat 
amrdr. See Often. 

Repel, V. *}j raid, w«3 dafa^. Qee 
Repulse. Repelled, ft^.iiX ^ 

madfa^ See Repulsed. ^A 

repeller, wlj ddfi^ 

Repent, 9. aJljJF tanaddam, aJu 
nadem^ c-^^lj ^d5, X^tjJ J.^ ^mal 
naddmat, ^y JnT ^ama/ tawhat. 

Repentance, Ij^ tawhat^ i^sj 
naddmat See Penitence. — Re- 
gret and repentance, i^\jj^ijMt^ 
hturat tea naddmat. Repentant, 
f^C^j nddim, Sm^\j tdyib* Re- 
pentant with all his heart, Vi-^lJ 
^Lli J^^ tdyih min kol halhiJU, 
See Penitent [Rebound. 

Repercussion, (jmUju\ tn^kdi. See 

Repetition, jl^ iikrdr,jij^ takrirf 
ij\s>\ i^dat. 

Repine, v, ■ ^ 5 \\ inkahar, aJlj\ 
inyham, jBasgr\ inluuar, iJ^J^ 
ghdr min, Jumo*. hasad, 

Eepiner, s. See Murmuxer. 

Repining, *- j^ kmkr^ 

^ gkam. See Grief, legiet, 
yezation. — ^Repining;, «jf. t^fA« 
makhUr, jy^^s^ makgOr, f^f^ 

Replace, v. (jo^ ^awwad, ^^j 
rqjfof. See Substitute. 

Replaced, ^Tj^ munfj^a^ U^J^ 

Replant, v. ^^.^lO^jlc ^d iMns^ 

Replenish, v. l<J^-^ maOt^, lT^ 
^o^&a'. See Fill, stock. ItdL 

Replenished, replete, ^J^^^^t^ 

Repleticm, h^\ imiild, Jumct 
mat See Indigestion. 

Reply, replication, («^ty>- jawai. 


See Answer. — ^Replied, c^ 

Reply, r. c-;l^^Ja^l aM jmodl, 

i^\y>'t^j rod jatodh. 

Replier, 9. c-;»^Ls^ mujdunb. 

Repolish, r. *M*^ur* J^ •■^ 

Report, «. (rumor of news), ie\j^\ 

,^^ ishdc^at hhahar. See Rumor. 

— (public character), cr^j^ ti^. 

See Reputation. — A report (fir 

account returned by those to 

whom anything is referred), ijy» 

\ ^^^ ^rat al hdl, ^jom^ id- 




^l^. To make a report (espeoially 
of state aSairs to the king), etc., 

Report, v.j0^\2£\ a^a* Jl^ahar. 
Sec Tell^ relate, rumor. 

Reported, jj^i-^ mukarrar. Bee 

Related. [Relator, reciter. 

Reporter, b.j^'^ mukhahhir. See 

Repose, v. (rest), ^\ji^\ istardh; 
(sleep), aLJ nam. To repose 
confidence, ^lr.>X4>r.»r.l i^tamad 

^la\ _Lc(J^ tawakkal ^ala\ 
See Confide. — (to intmst), )a>^ 
iLjL^^ hatt amdnat, ^«^^«^ 
toada^ wadl^t See Trust 

Repose (rest), l^^Sj rdhat ; (sleep), 
/♦^ fMwm. See Sleep, rest, 

quiet. Reposed (at rest), 

,^Zm*^ mmtarlh; (asleep), ajU 

Reposit, V. JLjL^I^^^ wada^ 
amdnat, c«3^ wada^. See Store, 
lay in, deposit. 

Reposited, ^L^lcjJ^ mawdu^ 
amdnat, ^^*^y^ mawdn^» 

Repository, «. ^j^^sr^ makkum, 
JLKf^ khazinat. 

Reprehend, r. ^JugCy^'xg ^atab^M, 

^i lam, ^^^ wahbakk. See 

Blame, reproach, reproYe, cen- 
sure, chide. 
Reprehended, i^^-^Ju^ flMSWiftin, 

Reprehensihle, A)Ulli».^\j tr4;t} 

a/ lawm. 
Reprehensibly, i»l^Uy^';..gJC»^ 

&»^^ ^aM ifftmuldm. 

Reprehension, ^-^j— >< mutdmai, 
^U^ mu^tabat, ^y tawblkh, 
i*j! ^airm, c^lic ^1^^, ^*^ 
^slr. See Censure, blame, re- 

ReprehensiYe, ^^ ^tdbi. 

Represent, v. (ezhibit)> j^\ a»har, 
j,atJ\ ahdar. See Show.— To 
represent (by painting, delinea- 
tion, imitation, etc.), ^j«^J^ 
^amal ttuwlr, jJlajiJ.^ ^amal 
taiklid. See Paint, describe. — 
To represent (by petition, etc.), 
^jtiAs!i\ iltdmas, ^jOjZ ^arad. To 
represent on a theatre, b «Xi^j^ J^ 
^mal komedia. To represent 
(act as the representative of 
another), ^^J^y tawakkal ^an. 

Representation (image, form), ijya 
iHrat, {jiy^ tiut^ra, JlLi» skakl. 

See likeness. (a memorial), 

^jfc ^rd» yjJv-jcJ^v *^3i*»»n*^ 




^yju% ma^r^. See Petition. — 
(exhibition), j\^\ Mar. The- 
atrioal representation, JuJL,ft.3 
taikild. Bepresentation of the 
person of another, £il^ wakdlat. 
Bepresentation as in a mirror, 

Bepresentative (exhibiting a simHi- 
tnde), JjUb^ mumdstl, A repre- 
sentative (of another person), 
J^j fra^/(plar. i^^ vntkakt). A 
representative vested with full 
powers, J^la^f^y foahl mtUlak. 
To appoint a representative, Jm4x 
J.-;*-^ ^amal wahiL A. repre- 
sentative (similitude or symbol 
of anything), LJtx. ^aldmat. 

Bepresenter, t, (one who shows or 
exhibits),^^^!^^ muxhir. 

Bepress, v, (check), lauJ dahat, \iij 
rabaif ^>^ mana^ See Bestrain, 

subdue, crush. Bepressed, 

W^,.>_«d.. ^ madbut, Bepression, 
^^ man^. Bepressive, w3l« 

Beprieve, $, (delay of punishment), 
v,.^jj(J\Jlf«l mh&l atia^lb, 
i^\Aji\rS^\j tdJthir al ^ikdh. 

Bepiieve, v. c^JucIl Jf«l aimJwi 

To w 

Beprimand, «. 0^ w aVUkk * See 

Beprehendy zebnke. [WiMta. 

Beprisal, ^^ ^oimn^ ^^LajiJ^ 

Beproach, 9. aIU^lJl&Ji^^ ^«m( 

proach one another, \ 

Beproach, t. (censure), JL« wudSm, 

lawm; (infamy), u,^jr ^dyi. 
See Shame* 
Beproaohable, X^lU]1i^^«>-l 

tahik al lawm. 

Beproached, (^y^ nuasmUm. 

Beproachfully (opprobriously), J6 
<t«Lt hihol mtddmai; (ahame- 
fuUy), J^v---^J^ hiM ^ 

Beprobate, «• ^uL^ 1 imJUir ^o&yiW, 

^ult^^^^ rafad talahaho. See 

Beject. — Beprobate, ^J-1 lAaibi. 

See Wicked. — A reprobate, ^s^li 

fdjir. See Profligate. 

Beprobated, {jo^j^ marfstd. See 
Bejected. — ^Beprobatenesa, repro- 
bation. See Wickednees. 

Beproof, a^ lawm. 





^alayhif ^La^j wdthaUMho, See 

Reprehendi reproach. 

Beptile, $, ijJ**^ luuharat (plur. 

uzAjLtf^^ Imharat). The reptiles 

of the earth, ^/9^^/«\^ hawdm 

Eepnblic, jjf«^ jamhUr (plnr. 

-JbUi5^ jamdhir). 

Eepudiate, etc., v. ^J^ iaUak, See 
DiYorce, reject. 

Bepngnance (contrariety), ZilUer^ 
mukhdlafat. See Inconsistency. 
— (reluctance), J^jlj ia^aUal, 
SjJU^ mu^nadat, ^^U^ mukd- 
wamat ; (ayersion), 4.dub hughdat. 
, Bepugnant (contrary), cJJL-c^ 
mukhdlifyjAk^ mugh&yir, ^^U^ 
mtmdkid, ^L/« mundfl. See In- 
consistent. — (reluctant), JuJU^ 
mu^nid, s^ ^nid; (averse), 
gSz**^ mwtakrah. Eepugnant 
to humanity, ^j|^<^^(j^ mundfl 
al mwrHwat, Eepugnant to na- 
ture, ijuJ^\j)\K^ mughdyir atia- 
hl^t. To be repugnant (con- 
trary), c^W^U 9dr mukhdlif; 

(to be averse or reluctant), jfJcmJ 
Kepugnantly (contrarily), ^^(-^^ 
jIa^ hiwajhin mughdyir^ kX-f 
Za!U^^ hikol mukhdlafat', (with 

reluctance), h^JCi hikol karahf 

U^ karahan, \fjjafo UgJutyr 
Repulse, «. ^ J daf^ c\i Jjl tndifd^ 

To meet with a repulse, ^jlijjf 
tndtfash. See To be repulsed. 

Repulse, v. ^/ui J dafash, ^ J dafa^, 
A^U kdwam. See RepeL 

Repulsed, ^j*ij^ mardud, 9 ^J^ 
madfil^, — To be repulsed, ^Jjl 
tndafa^ See To meet with a 

Repulsion, ^J daf^f ijii\x^ mudd- 

fa^t. See Repulse. 

Repulsive, repelling, ^^f J ddfi^. 
The repelling power, ^1 jJIIIJaSI 
al kuwai adddfl^at, Luhiardh, 

Repurchase, v. b\j«r»,Ji»\^^j>-j raji^ 

Reputable, jpj^ mu^tabar. See 
Honorable^ creditable, honest. — 
Reputably,jLjxl JCi hikol i^ihdr. 

Reputation, repute, s^**^ sit, j^\ 

ism, JiMAm$ MMfi^o^. See Credit, 
Repute, V, v,,.*.***/^ hcuah, Jlc ^, 

^ %an. See Consider, reckon. 

Request, s. (entreaty, petition), 

^jOje> ^d, (jywU "> W Utimds, 
Xs'JCmj] istid^, \p^j rqfd. In 
request (in great demand), <^^1L^ 
mutluh. Anything greatly in re- 
quest, ^*Xp;-<^i^L^>kb^>d«^'<v. 




Bcqnest, «. ^^ ^ad, (jwUsi^jJ 
kaddam iltimdt, Uocudl J^ carnal 
ittidia, «_^ talab. See Peti- 
tion, beg, entreat. — Requested, 
^^ti^cS^ multameu, etc. A re- 
quester. See Petitioner. — ^Your 
Excellency is requested to g:ive 
the necessary orders, tj^^j^^ 

mofja, min sa^datikum an tas- 
dirU al awdmir al Idtimah. 

Bequirable, v,,.^1Vi11l,^c>>)^ wajib 

Require, v, e^-JJ^ talab, ^^^ac:j\ 
ikiida* laho. See Demand, re- 
quest. — As occasion may require, 
\n"^^l\_ hasah al HUidd, 

Required, S-^jUa^ matlubf i<^=^ 
muktadl. See Requested. 

Requisite, t^j^j^ durUri, j*ji IdsiMf 
v^-'^^j tpdjib. See Necessary. 

Requisite, 8. Lif«i>-U- hdjat mu- 
himmaty ^^£CjL^y%\ amr muktadl. 
See Necessary, necessaries. 

Requisitely, [Jtj^j^ duraratan, 
?•• -fi!b hil durHrat. See Neces- 

Requisiteness, ij^j^ dururat. 

Requital, i^j^ majdzah, i\s\L^ 
muid/dh, Ji^ ^owd, \J^jf^ 

ta^M. See BetaHntina, oom- 
pensation, letribatioiu 

Requite, v, l •Ar,\joJ^ ^mmwai 
^daifki. See Repay, retaliafte, 

Reremouse, «. )c\y^^ waUM^ 
JJJ]^ tmfr al lapl. Bee Bat 

Rescript (royal edict), jytr»^ mm- 

Rescue (from confinement or danger) 

jlL^ aUak, ^jA:>^ khaOat, ^ 
Rescue, 8, ^Jiie\ aUdk. 

Rescued, (^/u^^^j^^^Utx^ wuMk 

min al hah8. 
Research, (j^tuciJ iafiuh. See 

Inquiry, search. 

Research, v, ^Jic^ fattaah, J.4X 
(jtij-.gj ^mal tafti8h. See Search, 
examine, inquire. [Jaild. 

Resell, V, ^«^^fV ^^t **** 
Resemblance, (J«w«j tam^l, ijya 

8urat (plur. jya swoar). See 

Similitude, likeness. 
Resemble (be like), lAl» 8hdJbdk\ 

(to compare), l^ shabhahf ^^as- 

<U^15 ^nud tMhhih, [Like. 

Resembling, iASL^ muMkdlnk. See 

Resent, r. ^Uiij^ljuai k^iod d 
intikam^ v- ^..rif ffhsd^h. 




Resentfiil, S->^ ^hadnb. See 
Angry, choleric. 

Resentiiigly, ^v,,,%.ato higkadahm. 

Resentment, aLL^j]!]^ Jiir al 
intihdm^ Vi j r ghayt^ 4,,'wi.r 
ghadah. See Anger, indignation. 

Reservation, reserye (retaining, 
withholding), \su\ %bld, U^l 
iiMkd; (concealment ai some- 
thing in the mind), Uj rigd; 
(exception, condition), L^ «^^. 
See Stipulation. — (caution or 

modesty of behavonr), ^^ J^ adab, 
i\^\ ifUihdh. 

Reserve, v. (keep hack), ^Jj\ abka*. 

Reserved (kept hack), ^\j bdkl. 

Reserved (modest, silent, not im- 
pudent), uu^L»9di^t^, wDt^^jU 
hddi attah^. 

Reservedly (modestly), ^uJm^^JCj 

c^jt^ hikol hishmtU wa adah, 

Reservedness (modesty), c^ jf adabf 

jUj toakar; (sullenness), LIjj 

saklat, [hawd. 

Reservoir, v. (of water), ^^ 

Reset, V. (a hroken hone), Jiui\ji^ 
j^mA^\ jMar al ^osm al makiHr. 

Reside, 9. ^jL^ Bokan, ^Jai hUan^ 
aUI ak&m. See Dwell, inhahit; 
also to subside. 

Residence, h%\s\ ikdmat. A place 

of residence, ^j waUm (plur. 
^L^\ awtdn), aIJU ffMk&m, 
^jJLu^ maskan. See Abode, 
habitation, dwelling, country. 
Resident, ^L» B&kin^ i,JL% mUk^, 
A resident, Jl^ w<Ml^ ^^\ 
eUkl. See Envoy, agent, am- 

Residuary, residual, S\i bdM. A 
residue, i^ hahwaU See Rest, 

Resign, v, (give up, quit), d^ 
tdrak. To resign an office, 
^^JuM^S Uta^a* min. To 
resign one's-self to providence, 
i^S^^yi tawakkal ^U aUah. 
See Submit, yield. 

Resignation (of office, etc.), CS^ 
tark, \ijC0A M^i^y^; (submission 
to providence), ^\mAJm5 Uuitlm 
%la\ See Suhmissiou. — ^Resigned 

(to providence), ^Jlc J^yiL^ muta" 
wakkH ^ala\ See Submissive. 

Resin, ^^^]j r&fimf, j)y^^4,^ 
samgh sanawhar. 

Resist, V. ^1 J d&fa^, ^U indna^ 
ajIj kdwam. See Oppose, re- 

Resistanoe, ^jLiU mukdwamai, 
JuuUk^ nmmdna^i, 
See Opposition. 




EesiBted, «J|^*3^ nunrdild, 9yJ^ 

flkuj^^. See EepnlBed. [/S^o^. 

BesiBtibility, ^UUy Hwai addd- 

BeaolTaUe, resoluble (capable of 
being dinolved), jk.^ J^lS kdhil 
al kal; (capable of being ex- 
plained), -MMJall^^^C^b^ mmnkin 

Besolve, v. (detennine), Juoi koiod, 

i^y naMa\ See Porpose. — (to 
diseolre), J^ Ao/. See Melt. — 
(to analyse^ J^ hdl; (to in- 
fonn, resolye a doubt), l^J^\^j 

rafa^cuhthubha. A resolve. See 
Resolyed (determined, steady), cu^; U 

$dhii. See Besolute. — (melted), 
iJL^^ mutahallil. See Dissolved, 
(analyzed), ^^ji^ mafruk ; (ex- 
plained), juJu9 mu/Mior. Ee- 
solved upon, m4>^a^ mwammam, 
i^yai^ mahud, Eesolvedly (with 
firmness), jl^jj^^JCi hiiolsabrm 

iffotardr. See Besolntely. — Be- 
Bolvedness. See Eesdution. 

Besolvent, resolutive, (Jls^mM^o^t?, 

Resolver, «. (one that determines), 
Jutfli kditd ; (a dissdver), Jic^ 

Besolute (constant to a mdlstkQ), 
v::^U idhU. See Km, rteady, 
constant. — (bold), jy*^ juAtr. 
See Brave. 

Besolutely, d^Uji^L^ JCj MM 
joidnft wa UhdL See Courage- 

Besolution, resdutenefls (boldness), 

Besolution (fixed purpose), (^U 
tahdt, ilj niffai, Ju^ iauL 

Besort, v. (firequent), J^Uf-t^Jj 
rdh wa afd U^and, ^Jud^JI imfif 
^M, See To have recourse. 

Besort (concourse), pLc^t aUmd^ 
See Assembly, meeting ; visit, 

Besound, v. (sound, echo), AJi J^ 
^mal ranniht S-»j^" Jdwal, Jf 
^U ^amal ydghi. [rmmUL 

Besounding, pari. A}j J^U ^dmil 

Besource (fund), J^l as/. See 
Source. — (remedy), -JU ^Mf. 

Be-sow, V. ^H'^ij^^j ••«»^ •"» 

Bespect, v. ^^f i^tahar, a^I 

Bespect, /^\J\ tkrdm, j\^sa\ i^tAdr, 
i*K:i^\ iktirdm. See Attentioo, 
regard, honor, reverence; ak$ 




consideration, motiye. — (refer- 
ence, relation), ^lU ^okLkah, 
^UuJ nishat. In respect of, ^UaaJ 
nishatan, iLuuiJb h^ nubat, _Lc 

Bespectable, ^-*. n.-t^ mu^iabar, 

mI^^\i^^^^^\^ wdjib atidhim. 
Bespectcd, ^^/^ mtiibarram, ^^^iiu^ 

mtf^to^or. See Honored. 
Bespectful, c^Jy« mf«-<M{<M. 
EespectfuUy, [»)/^l^(»J^J^ ^ife/ 

iakrim wa iMirdm. 
Beepeotiye (particular), ^Is^ ihds, 

^yAss^ makhHLs ; (relatiye), 

Eespectiyely (particularly), U|^.tf£>- 

khuailian, <UmJ nisbatan. See 

Bespiration, ^^»Jcj tanaffits. 

Bespire, v, (breathe), ^^^mJLj tanaffas, 

Bespite, ^d^/t 9naA/a^. SeeBeprieye. 

Besplendence, L.^ diifd. See Bright- 
ness, splendor.— —Besplendent, 
w^^ Idmi^, See Bright, splendid. 
— ^Besplendently, ^^^JiCj bihol 
diya. See Splendidly. 

Besponsibility, ^U^ kafshtfij\j^ 
damdnat. [m^wib. 

Besponsiye, ^\^jawdbi, t^^jt* 

Best (quiet, repose), i^\j rdhat. 
See Tranquillity. — (cessation of' 

motion), ^^^ suknn. Best and 

motion, iS^^^^^ iukikn wa 

harakai. To giye rest, ,^^ 

Best, $, (remainder), (Jb bdia. See 
Besidue, remains. — ^And so with 
regard to the rert, M^^^^ 
wuhuB ^ala^ ha»d. 

Best, 8, (support on which anything 
leans), J^^^ 8anad, i^i^^u^ muinad. 
See Prop, pillar, support 

Best, 9. (be at quiet), '^js^^ utardh ; 
(to sleep), aU ndm; (to lean 
upon), ^J^l^l iitakd ^la\ JcclmiI 
Utanad, To rest satisfied, ^j 

Bested (reposed), ^l3^ mvrtdh. 

Bestitution, ^t^Jf tarfi^ 

Bestiye, JuU^ mu^nid, J^-.^«cl« 
mutamarrid. See Obstinate, 
stubborn, reluctant. — ^A restire 
horse, f^^j>- hariln. See Horse. 
— ^Bestiyeness, JLs. ^ndd. See 
Stubbornness, obstinacy. 

Bestless (haying no rest), ^\3j^j^ 
ghayr murtdh. 

Bestlessness (want of rest or ease), 
<t^\^f aJ^ ^adam arrdhat 

Bestorable. See Becoyerable. 

Bestoration, ^s^-ji ^\, j1j/u»1 
utirddd. Sec BestitutuvcL. — 




Restoration of health, U^ 9h4fil. 
See Recovery. 
ReBtoratiTe» ^l^ $hdfl, A resto- 

rative. (Ju» ahdfi. 


Restore, v. (give back, send hack, 

bring back), ^rj ^W^f ^^ 
Retrieve, re-establish, recover, 
Restored, '^ry mtin^a^, *-^^^ 
mardad, 9^>j^ matyn^. Re- 
stored to health, IsT^^J^Lt 
mtUtaihi likahhat. To be re- 
stored, SiJ\ triad. See Return. 

Restorer, «. Jjl. rddid. 

Restrain, v. (curb), Ixm^ dabat, lajj 
robot, i<s.>- hana', j^ jahar. 
See Check, repress, overawe. 

Restrainable, UMgfU^jCi^ mumhin 

Restrained (checked), Igj >, ^ ^ 
modhut, wC4b»^ mumtani^fji 
mohtur ; (limited), Jj< 
mahdad. See Restricted. 

Restrainer, «. k»L^ i^M. 

Restraint (check), L^ ia5^, ^ 
mana^ ; (limitation), t\ 

Restrict, v.j^ kastor. Restricted, 
tnuktoior, j^aLt mukoiiar, 

Restriction, jL^cit tUsiidr, Jui 

i«y<^. See Restmint. 
Restrictive, restringent, ^<*\^\ 

iktiidri. See Styptic 
Restrictively, j\ .n -, il jCj UW 

Result, ^^2!^ fia^«< (plur. 0^ 
natdyif),ij^$am0rmi, SeeEftdi 

Result, r. (rise as a oonaeqoeDee), 
^ J«d»> ^a/ ffiftn. [ol tiUhfir. 

Resumable,jlidSLc^]|t^^^L«b^ mwmkm 

Resume, v. (take baok), J^\^^j 
rafi^ akhax. To resome a dis- 
course, aKSI^^cuj jlc ^d noiljii 
al koklm. 

Resurrection, «. ^Li ih^rdiiMil. The 

day of resurrection, ^L^Uj^ 

yowm ol kiffdmot. See Day d 

Resuscitate, v, *\t^\ oAydA. See 
Revive. — Resuscitatiooi, L^t 
ihyd. See Resurrection. 

Retail, v. j}.Jw*IU^ U^ kl 

Retail, j^^i^b^^^ Maf^ M 
mufarrok. {JmrroL 

Retailed, ,^jJa^UcU« muid^hihui- 

Retailer, 8, ^Jj^^,9^ ^^W^t ^ 

mufarrok. See Pedlar. 
Retain, r. (withhold), 




m0t0k ^ndaho; (to keep in con- 
finement), J^ haJM. See Detain, 
keep.^(to keep in pay, maintain 
as followerB,etc. )Lt *Xs^ U ^ Jl:x13>- 
hat ^ndaho hil khidmat. See 
Hire, pension. [matiunk. 

Betained (withheld), cl^«i« 4 .^ 

Betainer, 9. ^Ij tdhi^. See De- 
pendant, follower, pensioner. 

Betake, v. Jjt\>-^«3^\ akhcu 
mm jadld, 

Betaliate, v. ^Ji>. «3^ \ akhaz hakkaho, 

Betaliated, ^jAc\jut mukdstu. 

Betaliation, j^\hj\ intik&m. 

Betard, c'* jj^ ^awwn^, ^j^ mana^ 
See Hinder, obstruct, delay. 

Betarded, ^^'1::^^ mutaakhkhir. 

Betention (withholding), LLX-mw* 
mask) (holding), cJ\*t*^\ tmsdk. 
See Confinement, restraint, limi- 

Betentive (having the power of 

holding or withholding), c1Xm»U 

Beticolar, reticulated, retiform, 

clxlbL« mushahbak. [equipage. 

Betinue, ^^^ taw&hi^ See Train, 

Betire, v. uJ^I tmaraf^ i^^if^\ 

insahab. See Becede, retreat, 

resign. — To retire from one 

another, S^SeXtj iahd^adft^ 

Betired (private, recluse), j<lii^ 

Betirement, c^L:^-x^( ifUn&h, 
t^\j0aj\ insirdf. See Betreat. — 
Betirement, retiredness (of life), 
ifjls^ hhaJwat. A retirement or 
place of retirement, i^S^ khalwat. 

Betort, 9. (sharp answer), (^\j>' 

jl>- jawdb hdd. See Bepartee, 

Betract, v. ^i^^^^ nakad kald- 
mahOf ^\ ankar. 

Betraoted, j^Iim^ manknr, 

Betraction, jUl;f tnkdr, 

Betreat (place of privacy), if Jl^ 
khalwat. See Betirement — The 
retreat of an army, j^^**^^9^j 
rufUl al ^askar, j\ji Jlrdr, a\j^ \ 
^^jmA\ tnhmdm al ^kar. 

Betreat, v, (from an enemy), j^Uj\ 
inhoMom, j^ far. Betreated, 
AjJ^ mahsUm. 

Betrench, v, (cut off, abridge), j^ai 
ka8iar,j0aii:>^\ ikhtoior. 

Betrenohment, jLojifiLt ikhUsdr, 
j\ma:i\ ikttidr, 

Betrenched, ^ .a % ir^ mukhtasar, 
Q jkLt maktu^, 

Betribution, if\)^^ mujdtdhj |>- 
jax&, »lil^ mukdfdhj ij>'\ vfrat. 
See Repayment, reoompenae. 




Ketributivey retribatory, ^LJL« 

Betrieve, v. (recover^ repair)i^9-y;Mi1 

See Be-establish, restore. 

Eetrieyable. See Becoverable. 

Eetrooeaaion, retrogradation, retro- 

gresnon, L^Varc^^jp^j ruflL^ 

Eetrograde, u-LJis'^-^f^ rdji^ 
ItkhiOf, i^p^ nuMah. See Con- 
trary, opposite. — ^To retrograde, 
b^^J'tr^J riifV^i7a' ifford. 

Eetum, 17. (come back) ^rj *'9^ti 
jU ^; (to give bysk), ^^rj 
rajja^ ; (send back), ^rj ^^^t: 
See Bestore, repay. — (to make 
an8wer),c-i;|^ JU^^ a^ta*jawdb. 
To retom to one's senses (after 
madness, ebriety, anger, or faint- 
ing), ^^sf^ 90hU To return to 
any former habit, ^^t^U ^ddila\ 

Betum, 9. (to any place) 9^j 

(profits arising from merchandise, 

etc.), waJ naf^ ^Uju^t manfa^t. 

See Profit, rerenue. E^^^- 

Betumable, 9^>;^\JjIS kdhil ar- 
Be?eal, v. j^\ anhar, ^^1>— p/m^ 

iashaf oMWy ^J^\ afBha\ See 

Ih'scoTer, disclose. 

Berealed, uJ^ 


Beyealer, $. cJ^l^ Add^f, JLm 

BeTelation,^)^1Uil tfskd clur^, 

j\^\ Mdr. See IMaooireij.— A 

reYolation fromheftTen, <^^i<^j 

•Mili riMdta, ^l^t fOdfli, aI^I 

vJlJi ilhdm rahhMi, [naimif 

Bevenge, aLLtJ^ iniiidmf ZaJu 

Bevenge, v, ^aA}) mtaimm wm. 

Bevenger, $, (one who takes n- 

yenge), Jb:^ mmtUitHm; (oM 

who arenges or pnni8he0),^^««lU 


Bevenue, ^^yos^ maknUp Jy^J^ 

madkhiU. A ooUector of lereBoe, 


Beyerberate, v. (beat or throw btdi) 

^^^JIaJ! tn^oibf. To reyeriwrati 

(as sound), ^Ij J* ^osMrf jfdfili, 

See Echo. 

Beyerberated, ^jtSjc^ mum^Mi, 

Beyerberation, (jmIXjlj) tn^Aii. 

Beyerberation of sound, (<^l-£ 

Beyere, reyerence, v, |^/^»-f Miuramf 
j^\i^tabar. See yeneiate, honor. 

Beyered, /J^^ mukarram, ^^^ 
muhiaram, ,^sjl^ muc^tahmr. See 
Venerable, honored, eeteemed. 

Beverence, (^\^^ ihtirdm^ m\^ 




ikr&mfj\^\ t^ibdr, ^y tmokir. 
See Veneratioii, respect, honor. — 
A reYerence (act of obeiBance), 
aJumJ toillmf l:ia^t tnhind. 

BeYerencer, rcYcrer, «. a^ mth 

RcYerend, /^/^^^ muhtaramf mL/% 

mukarram, Jiajt^ mu^auam. See 

Venerable, rcYcred. 
Beverend, rcYcrential, Jj^s,^^ muh- 

tasham. c^j\^,^'»-Lg i&htb adab. 

See Respectful. 
RcYcrently, ^^jaI^IJJIj Inkol 

ikrdm wa tawkir, aKjl»-L^ hi 

fhiiram, iZj\sc]\jL> hikol Utif&t. 

BsYene^JJ fikr, j\Li\ ifiikar. See 

BeYcrse, v, c^^ii kalah, ^jtSx, ^akoi, 

c^ kallah. See Oyertom. sub- 
Yert, repeal, contradict. 
ReYersedy^^yJjCi^ mun^is, c, Jb;^ 
munkalih, L^^J^ makHnib. To 
be rcYcrsed, v,,Ja.)1 inkalah. See 
Inyerted, iuYerse. 

Reverse, ^jJ^ ^aks, c-*)U;l inkOah, 
t^]jar\ inhirdf. See luYersion. 
— (change), Jj Ju? tahill^ ujb -a3 
ta9rif. The leYerses of fortune, 
^jJlc^ty nawdytb addakr; (an 
opposite, contrary), cfflts* AMbK^, 

didd. Reversible, 
^jtSji\ mumkin al ^aki. 

Reversion (right of succession), 
i^\j.;^ mlrd9, ^]j^ warduii. 
See Heritage, succession. — ^Re- 
versionary, C^j^w« mawriUf 
<^ir!^^ J^J^ ^i^Hifc d mlrd9. 

Revert, v, ^rj ^9*t.* ^^ Return, 
reverberate. — ^Revertible, J>-^1— i 
c^>-^t kdhil arriyH^n 

Review, v. (to see or consider again), 
dJJ^^Jaj tunar mtn jadlid. 
See Re-examine, examine, sur- 
vey. ^To review an army, 

J\^\^UJ:iS koihaf ^ala* al 
^Mdihr. To review a book, JjIS 
c^li^ kdbal kUdh. 

Review, «. (retrospection), j ^ « 
iMoor, ^U^ mukdhalat. See 
Examination, survey. ^A re- 
viewer, ^Ij ndtar. 

Revile, 9. jpJ^ ahaiam, 
See Reproach.